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O  F     T  H  E 


VOL       I. 

Digitized  by  the  Internet  Archive 

in  2007  with  funding  from 

IVIicrosoft  Corporation 


Samuel  Johk^son,  i..i..d. 



OF        THE 


I  N      W  H  I  C  H 



TO     WHICH       ARE      PREFIXED, 



An       ENGLISH       GRAMMAR. 
By     SAMUEL     JOHNSON,    LL.D. 

IN        TWO        VOLUMES. V    O    L.        L  ^ 


Cum  tabulis  animum  cenforis  fumet  honefti : 
Auilebit  quKcunque  paruin  fplendoris  habebunt, 
Et  fine  pondere  erunt,  ct  honore  indigna  ferentur, 
Verba  moverc  loco;   quamvis  invita  recedant, 
Et  vcrfciituT  adhuc  intra  penetralia  Vcftx: 
Obfcurata  d;u  populo  bonus  eruet,  atqUe 
Proferct  in  luccm  fpcctolii  vocabula  rerum, 
(^i.x-  prifcis  mcmorata  Catonibus  atque  Cethsgis 
Nunc  fitus  informis  preinit  ct  delerta  vetuftas.  HoR. 


Piinteil  for  J.  F.  and  C.  Rivrrr.TOs,  L.  Davis,  T.  Payne  and  Sos,  T.  Losgmas,  B.  I, aw,  J.  Dodsley,  C.  Di^ly, 
W.  LowKors,  G.  G.  J.  ariil  J.  Kobinson,  T.  Cadeli.,  Jo.  Johnson,, J.  Kobson,  W.  Richardson,  J.  Nichols, 
R.  Ealdwih,  W.  Goldsmith,  J.  Murray,  W.  Stuart,  P.  Elmsly,  W.  Fox,  S.  H.vYtf,  V.  OoiuviE, 
W.  Bent,  T.  and  J.  Eoerton,  J.  Phillips,  nnd  M.  NjiWBERV. 


R      E      F      A      C      E. 

IT  is  the  fate  of  thofe  who  toil  at  the  lower  employments  of  life,  to  be  rather  driven  by  the  fear  of' 
evil,  than  attrafted  by  the  profpedt  of  good  j  to  be  expofed  to  cenfure,  without  hope  of  praife ;  to  be 
difgraced  by  mifcarriage,  or  punifhed  for  negleft,  where  fuccefs  would  have  been  without  applaufe, 
and  diligence  without  reward. 

Among  thefe  unhappy  mortals  is  the  writer  of  diflionarlesj  whom  mankind  have  confidered,  not  as  the 
pupil,  but  the  Have  of  fcience,  the  pioneer  of  literature,  doomed  only  to  remove  rubbifh  and  clear  ob- 
ftruftions  from  the  paths  through  which  Learning  and  Genius  prefs  forwai-d  to  conqueft  and  glory,  without 
bellowing  a  fmile  on  the  humble  drudge  that  facilitates  their  progrefs.  Every  other  author  may  afpire  to 
praife;  the  lexicographer  can  only  hope  to  efcape  reproach,  and  even  this  negative  recompenfe  has  been  yet 
granted  to  very  few. 

I  have,  notwithftanding  this  difcouragement,  attempted  a  Dictionary  of  the  Englijh  language,  which, 
■while  it  was  employed  in  the  cultivation  of  every  fpecies  of  literature,  has  itfelf  been  hitherto  neglefted  j 
fuffered  to  fpread,  under  the  direftion  of  chance,  into  wild  exuberance ;  refigned  to  the  tyranny  of  time 
and  fafhion;  and  expofed  to  the  corruptions  of  ignorance,  and  caprices  of  innovation. 

"When  I  took  the  firft  furvey  of  my  undertaking,  I  found  our  fpeech  copious  without  order,  and 
energetick  without  rules:  wherever  I  turned  my  view,  there  was  perplexity  to  be  difentangled,  and  con- 
fufion  to  be  regulated;  choice  was  to  be  made  out  of  boundlefs  variety,  without  any  eftablifhed  principle 
of  feledlion ;  adulterations  were  to  be  deted:ed,  without  a  fettled  tcft  of  purity ;  and  modes  of  expreffion 
to  be  rejefted  or  received,  without  the  fuffrages  of  any  writers  of  claflical  reputation  or  acknowledged 

Having  therefore  no  affiftance  but  from  general  grammar,  I  applied  myfelf  to  the  perufal  of  our  writers ; 
and  noting  whatever  might  be  of  ufe  to  afcertain  or  illuftrate  any  word  or  phrafc,  accumulated  in  time  the 
materials  of  a  didionary,  which,  by  degrees,  I  reduced  to  method,  eftablifliing  to  myfelf,  in  the  progrefs 
of  the  work,  fuch  rules  as  experience  and  analogy  fuggefted  to  me ;  experience,  which  pradice  and  ob- 
fervation  were  continually  increafing;  and  analogy,  which,  though  in  fome  words  obfcure,  was  evident  in 

In  adjufting  the  Orthography,  which  iias  been  to  this  time  unfetcled  and  fortuitous,  I  found  it  necef- 
fary  to  diftinguilh  thofe  irregularities  that  are  inherent  in  our  tongue,  and  perhaps  coeval  with  it,  from 
others. which  the  ignorance  or  negligence  of  later  writers  has  produced.  Every  language  has  its  anomalies, 
which,  though  inconvenient,  and  in  themfelves  once  unneceffary,  muft  be  tolerated  among  the  imperfec- 
tions of  human  things,  and  which  require  only  to  be  rcgiflered,  that  they  may  not  be  increafed,  and  afcer- 
tained,  that  they  may  not  be  confounded:  but  every  language  has  likewife  its  improprieties  and  abfurdides, 
which  it  is  the  duty  of  the  lexicographer  to  corredl  or  profcribe. 

As  language  was  at  its  beginning  merely  oral,  all  words  of  neceflary  or  common  ufe 'were  ifjolicn  be-. 
fore  they  were  written ;  and  while  they  were  unfixed  by  any  vifible  figns,  muft  ha,ve  been  fpoken  with 
great  diverfity,  as  we  now  obferve  thofe  who  cannot  read  to  catch  founds  imperfeftly,  and  utter  them 
negligently.  When  this  wild  and  barbarous  jargon  was  firft  reduced  to  an  alphabet,  every  penman  endea- 
voured to  exprefs,  as  he  could,  the  founds  which  he  was  accuftomed  to  pronounce  or  to  receive,  and  vi- 
tiated in  writing  fuch  words  as  were  already  vitiated  in  fpeech.  The  powers  of  the  letters,  when  they 
were  applied  to  a  new  language,  muft  have  been  vague  and  unfettlcd,  and  therefore  different  hands  would 
exhibit  the  fame  found  by  diiFerent  combinations, 

7  From 


From  this  uncfrtain  pronunciation  arifc  in  a  great  part  the  various  dialcds  of  the  fame  country,  which 
will  alwAVs  bcr  obfcrved  to  grow  fewer,  and  lefs  different,  as  books  are  multiplied  ;  and  from  this  arbitrary 
reprcfc-nt.uion  of  founds  by  letters,  proceeds  that  divcrfity  of  fpclling  obfcrvablc  in  the  Saxon  remains, 
and  I  fupjx>fc  in  the  firft  books  of  every  nation,  which  perplexes  or  dcftroys  analogy,  and  produces  ano- 
maUius  formations,  that,  being  once  incorporated,  can  never  be  afterwards  difmiffed  or  reformed. 

Of  this  kind  arc  the  derivatives  length  from  long,  Jirwgth  from  ftrong,  darling  from  dear,  breadth  from 
kr—d^  from  dry^  drought,  and  from'  high,  height,  which  Miltctt,  in  real  for  analogy,  writes  highthi 
^id  te  fxempta  JHvat  Jpinis  de  pluribus  una  ?  to  change  all  would  be  too  much,  and  to  change  one  is 

Tl)i  'rninty  is  moft  frequent  in  the  Vowels,  which  are  fo  capricioufly  pronounced,  and  fo  difFer- 
cnily  i:  i,  by  accident  or   afFcAation,  not  only  in  every  province,  but   in  every  mouth,  that  to 

them,  as  Vk  well  known  to  ctymologifts,  little  regard  is  to  be  (hewn  in  the  dcdu<5bion  of  one  language  from 

Such  defeifls  are  not  errours  in  orthography,  but  fpots  of  barbarity  imprefl*ed  fo  deep  in  the  EtigUJh 
language,  that  criticifm  can  never  wa(h  ihcm  away  :  thefe,  therefore,  muft  be  permitted  to  remain  un- 
touched ;  but  many  words  have  likcwife  been  altered  by  accident,  or  depraved  by  ignorance,  as  the  pro- 
nunciation of  the  vulgar  has  been  weakly  followed ;  and  fome  ftill  continue  to  be  varioufly  written,  as 
authors  differ  in  their  care  or  fkill :  of  thefe  it  was  proper  to  enquire  the  true  orthography,  which  1  have 
always  confidcreil  as  depending  on  their  derivation,  and  have  therefore  referred  them  to  their  original  lan- 
guages :  thus  I  write  enchant,  enchantment,  enchanter,  after  the  French,  and  incantation  after  the  Latin  ;  thus 
tniire  is  chofcn  rather  than  intire,  becaufc  it  paffcd  to  us  not  from  the  Latin  integer,  but  from  the  French 

Of  many  words  it  is  difficult  to  fay  whether  they  were  immediately  received  from  the  Latin  or  the 
French,  fincc  at  the  time  v^hen  we  had  dominions  in  France,  we  had  Latin  fcrvice  in  our  churches.  It  is, 
however,  my  opinion,  that  the  French  generally  fupplied  us  j  for  we  hav^  few  Latin  words,  among  the 
terms  of  domeftick  ufe,  which  are  not  French;  but  many  French,  which  are  very  remote  from  Latin. 

Even  in  words  of  Jwhich  the  derivation  is  apparent,  I  have  been  often  obliged  to  facrifice  uniformity  to 
cuffom  J  thus  I  write.  In  compliance  v  ith  a  numberlefs  majority,  convey  and  inveigh,  deceit  and  receipt, 
fancy  and  phantom  -,  fomctimes  the  derivative  varies  from  the  primitive,  as  explain  and  explanation,  repeat 
4f>d  repetition. 

'  Some  combinations  of  letters  having  the  fame  power,  are  ufed  indifirrently  without  any  difcoverable 
reafon  of  choice,  as  in  choak,  choke ;  /oap,fope ;  fewel,  fuel,  and  many  others;  which  I  have  fomctimes  in- 
fcrted  twice,  that  thofe  who  fearch  for  them  under  either  form,  may  not  fcarch  in  vain. 

!  In  examining  the  orthography  of  any  doubtful  word,  the  mode  of  fpelling  by  which  it  is  infcrted  in  the 
(cries  of  the  dictionary,  is  to  be  confidercd  as  that  to  which  I  give,  perhaps  not  often  rafhly,  the  prefer- 
ence. I  have  left,  in  the  examples,  to  every  author  Iiis  own  praftice  unmolefled,  that  the  reader  may 
J)alar.ce  fuffrages,  and  judge  between  us:  but  this  qucftion  is  not  always  to  be  determined  by  reputed  or 
by  rf.n  Irirniii'i;;  fome  men,  intent  upon  greater  things,  have  thought  little  on  founds  and  derivations; 
f)  in  the  ancient  tongues,  have  neglefted  tnofe  in  which  our  words  are  commonly  to  be  fought. 

T'  .'  writes    "     ■"     '>  (or  feajillenejs,  becaufe  I  fuppofe  he  imagined  it  derived  immediately 

Tr''        .    _       ; ;  and  I  uds,  fuch  as  dependant,  dependent;  dependance,  dependence,  vary  their  final 

lyllablc,  as  one  or  another  language  is  prefent  to  the  writer. 

,  Jn  this  part  of  the  work,  where  caprice  has  long  wantoned  without  controul,  and  vanity  fought  praife 
by  petty  reformation,  I  have  endeavoured  to  proceed  with  a  fcholar's  reverence  for  antiquity,  and  a  gram- 
piarian's  regard  to  die  genius  of  our  tongue.  I  have  attempted  few  alterations,  and  among  tiiofe  few, 
perhaps  the  greater  part  is  from  the  modern  to  the  ancient  praftice ;  and  I  hope  I  may  be  allowed  to  re- 
corv  —  '  to  thofe,  whofe  thoughts  have  been  perlnps  employed  too  anxioufly  oii  verbal  fingularitics,  not 
|(>  upon  narrow  views,  or  for  minute  propriety,  the  orthography  of  their  fatliers.     It  has  been 

afll-rted,  that  for  tlie  law  to  be  kninvn,  is  of  more  imf)ortance  than  to  be  right.  Change,  fays  Hooker,  is 
rot  made  without  inconvenience,  even  from  worfe  to  better.  There  is  in  conft^ancy  and  Itability  a  general 
and  lafling  advantage,  which  wiU  always   overbalance  the  flow  improvements  of  gradual  correction. 

$  "  Much 


Much  lefs  ought  our  written  language  to  comply  with  the  corruptions  of  oral  utterance,  or  copy  that 
which  every  variation  of  time  or  place  makes  different  from  itfelf,  and  imitate  thofe  changes,  which  will 
again  be  changed,  while  imitation  is  employed  in  obferving  them. 

This  recommendation  of  fteadinefs  and  uniformity  does  not  proceed  from  an  opinion,  that  particular 
combinations  of  letters  have  much  influence  on  human  happinefs ;  or  that  truth  may  not  be  fuccefsfully 
taught  by  modes  of  fpelling  fanciful  and  erroneous  :  I  am  not  yet  fo  loft  in  lexicography,  as  to  forget  that 
wcrds  are  the  daughters  of  earth,  and  that  things  are  the  Jons  of  heaven.  Language  is  only  the  inftrument 
of  fcience,  and  words  are  but  the  figns  of  ideas :  I  wifh,  however,  that  the  inftrument  might  be  lefs  apt  to 
decay,  and  that  figns  might  be  permanent,  like  the  things  which  they  denote. 

In  fetding  the  orthography,  I  have  not  wholly  negleded  the  pronunciation,  which  I  have  direfted, 
by  printing  an  accent  upon  the  acute  or  elevated  fyllable.  It  will  fometimes  be  found,  that  the  accent 
is  placed  by  the  author  quoted,  on  a  different  fyllable  from  that  marked  in  the  alphabetical  feries  ;  it  is 
then  to  be  underftood,  that  cuftom  has  varied,  or  that  the  author  has,  in  my  opinion,  pronounced  wrong. 
Short  directions  are  fometimes  given  where  the  found  of  letters  is  irregular ;  and  if  they  are  fometimes 
omitted,  defedl  in  fuch  minute  obfervations  will  be  more  eafily  excufed,  than  fuperfiuity. 

In  the  inveftigation  both  of  the  orthography  and  fignification  of  words,  their  Etymology  was  necef^ 
farily  to  be  confidered,  and  they  were  therefore  to  be  divided  into  primitives  and  derivatives.  A  pri- 
mitive word,  is  that  which  can  be  traced  no  furdier  to  any  Englijh  root ;  thus  circumfpe£ty  circumvent,  cir- 
cumjiance,  delude,  concave,  and  complicate,  though  compounds  in  the  Latin,  are  to  us  primitives.  Deri- 
vatives are  all  thofe  that  can  be  referred  to  any  word  in  Englijh  of  greater  fimplicity. 

The  derivatives  I  have  referred  to  their  primitives,  with  an  accuracy  fometimes  needlefs  ;  for  who  does 
not  fee  that  remotenejs  comes  from  remote,  lovely  from  love,  concavity  from  concave,  and  demonftrative  from 
demonftrate  ?  but  this  grammatical  exuberance  the  fcheme  of  my  work  did  not  allow  me  to  reprcfs.  It  is 
of  great  importance,  in  examining  the  general  fabrick  of  a  language,  to  trace  one  word  from  another,  by 
noting  the  ufual  modes  of  derivation  and  inflexion ;  and  uniformity  muft  be  preferved  in  fyftematical 
v.orks,  though  fometimes  at  the  cxpence  of  particular  propriety. 

Among  other  derivatives  I  have  been  careful  to  infert  and  elucidate  the  anomalous  plurals  of  nouns  and 
preterites  of  verbs,  which  in  the  Teutonick  dialcfts  are  very  frequent,  and,  though  familiar  to  thofe  who 
have  always  ufed  them,  interrupt  and  embarrafs  the  learners  of  our  language. 

The  two  languages  from  which  our  primitives  have  been  derived  are  the  Roman  and  Teutonick :  under 
tlic  Roman  I  comprehend  the  French  and  provincial  tongues  ;  and  under  the  Teutonick  range  the  Saxony 
German,  and  all  their  kindred  dialecfts.  Moft  of  our  polyfyllables  are  Roman,  and  our  words  of  one  fyl- 
lable are  very  often  Teutonick. 

In  afllgning  the  Roman  original,  it  has  perhaps  fometimes  happened  that  I  have .  mentioned  only  the 
Latin,  when  the  word  was  borrowed  from  the  French;  and  confidcring  myfelf  as  employed  only  in  the 
ilhiftration  of  my  own  language,  I  have  not  been  very  tarefulto  obferve  whether  the  Latin  word  be  pure 
or  barbarous,  or  the  French  elegant  or  obfolete. 

For  the  Teutonick  etymologies  I  am  commonly  indebted  to  Junius  and  Skinner,  the  only  names  which  I 
have  forborn  to  quote  when  I  copied  their  books ;  not  that  I  might  appropriate  their  labours  or  ufurp  their 
honours,  but  that  I  might  fpare  a  general  repetition  by  one  general  acknowledgment.  Of  thefe,  whom  I 
ought  not  to  mention  bur  with  the  reverence  due  to  inftruflors  and  benefaftors,  Junius  appears  to  have 
excelled  in  extent  of  learning,  and  Skinner  in  re6litude  of  underftanding.  Junius  was  accurately  flcilled  in 
all  tiie  northern  languages.  Skinner  probably  examined  the  ancient  and  remoter  dialefts  only  by  occafional 
infpedion  into  diftionaries ;  but  the  learning  of  Junius  is  often  of  no  other  ufe  than  to  fliow  him  a  track  by 
which  he  may  deviate  from  his  purpofe,  to  v/hich  Skinner  always  prcffes  forward  by  the  Ihorteft  way. 
Skinner  is  often  ignorant,  but  never  ridiculous  :  Junius  is  always  full  of  knowledge  j  but  his  variety  diftracts 
his  judgment,  and  his  learning  is  very  frequently  difgraced  by  his  abfurditics. 

The  votaries  of  the  northern  mufes  will  not  perhaps  eafily  reftrain  their  indignation,  when  they  find  the 
name  o(  Junius  thus  degraded  by  a  difailvantageous  comparifon  ;  but  whatever  reverence  is  due  to  his  di- 
ligence, or  his  attainments,  it  can  be  no  criminal  degree  of  cenibiioufnefs  to  charge  that  etym.ologift  with 
want  of  judgment,  who  can  ferioufly  derive  dream  from  drama,  becaufe  life  is  a  drama,  and  a  drama  is  a 

dream  j 


dreant ;  and  who  declares  with  a  tone  of  defiance,  that  no  man  can  fail  to  derive  moan  from  /^e'l-of,  mono$y 
Jingle  or  Jolitary,  who  confiders  that  grief  naturally  loves  to  be  alone  *. 

Our  knowledge  of  the  northern  literature  is  fo  fcanty,  that  of  words  undoubtedly  7V7</o»/V^,  the  original  is 
not  always  to  be  found  in  any  ancient  language ;  and  I  have  therefore  infcrted  Dutch  or  German  fubftitutes> 
which  I  confider  not  as  radical,  but  parallel,  not  as  the  parents,  but  fifters  of  the  Englijh. 

The  words  which  are  reprefented  as  thus  related  by  defcent  or  cognation,  do  not  always  agree  in  fenfe  j 
for  it  is  incident  to  words,  as  to  their  authors,  to  degenerate  from  their  anceftors,  and  to  change  their  manners 
when  they  change  their  country.  It  is  fufficient,  in  etymological  enquiries,  if  the  fenfcs  of  kindred  words 
be  found  fuch  as  may  eafily  pafs  into  each  other,  or  fuch  as  may  both  be  referred  to  one  general  idea. 

The  etymology,  fo  far  as  it  is  yet  known,  was  eafily  found  in  the  volumes  where  it  is  particularly  and 
profelTedly  delivered ;  and,  by  proper  attention  to  the  rules  of  derivation,  the  orthography  was  foon  ad- 
jufted.  But  to  COLLECT  the  Words  of  our  language  was  a  tafk  of  greater  difficulty  :  the  deficiency  of 
diftionaries  was  immediately  apparent  -,  and  when  they  were  exhaufted,  what  was  yet  wanting  muft  be 
fought  by  fortuitous  and  unguided  excurfions  into  books,  and  gleaned  as  induftry  fhould  find,  or  chance 
fhould  offer  it,  in  the  boundlefs  chaos  of  a  living  fpeech.  My  fearch,  however,  has  been  either  fkilful  or 
lucky  i  for  I  have  much  augmented  the  vocabulaiy. 

x\s  my  defign  was  a  diftionary,  common  or  appellative,  I  have  omitted  all  words  which  have  relation  to 
proper  names ;  fuch  as  Avian,  Socinian,  Calvinijt,  Benediifine,  Mahometan ;  but  have  retained  thofe  of  ^ 
more  general  nature,  as  Heathen,  Pagan. 

Of  the  terms  of  art  I  have  received  fuch  as  could  be  found  either  in  books  of  fcience  or  technical  dic- 
tionaries ;  and  have  often  inferted,  from  philofophical  writers,  words  which  are  fiipported  perhaps  only  by 
a  fingle  authority,  and  which  being  not  admitted  into  general  ufe,  ftand  yet  as  candidates  or  probationers, 
and  muft  depend  for  their  adoption  on  the  fuffrage  of  futurity. 

The  words  which  our  authors  have  introduced  by  their  knowledge  of  foreign  languages,  or  ignorance 
of  their  own,  by  vanity  or  wantonnefs,  by  compliance  with  falhion  or  luft  of  innovation,  I  have  regiftered 
as  they  occurred,  though  commonly  only  to  cenfure  them,  and  warn  others  againft  the  folly  of  naturalizing 
ufelefs  foreigners  to  the  injury  of  the  natives. 

I  have  not  rejefted  any  by  defign,  merely  becaufe  they  were  unnecefliary  or  exuberant ;  but  have  re- 
ceived thofe  which  by  different  writers  have  been  differently  formed,  as  vi/cidy  and  vijcidity,  vifcous,  and 

Compounded  or  double  words  I  have  feldom  noted,  except  when  they  obtain  a  fignification  different 
from  that  which  the  components  have  in  their  fimple  ftate.  Thus  highwayman,  woodman,  and  horfecourfer, 
require  an  explanation ;  but  of  thieflike  or  coachdriver  no  notice  was  needed,  becaufe  the  primitives  Contain 
the  meaning  of  the  compounds. 

Words  arbitrarily  formed  by  a  conftant  and  fettled  analogy,  like  diminutive  adjeftives  in  ijh,  as  greenijkf, 
lluijb ;  adverbs  in  ly,  as  dully,  openly ;  fubflf Aiitives  in  nejs,  as  vilenejs,  faultinejs ;  were  lefs  diligently  fought, 
and  fometimes  have  been  omitted,  when  I  had  no  authority  that  invited  me  to  infert  them;  not  that  they 

•  That  I  may  not  appear  to  have  fpoken  too  irreverently  of  ubi  antique  fcriptuminvenimns  jemoeteb  hit  emerij.  "  Inve- 

Junius,  I  have  here  fubjoined  a  few  fpeciraens  of  hii  ctyinolo-  "  nit  earn  vacantem." 
gical  extravagance.                                                              '  ^^^^^  ^^^^^  ^^^^^  p^  g.  hyll.     Quod  videri  poteft  abfcifum 

Bamish,  religare,  ex  banno  vel  territorio  exigere,  in  exiliiim  ex  koX/'mi  vel  w^utl^.     Collit,   tumulus,   locus  in  piano  editior, 

»gere.     G.  bannir.  It.  bandire,bandeggiare.   H.  bandir.  B.  ban-  Horn.  II.  b.  v.    8il.  tri   ^s   ti?  ir^o9ra^oi8t  «■o^so{   amiia,  xoPiinj. 

nen.  M\\  tnedii  fcriptores  bannire  dicebant.  V.  Spclm.  in  Ban-  Ubi  authori  brevium  fcholiorum  xoAwnj  exp.  tojtov  iij  a^a^  atn*.u*, 

num  iV  in  Banleuga.  Quoniam  vcro  regionum  urbiumq;  limites  yixMipof  e4''X''* 

ar^uis  plerumq;  montibi.s  altis  fluminibus,  longis  deniq;  Qcx-  iSIap,  to  take  a  nap.     Dormire,  condormifcere.  Cym.  heppian. 

uofifq;  anguftilfimarum  viarum  amfraaxbus  includebantur,  fieri  p^^  g.  hna:ppan.     Quod  poftremum  videri  potcll  defuraptiim  ex 

poteft  id  genus  l.mites  *fl«diciab  eo  quod  Ba.,»Ta.  &  B«»a\«  ^^..^aj,  obfcuritas,  te.iebra; :  nihil  enim  a-que  folet  conciliare 

Tarentiais  ol.m,  ficuti  tradit  Hefychius,  vocabantur  «:  Xo^i.  >.fx\  fomnum,  quam  caliginofa  profunda  noai^obfcuritas. 
ftn  ^9i/Ti»iK  JJoi,  "obliquae  acminimc  inreaum  tendcntes  vi^."  t>  il        ui    r       /^  .i.   c-i- mx^a/to    a    o    _ 

Ac  fortafTe  quoque  hue  facit  quod  B..J,«,  eoden.  Hefychio  telle.  Stammerer,  Balbu^,  Wa:fus.  Goth.  STAMMb,  A.  S.  pra- 

dicebant  %^  re«yyv'A„  montes  arduo...  '"en.  J^amun.  D.  ftam.  B.  ftamder.  Su.  fft.  ftamr.  bunt 

_  .  a  TuiMhut  vel  fuu.i?^>^i"r  nimia  loquacitate  alios  oftendere ;  quod 

fcMPxy,  emie, -vacuus,  UamS.  A.  S.  ^mti^.  Ncfcio  an  fint  jnip^aue  loquentcs  libentillime  garriie  foleant ;  vel  quod  aliis 
ab  .f««  vel  i^ilao,.  Vomo,  evomo,  vomitu  evacuo.  Videtur  intcvjm        ■^■■,  r,.„,n„  vi-jcantur.  etiam  oarciffimc  loauentcs. 



arc  not  genuine  and  regular  ofFsprlngs  of  EngUjh  roots,  but  becaufe  their  relation  to  the  primitive  being 
always  the  fame,  their  fignification  cannot  be  miftaken. 

The  verbal  nouns  in  in^,  fuch  as  the  keeping  of  the  caftle,  the  leading  of  the  armyy  are  always  neglefted, 
or  placed  only  to  illuftrate  the  fenfe  of  the  verb,  except  when  they  fignify  things  as  well  as  adioiis,  and 
have  therefore  a  plural  number,  as  d-welling,  living  5  or  have  an  abfolute  and  abftrad:  fignification,  as  colcur- 
ifig,  painting,  leanring.  ^ 

The  participles  are  likewife  omitted,  unlefs,  by  fignifying  rather  habit  or  quality  than  adlion,  they  take 
the  nature  of  adjeftives  j  as  a.- thinking  man,  a  man  of  prudence  j  a  pacing  horfe,  a  horfe  that  can  pace:  thefe 
I  have  ventured  to  call  participial  adjcSlives.  But  neither  are  thefe  always  inferted,  becaufe  they  are  com- 
monly to  be  underftood,  without  any  danger  of  miftake,  by  confulting  the  verb. 

Obfolete  words  are  admitted,  when  they  arc  found  in  authors  not  obfolcte,  or  when  they  have  any  force 
or  beauty  that  may  defcrve  revival. 

As  compofition  is  one  of  the  chief  charafterifticks  of  a  language,  I  have  endeavoured  to  make  fbme 
reparation  for  the  univerfal  negligence  of  my  predeceflbrs,  by  inferting  great  numbers  of  compounded- 
words,  as  may  be  found  under  after,  fore,  new,  night,  fair,  and  many  more.     Thefe,  numerous  as  they 
are,  might  be  multiplied,  but  that  ufe  anfl  curiofity  are  here  fatisfied,  and  tlie  frame  of  our  language  an^ 
modes  of  our  combination  amply  difcovered.  , 

Of  fome  forms  of  compofition,  fuch  as  that  by  which  re  is  prefixed  to  note  repetition,  and  ««  to  fignify 
tontrariety  or  privation^  all  the  examples  cannot  be  accumulated,  becaufe  the  ufe  of  thefe  particles,  if  not 
wholly  arbitrary,  is  fo  little  limited,  that  they  arc  hourly  affixed  to  new  words  as  occafion  requires,  or  is 
imagined  to  require  them. 

There  is  another  kind  of  compofition  more  Frequent  in  our  language  than  perhaps  in  any  other,  from 
which  arifes  to  foreigners  the  ereateft:  difficulty.  We  modify  the  fignification  of  many  words  by  a  particle 
fubjoined  5  as  to  come  off,  to  elcape  by  a  fetch  ;  to  fall  on,  to  attack  j  to  fall  off,  to  apollatize ;  to  break 
off,  to  ftop  abruptly;  to  bear  out,  to  julbfy;  to  fall  in,  to  comply  ;  to  give  over,  to  ceafe  j  to  Jet  off,  to 
embellifli ;  to  Jet  in,  to  begin  a  continual  tenour  j  to  Jet  out,  to  begin  a  courfe  or  journey  j  to  lake  off^  td 
<opy ;  with  innumerable  expreflions  of  die  fame  kind,  of  which  fome  appear  widely  irregular,  being  fci 
far  diftant  from  the  fenfe  of  the  fimple  words,  that  no  fagacity  will  be  able  to  trace  the  fteps  by  which 
they  arrived  at  the  prefent  ufe.  Thefe  I  have  noted  with  great  care ;  and  though  I  cannot  flatter  myfelf 
that  the  coUeftion  is  complete,  I  believe  I  have  lb  far  aflifted  the  fiiudents  of  our  language,  that  this  kind 
of  phrafeology  will  be  no  longer  infuperable ;  and  the  combinations  of  verbs  and  particles,  by  chance 
©mitted,  will  be  eafily  explained  by  comparifon  with  thofe  that  may  be  found. 

Many  words  yet  ftand  fijpported  only  by  the  name  of  Bailey,  Ainjworth,  Philips,  or  the  contra(5ted  'DiSt. 
for  Diffionaries  fubjoined;  of  thefe  I  am  not  always  certain  that  they  are  read  in  any  book  but  the  works 
of  lexicographers.  Of  fuch  I  have  omitted  many,  becaufe  I  had  neverread  them ;  and  many  I  have  in- 
ferted, becaufe '  they  may  perhaps  exifl:,  though  they  have  efcaped  my  notice :  they  are,  however,  to  be 
yet  confidered  as  refiling  only  upon  the  credit  of  former  diftionaries.  Others,  which  I  confidefed  as  ufeful, 
or  know  to  be  proper,  though  I  could  not  at  prefent  fupport  them  by  authorities,  I  have  fuffwed  to  ftand 
upon  my  own  atteftation,  claiming  the  fame  privilege  with  my  predeceflTor*,  of  being  fometimes  credited 
"without  proof. 

The  words,  thus  fdefted  and  difpofcd,  are  grammatically  confidered  ;  they  are  referred  to  the  diff*erent 
parts  of  fpcech ;  traced,  when  they  are  irregularly  inflefted,  through  their  various  terminations^;  and  il- 
luftratcd  by  obfcrvations,  not  indeed  of  great  or  firiking  importance,  feparately  confidered,  but  neccfifary 
to  the  elucidation  of  our  language,  and  hitherto  neglefted  or  forgotten  by  Englifh  grammarians. 

That  part  of  my  work  on  which  I  expeft  malignity  mod  frequently  to  faften,  is  the  Explanation;  in 
which  I  cannot  hope  to  fatisfy  thofe,  who  arc  perhaps  not  ini  lined  to  be  pleafed,  fince  I  have  not  always 
been  able  to  fatisfy  myfelf  To  interpret  a  language  by  itfelf  is  very  difficult;  many  words  cannot  be 
explained  by  fynonimes,  becaufe  the  idea  fignified  by  them  has  not  more  than  one  appellation ;  nor  by 
paraphrafe,  becaufe  fimple  ideas  cannot  be  dtfcribed.  When  the  nature  of  things  is  unknown,  or  the 
notion  unfcttlcd  and  indefinite,  and  various  in  various  minds,  the  words  by  which  fuch  nodons  are  con- 
veyed, or  fuch  things  denoted,  will  be  ambiguous  and  perplexed.  And  fuch  is  the  fate  of  haplefs  lexico- 
graphy, that  not  only  darknefs,  but  light,  impedes  and  diftreflcs  it ;  thinjgs  may  be  not  only  too  little,  but 

Vol.  I.  b  '  tq© 


too  mnch  kno^'tt,  to  br  happily  ilkiftrated.  To  explain,  require^  the  ufc  of  terms  Icfs  abftrufe  than  that 
which  is  to  be  explained,  and  fuch  terms  cannot  always  be  found ;  for  as  nothing  can  be  proved  but  the 
fuppofmg  fomething  intuitively  known,  and  evident  without  proof,  fo  nothing  can  be  defined  but  by  die 
uie  of  words  too  plain  to  admit  a  definition. 

Other  words  there  are,  of  which  the  fenfe  is  too  fubtle  and  cvanefcent  to  be  fixed  in  a  paraphrafe  j  fuch 
are  all  thofc  which  are  by  the  grammarians  termed  expUiives,  and,  in  dead  languages,  are  fuffered  to  pafs 
for  empty  founds,  of  no  other  ufe  than  to  fill  a  verfe,  or  to  modulate  a  period,  but  whicJi  are  eafily  per- 
ceived in  living  tongues  to  have  power  and  emphafisj  though  it  be  fometimes  fuch  as  no  other  form  of 
exprelTion  can  convey. 

My  labour  has  likewifc  been  much  increafed  by  a  clafs  of  verbs  too  frequent  in  the  Englijh  language, 
of  which  the  lignification  is  fo  loofe  and  general,  tlie  ufe  fo  vague  and  indeterminate,  and  tlie  fenfes  de- 
tortcd  fo  widely  from  the  firft  idea,  that  it  is  hard  to  trace  them  through  the  maze  of  variation,  to  catch 
them  on  the  brink  of  utter  inanity,  to  circumfcribe  them  by  any  limitations,  or  interpret  them  by  any 
words  of  diftinft  and  fettled  meaning;  fuch  are  bear,  break,  come,  caft,full,  get,  give,  do,  put.  Jet,  go,  run,  make, 
take,  turn,  throw.  If  of  thefe  the  whole  power  is  not  accurately  delivered,  it  muft  be  remembered, 
that  while  our  language  is  yet  living,  and  variable  by  the  caprice  of  every  one  that  Ipeaks  it,  thefe  words 
arc  hourly  fhifting  their  relations,  and  can  no  more  be  afcertained  in  a  diftionary,  than  a  grove,  in  the  agi- 
tation of  a  ftorm,  can  be  accurately  delineated  from  its  piflure  in  the  water. 

The  particles  are  among  all  nations  applied  with  fo  great  latitude,  that  they  are  not  eafily  reducible  wmder 
any  regular  fcheme  of  explication  :  this  difficulty  is  not  lefs,  nor  perhaps  greater,  in  Englijh,  than  in  other 
languages.  I  have  laboured  them  with  diligence,  I  hope  with  fuccefs ;  fuch  at  leaft  as  can  be  expeifted  in 
a  tafk,  which  no  man,  however  learned  or  fagacious,  has  yet  been  able  to  perform. 

Some  words  there  are  which  I  cannot  explain,  becaufe  I  do  not  underftand  them ;  thefe  might  have 

been  omitted  very  often  with  little  inconvenience,  but  I  would  not  fo  far  indulge  my  vanity  as  to  decline 

this  confcfTion  :  for  when  Tully  owns  himfelf  ignorant  whether  lejjus,  in  the  twelve  tables,  means  a  Juneral 

Jong,  or  mourning  garment ;  and  Arijlctle  doubts  whether  ouf  luj,  in  the  Iliad,  fignifies  a  mule,  or  mtileteery 

I  may  furely,  without  fhame,  leave  fome  obfcurities  to  happier  indufb-y,  or  future  information. 

The  rigour  of  interpretative  lexicography  requires  that  the  explanation,  and  the  word  explained,  Jhould  be 
»lways  reciprocal  j  this  I  have  always  endeavoured,  but  could  not  always  attain.  Words  are  fcldom  cx- 
aftly  fynonimous;  a  new  term  was  not  introduced,  but  becaufe  the  former  was  thought  inadequate: 
names,  therefore,  have  often  many  ideas,  but  few  ideas  have  many  names.  It  was  then  necefTary  to  ufc 
the  proximate  word,  for  the  deficiency  of  lingle  terms  can  very  feldom  be  fupplied  by  circumlocution ; 
nor  is  the  inconvenience  great  of  fuch  mutilated  interpretations,  becaufe  the  fenfe  may  eafily  be  coUefted 
entire  from  the  examples. 

In  every  word  of  extenfive  ufe,  it  was  requifite  to  mark  the  progrefs  of  its  meaning,  and  fhow  by  what 
gradations  of  intermediate  fenfe  it  has  pafTcd  from  its  primitive  to  its  remote  and  accidental  fignification ; 
{o  that  every  foregoing  explanation  fhould  tend  to  that  which  follows,  and  die  ferles  be  regularly  concate- 
nated from  thcfiril  notion  to  the  laft. 

This  is  fpecious,  but  not  always  prafticable ;  kindred  fenfes  may  be  fb  interwoven,  that  the  perplexity 
cannot  be  difentangled,  nor  any  reafon  be  afligned  why  one  (houkl  be  ranged  before  the  other.  When  the 
radical  idea  branches  out  into  parallel  ramifications,  iiow  can  a  confecutive  feries  be  formed  of  fenfes  in 
their  nature  collateral  ?  The  thades  of  meaning  fometimes  pafs  imperceptibly  into  each  other ;  fo  that 
tliough  on  one  fide  they  apparently  tlifi'er,  yet  it  is  impofTible  to  mark  the  point  of  contaft.  Ideas  of  the 
fame  race,  though  not  exaffly  alike,  are  fometimes  fo  little  different,  diat  no  words  can  exprefs  the  difTimi- 
litudc,  though  the  mind  eafily  perceives  it,  when  they  are  exhibited  together ;  and  fometimes  there  is  fuch 
a  confufion  of  acceptations,  that  difcernment  is  wearied,  and  diflinftion  puzzled,  and  perfcverance  herfelf 
hurries  to  an  end,  by  crowding  together  what  flie  cannot  feparate. 

Thefe  complaints  of  difficulty  will,  by  thofe  that  have  never  confidered  words  beyond  their  popular  wie, 
be  thought  only  the  jargon  of  a  man  willing  to  magnify  his  labours,  and  procure  veneration  to  his  ftudies 
by  involution  and  obfcurity.  But  every  art  is  obfcure  to  thofe  that  have  not  learned  it :  this  uncertainty  of 
terms,  and  commixture  of  ideas,  is  well  known  to  diofe  who  have  joined  philofopliy  with  grammar ;  and  if 

I  have 

.:p         R         E         F         A         C         E. 

I  have  not  exprefled  them  very  clearly,  it  muft  be  remembered  that  I  am  fpeaking  of  that  which  words  arc. 
infufficient  to  explain. 

The  original  fenfe  of  words  is  often  driven  out  of  ufe  by  theii"  metaphorical  acceptations,  yet  muft  be 
inferted  for  the  fake  of  a  regular  origination.  Thus  I  know  not  whether  ardour  is  ufed  for  material  heat, 
or  ■vihcxher  flagrant,  in  Englifi,  ever  fignifies  the  fame  with  burning  -,  yet  fuch  are  the  primitive  Ideas  of  thefc 
words,  which  are  therefore  let  firft,  diough  without  examples,  that  the  figurative  fenfes  may  be  comniOr- 
dioufly  deduced. 

Such  is  the  exuberance  of  fignification  which  many  words  have  obtained,  tha.t  it  was  fcarcely  poffible  to 
colieft  all  their  fcnles ;  fometimes  the  meaning  of  derivatives  mull  be  fought  in  the  mother  ternri,  and 
fometimes  deficient  explanations  of  the  primitive  may  be  fupplied  in  the  train  of  derivation.  In  any  cafe 
of  doubt  or  difficulty,  it  will  be  always  proper  to  examine  all  the  words  of  the  fame  race  ;  for  fome  words 
are  fiightly  pafied  over  to  avoid  repetition,  fome  admitted  eafier  and  clearer  explanation  than  others,  and  all 
will  be  better  undeiilood,  as  they  are  confidered  in  greater  variety  of  ftruftures  and  relations. 

All  the  interpretatipns  of  words  are  not  written  with  the  fame  flcill,  or  the  fame  happinefs :  things  equally 
eafy  in  themfelves,  are  not  all  equally  eafy  to  any  fingle  mind.  Eveiy  writer  of  a  long  work  cornmits 
errours,  where  there  appears  neither  ambiguity  to  miflead,  nor  obfcurity  to  confound  him ;  and  in  a  fearch 
like  this,  many  felicities  of  expreffion  will  be  cafually  overlooked,  many  convenient  parallels  will  be 
forgotten,  and  many  particulars  will  admit  improvement  from  a  mind  utterly-unequal  to  the  whole 

But  many  feeming  faults  arc  to  be  imputed  rather  to  the  nature  of  the  undertaking,  than  the  negligence 
of  the  performer.  Thus  fome  explanations  are  unavoidably  reciprocal  or  circular,  as  hind,  the  female  of 
the  flag;  flag,  the  male  of  the  hind:  fometimes  eafier  words  are  changed  into  harder,  as  hurial  into  feptil- 
ture  or  interment,  drier  into  deficcative,  drynefs  into  ftccity  or  aridity,  fit  into  paroxyfm  ;  for  the  eafieft'word, 
•whatever  it  be,  can  never  be  tranflated  into  one  more  eafy.  But  eafinefs  and  difficulty  are  merely  relative, 
and  if  the  prefent  prevalence  of  our  language  Ihould  invite  foreigners  to  this  diftionary,  many  will  be  af- 
fifted  by  thofe  wordp  which  now  feem  only  to  increafe  or  produce  obfcurity.  For  this  reafon  I  have  en- 
deavoured frequently  to  join  a  Teutonick  and  Roman  interpretation,  as  to  cheer,  to  gladden,  or  exhilarate, 
that  every  learner  of  Englijh  may  be  affifted  by  his  own  tongue. 

The  folution  of  all  difficulties,  and  the  fupply  of  all  defefts,  muft  be  fought  in  the  examples,  fubjoined 
to  the  various  fenfes  of  each  word,  and  ranged  according  to  the  time  of  their  authors.  r^ 

When  I  firft  collefted  thefe  authorities,  I  was  defirous  that  every  quotation  ftiould  be  ufeful  to  fome 
other  end  than  the  illuftration  of  a  word ;  I  therefore  extrafted  from  pliilofophers  principles  of  fcience ; 
from  hiftofians  remarkable  faifls ;  from  chymifts  complete  procefles  ;  from  divines  ftriking  exhortations  ; 
and  from  poets  beautiful  defcriptions.  Such  is  defign,  while  it  is  yet  at  a  diftance  from  execution. 
"When  the  time  called  upon  me  to  range  this  accumulation  of  elegance  and  wifdom  into  an  alphabetical 
fcries,  1  foon  difcovered  that  the  bulk  of  ray  volumes  would  fright  away  the  ftudent,  and  was  forced  to 
depart  from  my  fcheme  of  including  all  that  was  pkafing  or  ufeful  in  Englijh  literature,  and  reduce  my 
trar/crlpts  very  often  to  clufters  of  words,  In  which  fcarcely  any  meaning  is  retained  ;  thus  to  tiie  wearinefs 
of  copying,  I  was  condemned  to  add  the  vexation  of  expunging.  Some  pafTages  I  have  yet  fpared,  which 
may  relieve  the  labour  of  verbal  fearchcs,  and  interfperfe  with  verdure  and  flowers  the  dully  defarts  of 
barren  philology. 

'I*he  examples,  thus  mutilated,  are  no  longer  to  be  confidered  as  conveying  the  fentiments  or  dodlrinc 
of  their  authors  ;  the  word  for  the  fake  of  which  they  are  inferted,  with  all  its  appendant  claufes,  has  been 
carefully  preferved ;  but  it  may  fometimes  happen,  by  hafty  detruncation,  that  die  general  tendency  of 
the  fcntencc  may  be  changed  :  the  divine  may  defert  his  tenets,  or  the  philofopher  his  fyilem. 

Some  of  the  examples  have  been  taken  from  writers  who  were  never  mentioned  as  mailers  of  elegance 
or  models  offtylc;  but  words  muft  be  fought  where  they  arc  ufcd  ;  and  In  wluit  pages,  eminent  for  purity, 
can  terms  of  manufadlure  or  agriculture  be  found?  Many  quotations  fcrve  no  other  purpofe,  than  that 
of  proving  the  bare  exiftence  of  words,  and  are  therefore  feledled  with  Icfs  fcrupuloufnefs  than  thofe  which 
are  to  teach  their  ftru<flures  and  relations. 

My  purpofe  was  to  admit  no  teftimony  of  living  authors,  that  I  might  not  be  mifled  by  partiality,  and 
•that  none  of  my  contemporaries  might  have  reafon  to  complain  ;  nor  have  I  departed  from  this  refolutlon, 

h  %  .  but 

r        ft         B         P         A         C         E. 

but  when  fomc  performance  of  uncommon  excellence  excited  my  veneration,  when  my  memory  fuppHecf 
me,  from  late  books,  with  an  example  that  was  wanting,  or  when  my  heart,  in  the  tendernefs  of  friendfhip, 
folicited  adiniilion  for  a  favourite  name. 

So  far  have  I  been  from  any  care  to  grace  my  pages  with  modern  decorations,  that  I  have  ftudioofly  en- 
deavoured to  colle<5l  examples  and  authorities  from  the  writers  before  the  reftoration,  whofe  works  I  re- 
gani  as  the  wells  of  Engliflj  undeJUed,  as  the  pure  fources  of  genuine  diftion.  Our  language,  for  almoft 
a  century,  has,  by  the  concurrence  of  many  caufes,  been  gradually  departing  from  its  original  'Teutonick 
xharafter,  and  deviating  towards  a  Gallick  ftnu5hjre  and  phrafeology,  from  which  it  ought  to  be  our  en- 
deavour to  recal  it,  by  making  our  ancient  volumes  the  ground-work  of  ftyle,  admitting  among  the  ad- 
ditions of  later  times,  only  fuch  as  may  fupply  real  deficiencies,  fuch  as  are  readily  adopted  by  the  genius 
of  our  tongue,  and  incorporate  eafily  with  our  native  idioms. 

But  as  every  language  has  a  time  of  rudenefs  antecedent  to  perfefbion,  as  well  as  of  falfe  refinement  and 
declenfion,  I  have  Iseen  cautious  left  my  zeal  for  antiquity  might  drive  me  into  times  too  remote,  and 
crowd  my  book  with  words  now  no  longer  underftood.  I  Iiave  fixed  Sidney's  work  for  the  boundary,  be- 
yond which  I  make  few  excurfions.  From  the  authors  which  rofe  in  the  time  of  Elixabetb,  a  fpeech  might 
be  formed  adequate  to  all  the  purpofes  of  ufe  and  elegance.  If  the  language  of  theology  were  extraftcd 
from  Hooker  and  the  tranflation  of  the  Bible  j  the  terms  of  natural  knowledge  from  Bacon ;  the  phrafes  of 
|X)licy,  war,  and  navigation  from  Raleigh  -,  the  dialed  of  poetry  and  fidlion  from  Spenfer  and  Sidney ;  and 
the  didion  of  common  life  from  Sbakefpeafe,  few  ideas  would  be  loft  to  mankind,  for  want  of  Englijh  words, 
in  which  they  might  be  exprefled. 

It  is  not  fufficient  that  a  word  is  found,  unlefs  it  be  fb  combined  as  that  its  meaning  is  apparently  deter- 
Aiined  by  the  tra£t  and  tenour  of  the  fentence ;  fuch  paflages  I  have  therefore  cliofen,  and  when  it  happened 
rhat  any  author  gave  a  definition  of  a  term,  or  fuch  an  explanation  as  is  equivalent  to  a  definition,  I  have 
placed  his  authority  as  a  fupplement  to  my  own,  without  regard  to  the  chronological  order,  that  is  other- 
wife  obferved.  ' 

Some  words,  indeed,  ftand  unfupported  by  any  authority,  but  they  are  commonly  derivative  nouns,  or 
adverbs,  formed  from  their  primitives  by  regular  and  conftant  analogy,  or  names  of  things  feldom  occur* 
ring  in  books,  or  words  of  which  I  have  reafon  to  doubt  the  exiftence. 

There  is  more  danger  of  cenfure  from  the  multiplicity  than  paucity  of  examples ;  authorities  will 
fomerimes  feem  to  have  been  accumulated  without  necelTity  or  ufe,  and  perhaps  fome  will  be  found,  which 
might,  without  lofs,  have  been  omitted.  But  a  work  of  this  kind  is  not  haftily  to  be  charged  with 
fuperfluities :  thofe  quotations,  which  to  carelefs  or  unfkilful  perufers  appear  only  to  repeat  the  fame 
fenfe,  will  often  exhibit,  to  a  more  accurate  examinep,  diverfities  of  fignification,  or,  at  leaft,  afford  different 
fhades  of  the  fame  meaning;  one  will  lliew  the  word  applied  to  perfons,  another  to  things;  one  will  ex- 
prefs  an  ill,  another  a  good,  and  a  third  a  neutral  fenfe  j  one  will  prove  the  exprefTion  genuine  from  aft 
ancient  author ;  another  will  fhew  it  elegant  from  a  modern :  a  doubtful  authority  is  corroborated  by 
another  of  more  credit ;  an  ambiguous  fentence  is  afcertained  by  a  paflage  clear  and  determinate ;  the 
word,  how  often  foever  repeated,  appears  with  new  affociates  and  in  different  combinations,  and  every  quo- 
tation contributes  Ibmething  to  the  ftability  or  enlargement  of  the  language. 

"When  words  are  ufcd  equivocally,  I  receive  them  in  either  fenfe  ;  when  they  are  metaphorical,  I  adopt 
them  in  their  primitive  acceptation. 

1  hare  fometimes,  though  rarely,  yielded  to  the  temptation  of  exhibiting  a  genealogy  of  fentiments,  by 
(hewing  how  one  author  copied  the  thoughts  and  diftion  of  another:  fuch  quotations  are  indeed  little  more 
than  repetitions,  which  might  juftly  be  cenfured,  did  they  not  gratify  the  mind,  by  affording  a  kind  of  in- 
telleftual  hiftory. 

The  various  fyntadlical  ftruftures  occurring  in  the  examples  have  been  carefully  noted  j  the  licence  or 
negligence  with  which  many  words  have  been  hitherto  ufed,  has  made  our  ftyle  capricious  and  indeter- 
minate ;  when  the  different  combinations  of  the  fame  word  are  exhibited  together,  the  preference  is  readily 
given  to  propriety,  and  I  have  often  endeavoured  to  direfb  the  choice. 

Thus  have  I  laboured  by  fetding  the  orthography,  difplaying  the  analogy,  regulating  the  ftruftures,  and 
afceruining  the  fignification  of  Englijb  words,  to  perform  all  the  parts  of  a  faithful  lexicographer :  but  I 




have  not  ^ways  executed  my  own  fchernc,  or  fatisfied  my  own  expeftations.  The  work,  whatever  proofs 
of  diligence  and  attention  it  may  exhibit,  is  yet  capable  of  many  improvements:  the  orthography  which 
I  recommend  is  ftill  controvertible,  the  etymology  which  I  adopt  is  uncertain,  and  perhaps  frequently  er- 
roneous ;  the  explanations  are  fometimes  too  much  contrafted,  and  fometimes  too  much  difFufed,  the 
fignifications  are  diftinguiflied  rather  with  fubtilty  than  fkill,  and  the  attention  is  harafled  with  unneceflary 

The  examples  are  too  often  injudicioufly  truncated,  and  perhaps  fometimes,  I  hope  very  rarely,  alleged 
in  a  miftaken  fenfe ;  for  in  making  this  colledlion  I  trufted  more  to  memory,  than,  in  a  flate  of  difquiet  and 
embarraffinent,  memory  can  contain,  and  purpofed  to  fupply  at  the  review  what  was  left  incomplete  in  the 
firft  tranfcription. 

'.  Many  terms  appropriated  to  particular  occupations,  though  neceffary  and  figniFxant,  are  undoubtedly 
omitted ;  and  of  the  words  moft  ftudioufly  confidered  and  exemplified,  many  fenfes  have  efcaped  ob- 

Yet  thefe  failures,  however  frequent,  may  admit  extenuation  and  apology.  To  have  attempted 
much  is  always  laudable,  even  when  the  enterprize  is  above  tiie  ftrength  that  undertakes  it :  To  reft 
below  his  own  aim  is  incident  to  every  one  whofe  fancy  is  aftive,  and  whofe  views  are  comprehenfive  ; 
nor  is  any  man  fatisfied  with  himfelf  becaufe  he  has  done  much,  but  becaufe  he  can  conceive  httle- 
When  firft  I  engaged  in  this  work,  I  refolved  to  leave  neither  words  nor  things  unexamined,  and  pleafed 
myfelf  with  a  profpeft  of  the  hours  wiiich  I  ftiould  revel  away  in  feafts  of  literature,  the  obfcure 
recefles  of  northern  learning  which  I  Ihould  enter  and  ranfack,  the  treafures  with  which  I  expefted 
every  fearch  into  thofe  neglected  mines  to  reward  my  labour,  and  the  triumph  with  which  I  ftiould  dis- 
play my  acquifitions  to  mankind.  When  I  had  thus  enquired  into  the  original  of  words,  I  refolved  to 
Jhow  likewife  my  attention  to  things ;  to  pierce  deep  into  every  fcience,  to  enquire  the  nature  of  every 
fubftance  of  which  I  inferted  the  name,  to  limit  every  idea  by  a  definition  ftridly  logical,  and  exhibit  every 
produftion  of  art  or  nature  in  an  accurate  defcription,  that  my  book  might  be  in  place  of  all  other  di£tio-» 
naries  whether  appellative  or  technical.  But  thefe  were  the  dreams  of  a  poet  doomed  at  laft  to  wake  a, 
lexicographer.  I  foon  found  that  it  is  too  late  to  look  for  inftruments,  when  the  work  calls  for  execution, 
and  that  whatever  abilities  I  had  brought  to  my  tafk,  with  thofe  I  muft  finally  perform  it.  To  deliberate 
whenever  I  doubted,  to  enquire  whenever  I  was  ignorant,  would  have  protracted  the  undertaking  without 
end,  and,  perhaps,  without  much  improvement  j  for  I  did  not  find  by  my  firft  experiments,  that  what  I 
had  not  of  my  own  was  eafily  to  be  obtained :  I  faw  that  one  enquiry  only  gave  occafion  to  another,  that 
book  referred  to  book,  that  to  fearch  was  not  always  to  find,  and  to  find  was  not  always  to  be  informed ; 
and  that  thus  to  purfue  perfection,  was,  like  the  firft  inhabitants  of  Arcadia,  to  chafe  the  fun,  which, 
when  they  had  reached  the  hill  where  he  fcemed  to  reft,  was  ftill  beheld  at  the  fame  diftance  from  them. 

I  then  contraded  my  defign,  determining  to  confide  in  myfelf,  and  no  longer  to  folicit  auxiliaries,  which 
produced  more  incumbrance  than  afTiftance :  by  this  I  obtained  at  leaft  one  advantage,  diat  I  fet  limits  to 
my  work,  which  would  in  time  be  ended,  though  not  completed. 

Defpondency  has  never  fo  far  prevailed  as  to  deprefs  me  to  negligence ;  fome  faults  will  at  laft  appear 
to  be  the  effeds  of  anxious  diligence  and  perfevering  aftivity.  The  nice  and  fubtle  ramifications  of 
meanihg  were  not  eafily  avoided  by  a  mind  intent  upon  accuracy,  and  convinced  of  the  necefllty  of  dif-  ■ 
entangling  combinations,  and  fcparating  fimilitudes.  Many  of  the  diftinftions,  which  to  common  readers 
appear  ufelefs  and  idle,  will  be  found  real  and  important  by  men  verfed  in  the  fchool  philofophy,  without 
which  no  dictionary  can  ever  be  accurately  compiled,  or  fkilfully  examined. 

Some  fenfes  however  there  are,  which,  though  not  the  fame,  are  yet  fo  nearly  allied,  that  they  are 
often  confounded.  Moft  men  think  indiftinftly,  and  therefore  cannot  fpeak-with  exaftnefs ;  and  con- 
fequently  fome  examples  might  be  indifi^erently  put  to  either  fignification  :  this  uncertainty  is  not  to  be 
imputed  to  me,  who  do  not  form,  but  regifter  the  language ;  who  do  not  teach  men  how  they  fliould 
think,  but  relate  how  they  have  hitherto  exprelTcd  their  thoughts. 

The  imperfeft  fenfe  of  fome  examples  I  lamented,  but  could  not  remedy,  and  hope  they  will  be  com- 
penfated  by  innumerable  paffagfs  fele£t':d  with  propriety,  and  preferred  with  exaftnefs  -,  fome  Ihining 
with  fparks  of  imagination,  and  fome  replete  with  treafures  of  wifdom. 

The  orthography  and  etymology,  though  imperfed,  are  not  imperfect  for  want  of  care,  but  becaufe 
care  will  oot  always  be  fucccfsful,  and  recolk^iwn  of  iftformation  coine  too  late  for  ufe. 


P  R         E  1*'        A.         C         E. 

That  many  terms  of  art  and  manufafture  are  omitted,  muft  be  frankly  acknowledged ;  bat  for  this 
dcfcil  I  may  boldly  allege  that  it  was  unavoidable:  I  could  not  vifit  caverns  to  learn  the  miner's 
language,  nor  take  a  voyage  to  perfcdl  my  (kill  in  the  dialed  of  navigation,  nor  vifit  the  warehoufes 
of  merchants,  and  fhops  of  artificers,  to  gain  the  names  of  wares,  tools  and  operations,  of  which  no 
mention  is  found  in  books ;  what  favourable  accident,  or  eafy  enquiry  brought  within  my  reach,  has 
not  been  neglcdled  ;  but  it  had  been  a  hopclefs  labour  to  glean  up  words,  by  courting  living  informa- 
tion, and  contcfting  with  die  fuUennefii  of  one,  and  the  roughnefs  of  another. 

To  furnifli  the  academicians  della  Crujca  with  words  of  this  kind,  a  feries  of  comedies  called  U 
Tiera,  or  the  Fair,  was  j^rofcflcdly  written  by  Buonaroti;  but  I  had  no  fuch  afliftant,  and  therefore 
was  content  to  want  wiiat  they  muft  have  wanted  likewife,  had  they  not  luckily  been  fo  fupplied. 

Nor  are  all  words  which  are  not  found  in  the  vocabular)-,  to  be  lamented  as  omiflions.  Of  the 
laborious  and  mercantile  part  of*  the  people,  the  diflion  is  in  a  great  meafure  cafual  and  mutable ;  many 
of  their  terms  are  formed  for  fome  temporary  or  local  convenience,  and  though  current  at  certain  times 
and  places,  are  in  others  utterly  unknown.  This  fugitive  cant,  which  is  always  in  a  ftate  of  increafe  cw 
decay,  cannot  be  regarded  as  any  part  of  the  durable  materials  of  a  language,  and  therefore  muft  be 
differed  to  pcrifh  with  other  things  unworthy  of  prefervation. 

Care  -will  fometimes  betray  to  the  appearance  of  negligence.  He  that  is  catching  opportunities  wliich 
feldom  occur,  will  fufFer  thofe  to  pafe  by  unregarded,  which  he  expefts  hourly  to  return ;  he  that  is  fearch- 
ing  for  rare  and  remote  things,  will  negleft  thofe  that  are  obvious  and  familiar :  thus  many  of  the  moft 
common  and  curfory  words  have  been  inferted  with  little  illuftration,  becaufe  in  gathering  the  authorities, 
I  forbore  to  copy  thofe  which  i  thought  likely  to  occur  whenever  they  were  wanted.  It  is  remark- 
able that,  in  reviewing  my  colleftion,  I  found  the  word  Sea  unexemplified. 

Thus  it  happens,  that  in  things  difficult  there  is  danger  from  ignorance,  and  in  things  eafy  from 
confidence ;  the  mind,  afraid  q{  greatnefs,  and  difdainful  of  littlenefs,  haftily  withdraws  herfelf  from 
painful  fearches,  and  pafles  with  fcornful  rapidity  over  tafks  not  adequate  to  her  powers,  fometimes  too 
fecure  for  caution,  and  again  too  anxious  for  vigorous  effort ;  fometimes  idle  in  a  plain  path,  and  fome- 
times diftraftcd  in  labyrinths,  and  diflipated  by  different  intentions. 

A  large  work  is  difficult  becaufe  it  is  large,  even  though  all  its  parts  might  fingly  be  performed  with 
facility  ;  where  there  are  many  things  to  be  done,  each  muft  be  allowed  its  (hare  of  time  and  labour, 
in  the  proportion  only  which  it  bears  to  the  whole ;  nor  can  it  be  expecfted,  that  the  ftones  which  form 
the  dome  of  a  temple,  (hould  be  fquared  and  polilbed  like  the  diamond  of  a  ring. 

Of  the  event  of  this  work,  for  which,  having  laboured  it  with  fo  much  application,  I  cannot  but 
have  fome  degree  of  parental  fondnefs,  it  is  natural  to  form  conjedtures.  Thofe  who  have  been  per- 
fuaded  to  think  well  of  my  dcfign,  will  require  that  it  (liould  fix  our  language,  and  put  a  ftop  to 
thofe  alterations  which  time  and  chance  have  hitherto  been  fuffered  to  make  in  it  without  oppofition. 
"With  this  confequence  I  will  confefs  that  I  flattered  myfelf  for  a  while ;  but  now  begin  to  fear  that  I 
have  indulged  expectation  which  neither  reafon  nor  experience  can  juftify.  When  we  fee  men  grow  old 
»nd  die  at  a  certain  time  one  after  another,  from  century  to  ccn'^ury,  we  laugh  at  the  elixir  that  promifcs 
to  prolong  life  to  a  thoufand  years ;  and  with  equal  jultice  may  the  lexicographer  be  derided,  who 
being  alile  to  produce  no  example  of  a  nation  that  has  preferved  their  words  and  phrafcs  from  mutability, 
ihall  imagine  tlut  his  didionary  can  embalm  his  language,  and  fecure  it  from  corruption  and  decay, 
that  it  is  m  his  power  to  change  fublunary  nature,  and  clear  the  world  at  once  from  folly,  vanity,  and 

With  this  hope,  however,  academies  have  been  inftituted,  to  guard  the  avenues  of  dieir  languages, 
to  retau»  fugitives,  and  repulfe  intruders  -,  but  their  vigilance  and  aftivity  have  iiitherto  been  vain ; 
founds  are  too  volatile  and  fubtile  for  legal  reftraints  ;  to  enchain  fyllables,  and  to  lafh  the  wind,  are 
equally  the  undertakings  of  pride,  unwilling  to  meafure  its'defires  by  its  ftrc'ngch.  The  French  language 
Jias  vifibly  changed  under  the  infpedion  of  the  academy;  the  ftyle  of  Jmelot's  tranfiation  of  father  Paul 
is  obfcrved  by  Le  Courayer  to  be  un  peu  pajfe ;  and  no  Italian  will  maintain,  that  the  didion  of  any 
modem  writer  is  not  perceptibly  different  from  that  of  Boccacty  Machiavel,  or  Caro. 

Total  and  fudden  transformations  of  a  language  feldom  happen ;  conqucfts  and  migrations  are  now 
very  /are .:  but  there  arc  other  caufcs  of  change,  which,  tliough  flow  in  their  operation,  and  invifi-ble  in 



their  progrefs,  are  perhaps  as  much  Tuperiour  to  human  refiftance,  as  the  revolutions  of  the  fky,  or 
intumefcence  of  the  tide.  Commerce,  however  neceflaiy,  however  lucrative,  as  it  depraves  the  manners, 
corrupts  the  language  j  they  that  have  frequent  intercourfe  with  ftrangers,  to  whom  they  endeavour  to 
accommodate  themfelves,  muft  in  time  learn  a  mingled  dialedt,  like  the  jargon  which  ferves  the  traffickers 
on  the  Mediterranean  and  Indian  coafts.  This  will  not  always  be  confined  to  the  exchange,  the  warehoufe, 
or  tlie  port,  but  wi'l  be  communicated  by  degrees  to  other  ranks  of  the  people,  and  be  at  laft  incorporated 
with  the  current  fpeech. 

There  are  likewife  internal  caufes  equally  forcible.  The  language  mod  likely  to  continue  long 
without  alteration,  would  be  that  of  a  nation  raifed  a  little,  and  but  a  little,  above  barbarity,  fecluded 
from  ftrangers,  and  totally  employed  in  procuring  the  conveniencies  of  life ;  either  without  books,  or, 
fike  fome  of 'the  Mahometan  countries,  with  very  few  :  men  thus  bufied  and  unlearned,  havuig  only  fucl> 
words  as  common  ufe  requires,  would  perhaps  long  continue  to  exprefs  the  fame  notions  by  the  fame 
figns.  But  no  fuch  conftancy  can  be  expefted  in  a  people  polifhed  by  arts,  and  clafled  by  fubordination, 
where  one  part  of  the  community  is  fuftained  and  accommodated  by  the  labour  of  the  other.  Thofe 
who  have  much  leifure  to  think,  will  always  be  enlarging  the  ftock  of  ideas;  and  every  increafe  of 
knowledge,  whether  real  or  fancied,  will  produce  new  words,  or  combinations  of  words.  When  the 
mind  is  unchained  from  neceflity,  it  will  range  after  convenience ;  when  it  is  left  at  large  in  the  fields 
of  fpeculation,  it  will  fhifc  opinions  ;  as  any  cuftom  is  difufed,  the  words  that  exprefled  it  muft  perifti  witli 
it  i  as  any  opinion  grows  popular,  it  will  innovate  fpeech  in  the  fame  proportion  as  it  altera  praftice. 

As  by  the  cultivation  of  various  fciences  a  language  is  amplified,  it  will  be  more  furnifhed  with* 
words  deflefted  from  their  original  fenfe ;  the  geometrician  will  talk  of  a  courtier's  zenith,  or  the 
eccentrick  virtue  of  a  wild  hero,  and  the  phyfician  of  fanguine  expedtations  and  phlegmatick  delays. 
Copioufnefs  of  fpeech  will  give  opportunities  to  capricious  choice,  by  which  fome  words  will  be  pre- 
ferred, and  others  degraded;  vicifTitudes  of  fafhion  will  enforce  the  ufe  of  new,  or  extend  the  figrviftcatioa 
of  known  terms.  The  tropes  of  poetry  will  make  hourly  encroachments,  and  the  metaphorical  will 
become  the  current  fenfe:  pronunciation  will  be  varied  by  levity  or  ignorance,  and  the  pen  muft 
at  length  comply  with  the  tongue ;  illiterate  writers  will,  at  one  time  or  other,  by  publick  infatuation, 
rife  into  renown,  who,  not  knowing  the  original  import  of  words,  will  ufe  them  with  colloquial  Ficen- 
tioufnefs,  confound  diftinftion,  and  forget  propriety.  As  politenefs  increafes,  fome  cxpreffions  will  be- 
confidcred  as  too  grofs  and  vulgar  for  the  delicate,  others  as  too  formal  and  ceremonious  for  the  gav 
and  airy;  new  phrafes  are  therefore  adopted,  which  muft,  for  the  fame  rcafons,  be  in  time  difmifleJ. 
Swift,  in  his  petty  treatife  on  the  Eng/ijh  language,  allows  that  new  words  muft  fometimes  be  intro- 
duced, but  propofes  that  none  fhould  be  fufFered  to  become  obfolete.  But  what  makes  a  word  obfolete, 
more  than  general  agreement  to  forbear  it  ?  and  how  ftiall  it  be  continued,  when  it  conveys  an  ofFenfivcr 
idea,  or  recalled  again  into  the  mouths  of  mankind,  when  it  has  once  become  unfamiliar  by  difufe,  and 
unpleafing  by  unfamiliarity  ? 

There  is  another  caufe  of  alteration  more  prevalent  than  any  other,  which  yet  ia  the  prelent  ftate  of  the 
world  cannot  be  obviated.  A  mixture  of  two  languages  will  produce  a  third  diftinft  from  both,  and 
they  will  always  be  mixed,  where  the  chief  part  of  education,  and  the  moft  confpicuous  accompliftiment, 
is  (kill  in  ancient  or  in  foreign  tongues.  He  that  has  long  cultivated  another  language,  will  find  its 
words  and  combinations  crowd  upon  his  memory ;  and  hafte  and  negligence,  refinement  and  affediation;, 
will  obtrude  borrowed  terms  and  exotick  expre/Tions. 

The  great  peft  of  fpeech  is  frequency  of  tranflation.  No  book  was  ever  turned  from  one  lanrgaage  into- 
another,  without  imparting  fomething  of  its  native  idiom  >  this  is  the  moft  mifchievous  and  comprehen- 
five  innovation  ;  fingle  words  may  enter  by  thoufands,  and  the  fabrick  of  the  tongue  continue  the  fame  ; 
but  new  phrafeology  changes  much  at  once  ;  it  alters,  not  the  fingle  ftones  of  the  building,  but  the  order 
of  the  columns,  if  an  academy  fhould  be  eftablifhed  for  the  cultivation  of  our  ftyle,  which  I,  who  care 
never  wifh  to  fee  dependance  multiplied,  hope  the  fpirit  of  Engiijb  liberty  will  hinder  or  deftnoy,  let  them, 
inftead  of  compiling  grammars  and  didlionaries,  endeavour,  with  all  their  influence,  to  flop  the  licence  of 
tranflators,  whofe  idlenefs  and  ignorance,  if  it  be  fuffered  to  proceed,  will  reduce  us  ta  babble  a  diaJeit 
of  France. 

If  the  changes  that  we  fear  be  thus  irrefiftible,  what  remains  bat  to  acquiefce  with  filence,  as  in  the  other 
infurmountable  diftrefTes  of  humanity  ?  It  remains  that  we  retard  what  we  cannot  repel,  that  we  palliate 
what  we  cannot  cure.     Life  may  be  lengthened  by  care,  though  death  cannot  be  ultimately  defeated? 

.  .  5  t<>ngues* 


tongues,  like  governments,  have  a  natural  tendency  to  degeneration  i  wc  have  long  prefcrved  our  confti- 
tution,  let  us  make  feme  ftruggles  for  our  language. 

In  hope  of  giving  longevity  to  that  which  its  own  nature  forbids  to  be  immortal,  I  have  devoted  this 
book,  the  labour  of  years,  to  the  honour  of  my  country,  that  we  may  po  longer  yield  the  palm  of  philology, 
without  a  conteft,  to  the  nations  of  the  continent.  The  chief  glory  of  every  people  arifes  from  its  au- 
thors :  whether  I  fhall  add  any  thin^  by  my  own  writings  to  the  reputation  of  Englijh  literature,  muft  be  • 
left  to  time :  much  of  my  life  has  been  loft  under  the  preflures  of  difeafe ;  much  has  been  trifled  away  ; 
and  much  has  always  been  fpent  in  provifion  for  the  day  that  was  paffing  over  me ;  but  I  fliall  not  think  , 
my  employment  ufelefs  or  ignoble,  if  by  my  afliftance  foreign  nations,  and  diftant  ages,  gain  accefs  to 
the  propagators  of  knowledge,  and  underftand  the  teachers  of  truth  j  if  my  labours  afford  light  to  die 
repofitorics  of  fcience,  and  add  celebrity  to  Bacon,  to  Hooker,  to  Milion,  and  to  Btyle. 

When  I  am  animated  by  this  wi(h,  I  look  with  pleafure  on  my  book,  however  defeftive,  and  deliver 
it  to  the  world  with  the  fpirit  of  a  man  that  has  endeavoured  welL  That  it  will  immediately  become 
popular  I  have  not  promifed  to  myfelf :  a  few  wild  blunders,  and  rifible  abfurdities,  from  which  no  work 
of  fuch  multiplicity  was  ever  free,  may  for  a  time  furnifh  folly  with  laughter,  and  harden  igrwrance  in 
contempt ;  but  ufeful  diligence  will  at  laft  prevail,  and  there  never  can  be  wanting  fome  who  diftinguilh 
defert;  who  will  confider  that  no  didtionary  of  a  living  tongue  ever  can  be  perfecl,  fince  while  it  is  haftcn- 
ing  to  publication,  fome  words  are  budding,  and  fome  falling  away  ;  that  a  whole  life  cannot  be  fpent  upon 
fyntax  and  etymology,  and  that  even  a  whole  life  would  not  be  fufficient  j  that  he,  whofe  dcfign  includes 
•whatever  language  can  exprefs,  muft  often  fpeak  of  what  he  does  not  underftand ;  that  a  writer  will 
fometimes  be  hurried  by  eagcrnefs  to  the  end,  and  foraetimes  faint  with  wcarinefs  under  a  talk,  which 
Scaliger  compares  to  the  labours  of  the  anvil  and  the  mine ;  that  what  is  obvious  is  not  always  known, 
and  what  is  known  is  not  always  prefent ;  tliat  fudden  fits  of  inadvertency  will  furprize  vigilance,  fligJTt 
avocations  will  feduce  attention,  and  cafual  eclipfes  of  the  mind  will  darken  learning ;  and  that  the  writer 
lliall  often  in  vain  trace  his  memory  at  the  moment  of  need,  for  that  which  yefterday  he  knew  with  intui- 
tive rcadinefs,  and  which  will  come  uncalled  into  his  thoughts  to-morrow. 

In  this  work,  when  it  fliall  be  found  that  much  is  omitted,  let  it  not  be  forgotten  that  much  likewifc 
IS  performed ;  and  though  no  book  was  ever  fpared  out  of  tendcrnefs  to  the  author,  and  the  world  is 
little  folicitous  to  know  whence  proceeded  the  faults  of  that  which  it  condemns ;  yet  it  may  gratify  curio- 
fity  to  inform  it,  that  the  Englijh  DiHionary  was  written  with  little  affiftance  of  the  learned,  and  without 
any  patronage  of  the  great ;  not  in  the  foft  obfcuriries  of  retirement,  or  under  the  flicker  of  academick 
bowers,  but  amidft  inconvenience  and  diftraftion,  in  ficknefs  and  in  forro\y.  It  may  reprefs  the  triumph 
of  malignant  criticifm  to  obferve,  that  if  our  language  is  not  here  fully  difplayed,  I  have  only  failed  in  an 
attempt  which  no  human  powers  have  hitherto  completed.  If  the  lexicons  of  ancient  tongues,  now  im- 
mutably fixed,  axid  comprized  in  a  few  volumes,  be  yet,  after  the  toil  of  fucceffive  ages,  inadequate  and 
delufive ;  if  the  aggregated  knowledge,  and  co-operating  diligence  of  the  Italian  academicians,  did  not 
fecure  them  from  the  cenfu.'-e  of  Beni  ^  if  the  embodied  criticks  of  France-,  when  fifty  years  had  been 
fpent  upon  their  work,  were  obliged  to  change  its  ceconomy,  and  give  their  fecond  edition  another  form, 
I  may  furcly  be  contented  without  the  pr?tifc  of  perfection,  which,  if  I  could  obtain,  in  this  gloom  of  fo- 
litude,  what  would  it  avail  me?  I  have  jirotrafted  my  work  till  moft  of  thofe  whom  I  wiScd  to  pleafc 
have  funk  into  the  grave,  and  fuccefs  and  mifcarriage  are  empty  founds ;  I  therdbre  Jifmifs  it  with  frigid 
tranquillity,  having  little  to  fear  or  hope  fcom  cenfure  or  from  praifc. 





OF     THE 


THOUGH  ihe  Britains  or  Weljh  were  the 
firft  pofleflbrs  of  this  ifland,  whofe  names 
are  recorded,  and  are  therefore  in  civil  hif- 
tory  always  confidered  as  the  predeceflbrs  of  the 
prelent  inhabitants;  yet  the  dedu6lion  of  the  Eng- 
lijh  language,  from  the  earlieft  times  of  which  we 
have  any  knowledge  to  its  prefent  Hate,  requires 
no  mention  of  them:  for  we  have  fo  few  words 
which  can,  with  any  probability,  be  referred  to  Bri- 
tijh  roots,  that  we  juftly  regard  the  Saxom  and  fVe'Jh 
as  nations  totally  diftindl.  It  has  been  conjedlured, 
that  when  the  Saxons  feized  this  country,  they  fuf- 
fered  the  Britains  to  live  among  them  in  a  ftate  of 
vaflalage,  employed  in  the  culture  of  the  ground, 
and  other  laborious  and  ignoble  fervices.  But  it  is 
fcarctly  poffible,  that  a  nation,  however  depreflcd, 
fhould  have  been  mixed  with  another  in  confidcr- 
able  numbers  without  fome  communication  of  their 
tongue,  and  therefore,  it  may,  with  great  reafon,  be 
imagined,  that  thofe,  who  were  not  fheltered  in  the 
mountains,  pcriihed  by  the  fword. 

The  whole  fabrick  and  fcheme  of  the  Englifl} 
language  is  Golhick  or  Teutonick :  it  is  a  dialeft  of 
that  tongue,  which  prevails  over  all  the  northern 
countries  of  Europe^  except  thofe  where  the  Scla- 
vonian  is  fpokcn.  Of  thefe  languages  Dr.  Hickes 
has  thus  exhibited  the  genealogy. 

G  O  T  H  I  C  K, 

Anglo-Saxon,        Francick, 

Dutch  German. 



Vol.  I. 

' " » 


Of  the  Cothick,  the  only  monument  remaining 
is  a  copy  of  the  gofpels  fomewhat  mutilated,  which, 
from  the  filver  with  which  the  charaders  are  adorn- 
ed, is  called  the^Iver  bock.  It  is  now  preferved  at 
Upfal,  and  having  been  twice  publiihed  before,  has 
been  lately  reprinted  at  Oxford,  under  the  infpec- 
tion  of  Mr.  Lye,  the  editor  of  Junius.  Whether 
the  didtion  of  this  venerable  manufcript  be  purely 
Gothick,  has  been  doubted  j  it  feems  however  to 
exhibit  the  moft  ancient  dialed  now  to  be  found  of 
the  Teutonick  race ;  and  the  Saxon,  which  is  the 
original  of  the  prefent  Englijh,  was  either  derived 
from  it,  or  both  have  defcended  from  fome  com- 
mon parent. 

What  was  the  form  of  the  Saxon  language,  when, 
about  the  year  450,  they  firft  entered  Britain,  can- 
not now  be  known.  They  feem  to  have  been  a 
people  without  learning,  and  very  probably  with- 
out an  alphabet ;  their  fpeech,  therefore,  having 
been  always  curfory  and  extemporaneous,  muft 
have  been  artlefs  and  unconnefted,  without  any 
modes  of  tranfition  or  involution  of  claufes;  which 
abruptnefs  and  inconnedion  may  be  obferved  even 
in  their  later  writings.  This  barbarity  may  be 
fuppofed  to  have  continued  during  their  wars  with 
the  Britains,  which  for  a  time  left  them  no  leifurc 
for  fofter  ftudics;  nor  is  there  any  reafon  for  fup- 
pofing  it  abated,  till  the  year  570,  whei)  Augujline 
came  from  Rome  to  convert  them  to  Chriftianity. 
The  Chriftian  religion  always  implies  or  produces 
a  certain  degree  of  civility  and  learning;  they 
then  became  by  degrees  acquainted  with  the  Ro- 
man language,  and  ib  gained,  from  time  to  time, 
fome  knowledge  and  elegance,  till  in  three  centu- 
ries they  had  formed  a  language  capable  of  ex- 
prefling  all  the  fentimcnts  of  a  civilifcd  people,  as 
c  appears 

THE     HISTORY      OF      THE 

appears  by  k'ng  Alfreds  paraphrafe  or  imitation  of  CAP.     II. 

Bcethius,  and  his  Ihort  preface,  which  I  have  fe-         ^^  ^^^^  ,  ^  ,^.       ^^^^  lurr'jcnlice  ronr. 

Icdtcd  as  the  firft  fpecimcn  of  ancient  EngUJb.  ^^  ^^^^^  ^^  heopienoe  j-in^in.   ■]  mit)  j-pi  ur^cpa- 

t)um  pojitJum  jcferran.  |)cah  ic  jeo  npilum  je- 

C  A  P.     I.  coplice  puntie,  ac  ic  nu  pepenfce  ^  5ij-cierit?e  op 

>cx  L  '  T;cnat»rii  pont>a  mirpo.  me  ablentsan  bar  unxer- 

/-\N  «a;pe  ribe  fe  Doran  op  8iSSiu  mrrj^e  j^^.^  j^j        ,j,^_  ^   ^^  1,^  ponleran^-pa 

^-^  pi)7  Komana  jiice  jepin    upahoron.    •]    mi]?  hi,„^ne   on    |7i)^  Dinime  hoi.       Bx   bepeapoCon 

heopa  cynin^um.    Rxbjora ant)  eallepica  pxjioii  j^i^ene  luprba-nnerre  pa  Sa  ic  hun  a-pne  berrr 

harne.     Romane  bupij  abparcon.  anb  eall  Iralia  ^p^pp^e.  Ba  pentjon  hi  me  heopa  bxc  ro  anD  me 

jiice  jJ  ip  berpux  )7am  munrum  •]  Sici'ia  ^am  ^^,^  ^^„^^  p^omjepiran.     To  phon  pceolmi  la 

ealonT5e  m  anpaib  jepehron.  -^  fa  je^rep  Jam  j^,^^^  pnient)  reTTan  bsr  ic  Terjch-r  men  pa:ne. 

popepppecenan  cyninjum  Deot)pic  peiij  ro  f  am  ,,^  ,^^         5,^^,^  xepiEhr  re  Se  on  6am  Teralbum 

ilcan  pice,  j-e  Deobpic  pa.-p  Amulmja.  he  pasp  ^uphpuman  ne  mor:- 

Epipren.  feah  he  on  f am  Appianipcan  jetjpolan  .        * 

Suphpunot>e.  pe  ^eher  Romanum  hir  ppeont>-  CAP.  HI. 
rcine.  ppa  •*  hi  morran  heopi  ealt)pihra  pypbe  ,  ^  ,  ,  \cr^ 
beon.  Ac  he  ba  xehar  ppiSe  ypele  selspre.  DA  ic  fa  Sip  leoj?.  cpa^SBoerIlIp.3eomplent)e■ 
^  ppiSe  ppabe  Teenl>ot)e  mib  mancTum  mane,  apun^en  hreptse.  «a  com  ?iajp  jan  in  ro  me  heo- 
•«  pir  ro  eacan  ofpum  unapimet)um  yplum.  f  he  F^^cunt)  pipt)om.  •]  -p  min  miipnentse  COot)  mit> 
lohannep  bone  papan  her  opplean.  Da  y.vy  pum  hippopbum  jejperre.  T  flip  cpasf .  ^u  ne  eapr 
conpul.  -p  pe  heperoha  haraf .  Boeriup  y^y  f "  f^  »"""  )'*  ""  "i'"r&  F^le  pa?pe  apet)  •]  ^e- 
haren.  re  yxr  in  boccpreprum  -j  on  popult)  lappet).  Ac  hponon  pupt)efu  mm  fippum  popult> 
bcapumpepihrpirepra.  8e  Sa  onrear  f a  manij-  FPS""!  f^r  TP'l'e  jeppencet).  buron  ic  par  f 
pealmn  ypel  fe  re  cynin3  Deojpic  pif  f am  f u  hteppr  Sapa  pxpna  ro  hpaf e  pop^iren  6e  ic 
fcpiprenantjome  ^  pif  fam  Romanipcum  piriim  fe  aep  pealne.  Da  clipot)e  pe  pipt)om  •]  cpsf. 
tjyoe.  he  b a  •remunt5e  «apa  ef neppa  -j  f apa  Depiraf  nu  apipjet^e  popult)  popja  op  minep 
DpihraSehiunr)epSamEarepumhaspt>onheopa  f^S^nep  C0ot5e.  popfam  Te  pinb  fa  maspraa 
ealT>hlapopt5Lim.  Da  onran  he  pmeajan  -]  leopni-  pceafan.  Ljeraf  hme  epr  hpeoppan  ro  mmiim 
ran  on  him  j-elpum  hu  he  j5pice  'Sam  unpihrpipan  iapum.  Da  eot)e  pe  pij-tjom  neap,  cpref  Boeriup. 
cy-niHTe  apeppan  mihre.  •]  on  pyhr  ^eleappul-  minum  hpeoppienTJan  jefohre.  •]  hir  ppa  mopolil 
pa  anb  on  pihrpippa  anpaib  jebpmjan.  8ent5e  ^ip^'^  hpeja  upapst)e.  at)pi3be  fa  minenep 
fa  biTelhce  spenbreppiru  ro  fam  Eapepe  ro  COot)ep  eajan.  ant)  hir  ppan  bhf urn  popuim. 
tonpranrinopohm.  fsp  ip  Upeca  heah  bupj  ^  hpsfep  hir  oncneope  hip  poprepmotjop.  mit> 
heopa  cyneprol.  pop  fam  pe  Daj-epe  psep  heopa  ^am  fe  Sa  f  COob  pif  bepent>e.  6a  ^ecneop  hir 
ealbhlapopt)  cynnep.  ba^bon  hine  f.-er  he  him  ro  rP'?^  ppeorele  hip  ajne  mot)op.  -p  pasp  pe  pip- 
heopa  Epiprent)ome  ■]  ro  heopa  ealopihrum  je-  ^^m  fe  •'r^  ^anje  asp  rybe  ■]  la^poe.  ac  hir  on- 
pulrumebe.  Da  -f  onrear  pe  paslhpeopa  cyninj  ^ear  hip  lape  ppife  roropenne  •]  ppif e  robpo- 
Deobpic.  «a  hjer  he  hine  jebpinjanon  capcepne  cenne  mit)  tjypijpa  honbum.  ■]  hine  fa  ppan  hu 
■]  frp  mne  belucan.  Da  lur  6a  jelomp  -p  je  f  jepupbe.  Da  ant)ppypt)e  pe  pipbom  him  7 
appypSa  psep  on  ppa  m'celpe  neapaneppe  be-  pa:be.  •^  hip  jmjpan  htepbon hine  ppa  roropenne. 
com.  fa  yxr  he  ppa  micle  ppi6op  on  hip  COot)e  P^P-  fa^J^  hi  reohhot)on  f  hi  hine  eallne  habban 
rebpepeb.  ppa  hip  CDo»  xp.  ppi6on  ro  f  im  pceotoon.  ac  hi  3e3at5epu6  monipealb  toypij  on 
popult)  pa  f um  unjepot)  pa:p.  -]  he  6a  nanpe  ]p^'?^  poprp'upunja.  -j  on  fam  jilpe  buran  heopa 
ppoppe  be  innan  fam  capcepne  ne  jemunbe.  ac  hpelc  epr  ro  hype  bore  jecippe:- 
he  jepeoll  nipol  op  t>une  on  fa  plop.  •]  hine  -phis'  may  perhaps  be  confidered  as  a  fpecimen 
aprpehre  ppife  unpor.  anb  opmob  hine  pelpne  of  the  Saxcn  in  its  higheft  ftatc  of  purity,  for  here 
pon^an  pepan  ^  fup  pingenbe  cpef ,  are  fcarcciy  any  words  borrowed  from  the  Roman 




Of  the  follov/ing  verfion  of  the  gofpels  the  age 
is  not  certainly  known,  but  it  was  probably  writ- 
ten between  the  time  of  /IlfreJ  and  that  of  the  Nor- 
man conqueft,  and  therefore  may  properly  be  in- 
ferted  here. 

Tranflations  fcldom  afford  juft  fpecimehs  of  a 
language,  and  ieaft  of  all  thofe  in  which  a  fcrupu- 
lous  and  verbal  interpretation  is  endeavoured,  be- 
caufe  they  retain  the  phrafeology  and  ftrufture  of 

L  UC^,    Cap.  I. 

TJ^  ORD^QD  pe:  pirot)lice  maneji  Jjohron  jjapa 
jiiinja  jiace  5e-ent)eby_pt>an  pe:  on   uy  ^epyl- 
]et)e  f  ynt:. 

'     2  Spa  uy  bershrun  pz  Se  hir  oj?  pfiymSe 
Tcppon.  aiib  jjtjie  j'pjiarce  j^enaj-  prejion. 

3  OOe  j;e]7uhre  [o_p-pylijt)e  pjiom  pjauma] 
jeojiniice  eallum.  [miS]  enoebyptinej'j'e  pjiiran 
fee.  pu  'Se  j'eluj'ra  Theophilup 

4  ]ju  oncnape  f»apa  popt)a  yo'SfXfTn&jje. 
op  ):'am  'Se  j?u  jel^ejiet)  eapr:- 

5  On  ^ejiooep  Oajum  lutJea  cynmcjej-.  pjep 
piim  pacejit)  on  naman  Zachajiiap  op  Sbian  rune. 
3  hip  pip  psep  op  Sajionep  Oohrjium.  ant)  hype 
nama  pa?p   Glizaberh:- 

6  SoSiice  hij  pasjxon  buru  pihtrpipe  bepojaan 
Ifu'De.  j.injentie  on  eallum  hip  bebot>um  ■]  jiihr- 
pipneppuni  buran  pjiohre:- 

7  Ant5  hij  nEejOon  nan  beapn.  pojifjam  ^e 
eiizaberh  p{ep  unbej\ent)e.  •]  hy  on  hyjia  Oagum 
buru  jojiSeotJun:- 

8  SoSlice  p3ep  jepojiben  pa.  Zachapiap  hyp  pa- 
cept);iatiep  bpeacon  hip  jeppixlepentiebyjiDneppe 
bepopan  Eot)e. 

9  iEprep  jeponan  ptey  paceptihaioep  hlorep. 
he  eot)e  f  he  hip  opppunje  perre,  Sa  he  on 
Cot5ep  rempel  eobe. 

ID  Gall  pepot)  pxy  polcep  pasp  ure  3ebit)t)ent)e 
on  Jjjepeopppunjenman:- 

1 1  Da  asryptie  him  Dpihrnep  enjel  prant)ent>e 
on  pxy  peopobep  ppiSpan  healpe. 

12  Di  peapt)  Zachapiap  jetspepet)  f  S^f^' 
ont5e.  ~]  him   ere  onhpeap:- 

1 3  Da  cpa;S  pe enjel  him  ro.  Ne  onttpret)  pu 
Se  Zachapiap.  popj;am  Jjin  ben  ip  jehypet).  ■] 
j;in  pip  eiizaberh  pe:  punu  cen^.  ant)  ]ju  nempr 
hyp  naman  lohannep. 

14  ■]  he  byS  pc  ro  jepean  ■]  ro  blippe.  •] 
maneja  on  hyp  acennebneppe  jepajniaS:- 

15  SuSIice  he  byS  m.tpe  bepopan  Dpihrne. 
anb  he  ne  topincSpin  ne  beop.  •]  lie  biS  -s^epyllet) 
on  halijum  Dapre.  );onne  jyr  op  hip  motiop  in- 

1 6  Snb  maneja  Ippahela  beapna  he  jecypS  ro 
Dpihrne  iiypa  Dobc. 

6  17  Snb 

the  original  tongue;  yet  they  have  often  this  con- 
venience, that  the  fame  book,  being  tranflated  in 
different  ages,  affords  opportunity  of  marking  the 
gradations  of  change,  and  bringing  one  age  into 
comparifon  with  another.  For  this  purpofe  I  have 
placed  the  Saxon  verfion  and  that  of  Wickliffe,  writ- 
ten about  the  year  1380,  in  oppofite  columns,  be- 
caufe  the  convenience  of  eafy  collation  feems  greater 
than  that  of  regular  chronology. 

LUK,    Chap.  L 

"IN  the  dayes  of  Eroude  kyng  of  Judee  ther  was  a 
■*■  preft  Zacarye  by  name :  of  the  fort  of  Abia,  and 
his  wyf  was  of  the  doughtris  of  Aaron :  and  hir 
name  was  Elizabeth. 

2  An  bothe  weren  jufte  bifore  God  :  goynge  in 
alle  the  maundementis  and  juftifyingis  of  the  Lord 
withouten  playnt. 

3  And  thei  hadden  no  child,  for  Elizabeth  was 
bareyn  and  bothe  weren  of  greet  age  in  her  dayes. 

4  And  it  bifel  that  whanne  Zacarye  fchould  do 
the  office  of  prcfthod  in  the  ordir  of  his  courfe  to 
fore  God. 

5  Aftir  the  cuftom  of  the  prefthod,  he  wente 
forth  by  lot  and  entride  into  the  temple  to  encenfen. 

6  And  at  the  multitude  of  the  puple  was  with- 
out forth  and  preyede  in  the  our  of  encenfying. 

7  And  an  aungel  of  the  Lord  appcride  to  him: 
and  flood  on  the  right  half  of  the  auter  of  en- 

8  And  Zacarye  feynge  was  afrayed  :  and  dredc 
fcl  upon  him. 

9  And  the  aungel  fayde  to  him,  Zacarye  drede 
thou  not:  for  thy  preier  is  herd,  and  Elizabeth 
thi  wif  fchal  here  to  thee  a  fone:  and  his  name  fchal 
be  clepid  Jon. 

10  And  joye  and  gladyng  fchal  be  to  thee:  and 
manye  fchulen  have  joye  in  his  natyvyte. 

1 1  For  he  fchal  be  great  bifore  the  Lord  :  and 
he  fchal  not  drinke  wyn  ne  fydyr,  and  he  fchal  be 
fulfild  with  the  holy  goft  yit  of  his  modir  wombe. 

12  And  he  fchal  converte  manye  of  the  children 
of  Ifrael  to  her  Lord  God. 

13  And 

THE      HISTORY      OF      THE 

58  -]  hype  nehchebupaj-  •}  hyjie  cu^an  f  je- 
hyptxjn.  -p  Dpihren  hij^  nult>-heoprne)-)-e  nut) 
hype  m.TppJt)e  -j  hij  mit)  hype  blij-)roDon:- 

59  Di  <'n  bam  ehreo^an  tjsje  1115  comon  j) 
ciIt>  ant)  ncmt>on  hir.e  hij-  jrrcCep 
naman  Zachapiam:- 

60  Da  ant5ppapot>e  hi)'  mot)op.  Ne  y&  yo'Sty. 
ac  he  bib  lohanner  jenemnet):- 

61  Da  cpstx)n.hi  ro  hype.  Nijr  nan  on  j:inpe 
ma  j^e  |-yppum  naman  jenemnet):- 

6a  Da  bicnobon  hi  ro  hif  pttiep.  hysfc  he 
poIt>e  hyne  jenemneDne  beon:- 

63  pa  ppar  he5ebet)enum  pex-bpebe.  lohan- 
nejr  hiy  nama.    6a  punOpoCon  hij  ealle:- 

64  Da  peapS  fona  hiif  muS  ■]  hij"  runje  je- 
openoo.  •]  he  ]-ppasc.     Dpihren  blerpjenoe:- 

65  Di.  peap'^  eje  5epopt)en  opep  ealle  hypa 
nehchebupaj".  ant)  opep  ealle  Iut>ea  munr-lant> 
p.Epon  y^Y  poptJ  5epib;ii£eppot)e. 

66  ■]  ealle  pa  be  hir  jehyptx>n.  on  hypa  heop- 
ran  j-errun  ■]  cprebon.  penp:  Su  hpsr  byS  jjejf 
cnapa.  pirot)lice  Dpihrnej"  hant)  pasp  mit)  him:- 

67  Ant)  Zachapiap  hiy  )::ast)ep  pasp  mit>  hale- 
jum  tjapre  jepyllet).    •]  be  pirejotJe  anb  cyse.'S. 

68  Deb!erj-ut)  py  Dpihren  Ippahela  Got),  pop- 
])jm  ]:ehe  jeneopuCe.  "3  hip  polcep  alypetjneppe 

6g  Snt)  he  up  hcele  hopn  apxpbe  on  Dauit»ep 
hope  hip  cnihrep, 

70  Spa  he  pppsEC  ])uph  hip  halejpa  pirejena 
muS.  |Ja  Se  op  poplt)ep  ppym  Se  ppprecon. 

71  •]  he  alypCe  up  op  iipum  peont)um.  anb  op 
ealpa  Jjapa  hant)a  ^e  up  harebon, 

yi  COilt)-heoprneppe  ro  pypcenne  mit)  upum 
paetjepum.  ■]  Temunan  hip  halejan  cy'Sneppe. 

73  ^yne  uy  ro  pyllenne  jjone  aS  jje  he  upum 
pa;t)ep  Sbpahame  fpop. 

74  D.Er  pe  buraii  eje.  op  upe  peonDa  hant)a 
alypebe.  him  )?eopian 

75  On  halijneppe  bepopan  him  eallum  upum 
toajum:-    • 

76  SnT)  pu  cnapa  bipt:  J)acp  hehpran  pireja 
jenemneb.   J?u  jaepr  bepopan  Dpihrnep  anpyne. 

77  '1  o  pyllene  hip  poke  haele  jepic  on  hypa ' 
pynna  popTypneppe. 

78  Duph  inno^ap  upep  Eot)ep  milt)-heopr- 
neppe.  on  Jjam  he  up  jeneoputje  op  eaprbasle 

79  Onlyhran  J>am  p&  on  )yprpiim  "}  on  tieaSep 
pceabe  pirraS.  upe  per  ro  jepeccenne  on  pibbe 

80  Soolice  pe  cnapa  peox.  •;]  pasp  on  japre 
jeprpanjot).  -]  p«p  on  peprenum  00  jjone  X)x-^ 
hyp  ierypeOneppum  on  Ippahel:- 


54  And  the  neyghbouris  and  cofyns  of  hir 
herdcn  that  the  Lord  hadde  magnyfied  his  mercy 
with  hir,  and  ihci  thankiden  him. 

55  And  it  was  doon  in  the  eightithe  day  tl>ei 
camen  to  circunifide  the  child,  .nrd  thei  clepiden 
him  Zacarye  by  the  name  of  his  fad:r. 

56  And  his  modir  anfweridc  and  fcide,  nay, 
but  he  fchal  be  clepid  Jon. 

57  And  thci  fciden  to  hir,  for  no  man  is  in  tht 
kyndrede  that  is  dtpid  this  name. 

58  And  thei  bikcnydcn  to  his  fadir,  what  he 
wolde  that  he  were  clepid. 

59  And  heaxinge  a  poyntel  wroot  feyinge,  Jon 
is  his  name,  and  allc  men  wondridcn. 

60  And  annoon  his  mouth  was  openyd  and  his 
tunge,  and  he  fpak  and  blcffide  God. 

61  And  drede  was  maad  on  all  hir  neighbouris, 
and  all  the  wordis  wercn  puplifchid  on  aile  the 
mounteynes  of  Judee. 

62  And  alle  men  that  hcrden  puttiden  in  her 
herte,  and  feiden  what  manner  child  fchal  this  be, 
for  the  bond  of  the  Lord  was  with  him. 

63  And  Zacarye  his  fadir  was  fulfiUid  with  the 
holy  Goft,  and  profcciede  and  feide. 

64  Bleffid  be  the  Lord  God  of  Ifrael,  for  he  has 
vifitid  and  maad  redempcioun  of  his  puple. 

6g  And  he  has  rered  to  us  an  horn  of  helthe  in 
the  hous  of  Dauith  his  child. 

66  As  he  fpak  by  the  mouth  of  hife  holy  pro* 
phetis  that  weren  fro  the  world. 

67  Helth  fro  oure  enemyes,  and  fro  the  hond  of 
alle  men  that  hatiden  us. 

68  To  do  merfy  with  oure  fadris,  and  to  have 
mynde  of  his  holy  teftament. 

69  The  grete  ooth  that  he  fwoor  to  Abraham  our 

70  To  geve  himfelf  to  us,  that  we  without 
drede  delyvered  fro  the  hond  of  our  enemyes  ferve 
to  him, 

71  In  holynefTe  and  rightwifncfle  before  him, 
in  alle  our  dayes. 

72  And  thou  child  fchalt  be  clepid  the  profete  of 
the  highede,  for  thou  fchalt  go  before  the  face  of 
the  Lord  to  make  redy  hife  weycs. 

73  To  geve  fcicncc  of  heelth  to  his  puple  into 
remiffioun  of  her  fynncs. 

74  By  the  inwardenefs  of  the  merfy  of  oure  God, 
in  the  which  he  fpringyng  up  fro  on  high  hath 
vifued  us. 

75  To  g^v^  ^'ght  to  them  that  fitten  in  dark- 
reffis,  and  in  fchadowe  of  dceth,  to  drefTe  our  feet 
into  the  weye  of  pecsj 

76  And  the  child  wexide,  and  was  confortid  in 
fpiryt,  and  was  in  dcfert  placis  till  to  the  day  of  his  • 
fthcwing  to  Yfrael. 



Of  the  Siixoft  poetry  fome  fpecimen  is  neceflary, 
though  our  ignorance  of  the  laws  of  their  metre  and 
the  quantities  of  their  fyllables,  which  it  would  be 
very  dillicult,  perhaps  impoflible,  to  recover^  ex- 
cludes us  from  that  pleakire  which  the  old  bards 
undoubtedly  gave  to  their  contemporaries. 
■I  The  firfl:  poetry  of  the  Saxons  was  without  rhyme, 
anJ  confcqoently  muil  have  depended  upon  the 
quantity  of  their  fyllables ;  but  they  began  in  time 
to  imitate  their  neighbours,  and  clofe  their  verfes 
with  correfpondent  founds. 

The  two  paflages,  whicli  I  have  felcfted,  contain 
apparently  the  rudiments  of  our  prefent  lyrick  mea- 
fures,  and  the  writers  may  be  juftly  confidered  as 
the  genuine  anceftors  of  the  Englijh  poets. 

^e  mai  him  fojte  at)jiet)en, 

Da^r  he  Sanne  ojre  bitit)e  ne  mujen^ 

Uoji  -^  bihmpeS  dome. 

^s;  If  pi]"  f  bir  ant>  bore 

Ant)  ber  biuojien  bome. 

DeaS  com  on  Sij-  mitielajit) 

DujaS  'Sxy  Oeplej"  ont>e, 

"RnXi  j*enne  ant»  foj^e  ant)  ij'pinc. 

On  J"e  ant)  on  lont)e. 

Ic  am  eltiep.  Sanne  ic  pe|", 

A  pinrjie  ■]  ec  a  lope. 

Ic  ealtii  mope  Sanne  ic  t)et)e, 

ODi  pir  ojlire  ro  bi  mope. 
8e  ■^  hine  )-elue  uopjer, 

Uop  piue  oj:ep  uop  chilt»e. 

J)e  ]-al  comen  on  euele  jretie* 

Bure  jot)  him  bi  milt)e. 
Ne  hopie  pip  ro  hipe  Yt\ity 

Ne  pepe  ro  hip  piue. 

Bi  pop  him  pelue  eupich  man, 

Daep  pile  he  bieS  aliue. 
'  Gupich  man  mit)  j5  he  haueS, 

ClDai  bejjen  heuepiche. 

Se  Se  leppe  ~]  pe  oe  mope, 

^epe  aitiep  iliche. 

^euene  ant)  epSe  he  oueppie^, 

^ip  ejhen  biS  pulbpihr. 

Sunne  ~]  mone  ■]  alle  preppen, 

BieS  Sieprpe  on  hip  lihre. 
^e  por  hper  SencheS  ant)  hper  DoJ>, 

Alle  quike  pihre. 

Nip  no  louepT)  ppich  ip  xipr, 

Ne  no  kinj  ppich  ip  t)pihre. 
^euene  -]  epSe  -j  all  Sar  ip, 

Biloken  ip  on  hip  hont)e. 

^e  t)eS  ai  ■f  hip  pille  ip. 

On  pea  ant)  ec  on  lonCe. 
^e  ip  opt)  alburen  opt)e, 

T^nt)  ent)e  alburen  eiit)e. 

pe  one  ip  eupe  on  eche  pret)e, 

Ulent>e  pep  Su  pentJe. 

pe  ip  buuen  up  ant)  bineSen, 
Biuopen  ant)  ec  bihint). 
8e  man  •f  jotiep  pille  t)eS, 
pie  mai  hine  aihpap  uint)e. 

eche  pune  he  ihep'S, 
Snt)  por  eche  tietje. 
pe  Suph  pixS  echep  iSanc, 
lUai  hpar  pel  up  ro  ]\.€o&. 

8e  man  neupe  nele  t)on  T;ot), 
Ne  neupe  jot)  lip  let)en. 
Gp  t)eS  •]  t)om  come  ro  hip  t)upe, 
pe  mai  him  pope  at)pet)en. 

punjep  ■]  Suppr  here  •]  chele, 
GcSe  ant)  all  unhel'Se. 
£5uph  t)eS  com  on  ^ip  mit)elapt), 
Hnt)  oSep  unipelSe. 

Ne  mai  non  hepre  hir  ijjenche, 
Ne  no  runje  relle. 
pu  muchele  pinum  ant)  hu  uele, 
BieS  inne  helle. 

Louie  Dot)  mit)  upe  hiepre. 
!Snt)  mit)  all  upe  mihre. 
!Snt)  upe  emcpiprene  ppo  up  pelp, 
8po  up  lepeS  t)pihre. 

8ume  Sep  habbeS  leppe  mepjSe, 
Snt)  pume  Sep  habbeS  mope, 
ech  eprep  San  -^  he  t)et)e, 
eprep  -^  he  ppanc  pope. 

Ne  pel  Sep  bi  bpet)  ne  pin, 
Ne  oj;ep  kennep  epre. 
Dot)  one  pel  bi  echep  lip, 
Snt)  blipce  ant)  eche  pepre. 

Ne  pal  Sap  bi  pcere  ne  pcputs,      ■* 
Ne  poplfcep  pele  none. 
"Kc  pi  mepjjje  •^  men  up  bihar, 
"KW  pall  ben  jot)  one. 

Ne  mai  no  mepjj^e  bi  ppo  muchel, 
8po  ip  jotjep  ipihSe. 
pi  ip  poj)  pune  ant)  bpihr, 
Hnt»  t)ai  Dure  nihre. 

E)s:\i  ip  pele  bure  pane, 
7?nt)  pepre  buren  ippinche. 
8e  ■f  mai  ant)  nele  Set)ep  come, 
Sope  hir  pel  uopSenche, 

Dep  ip  blipce  buren  rpeje, 
"Knt)  lip  buren  t)eaSe. 
Der  eupe  pullen  punie  Sep, 
BliSe  hi  bie])  ant)  eaSe. 

Dep  ip  jeujej^e  buren  eltie, 
!Snt)  elt)e  buren  unheljje. 
Nip  Sep  popje  ne  pop  non, 
Ne  non  unipelSe. 

Dep  me  pel  t)pihren  ipen, 
8po  ape  he  ip  mit)  ipippe. 
pe  one  mai  ant)  pel  al  bien, 
Giijlep  ant)  mannep  blipce. 


*rHE      HISTORY      OF      THE 

To  ^ape  blij-ce  oj*  bpinj  30T), 
Per  pixett  buren  ence. 
Danrie  he  upe  piula  unbinr, 
Ojr  lichamlice  bent>.  - 

Cpipr  jeue  uf  lel)e  fpich  lijr, 
Snt)  habbe  j-pichiie  ent)e. 
♦)cr  pe  moren  Sit5ep  cumeii, 
Danne  pe  hennej*  pentje. 

About  the  year  1 150,  the  S.-ixoh  began  to  take  a 
form  in  which  the  beginning  of  the  prefent  Englijh 
may  be  plainly  difcovcrcd ;  this  cliange  I'eems  not  to 
have  been  the  cffcdl  of  the  Norman  conqucft,  for 
very  few  French  words  are  found  to  have  been  in- 
troduced in  the  firft  hundred  years  after  it;  the 
language  mud  therefore  have  been  altered  by  caufes 
like  thofe  which,  nottwithltanding  the  care  of  writers 
and  focieties  InQituted  to  obv'ute  them,  are  even 
now  daily  making  innovations  in  every  living  lan- 
guage. I  have  exhibited  a  fpecimen  of  the  lan- 
guage of  this  age  from  the  year  1 1 35  to  1 140 of  the 
Saxon  chronicle,  of  which  the  latter  part  was  ap- 
parcritly  written  near  the  time  to  which  it  relates. 

Dip  jsepe  pop  Jtc  kmj  8rephne  opep  pjc  ro 
Nopmant)!.  ~\  Jjcp  pep  unt^ep-pan^en.  popSi  -f 
hi  pent)en  -^  he  pciiltx  ben  alpuic  aipe  jje  com  y^Y' 
-\  pop  he  hat)t»e  jer  hip  rjiepop.  ac  he  ro  t5elt) 
ir  -]  pcarepet)  poriicc.  ODicel  hat)t>e  ^cnpi  kinj 
jatsenet)  30IT)  -j  pyluep.  ant)  na  jot?  ne  t>it)e  me 
pop  hir  paule  );ap  op.  Da  be  kmj  Srephne  ro 
enjIa-IanO  com  \>a  macot)  lie  hip  jabepinj  asr 
Oxene-popt).  1  bap  he  nam  be  bipcop  Rojep  op 
8epcp-bepi.  ■]  SlexanTsep  oipcop  op  Lincoln. 
"]  re  Hancelep  Rojep  hipe  neuep.  •]  t)it»s  lelie 
in  ppipun.  ril  hi  japen  up  hepe  caprlep.  Da  jje 
puikep  unt5ep5£eron  jJ  he  miltx  man  j^ap  •]  popre 
"3  jot).  -}  na  jupcipe  ne  t)it)e.  j^a  t)it)en  hi  alle 
punt)ep.  pi  hat)ben  him  manpet)  maket>  ant) 
a^p  puopen.  ac  hi  nan  rpeuSc  ne  heolt)en.  alle 
he  pspon  pop  ppopen.  •]  hepe  rpeoSep  pop- 
lopcn.  pop  ffupic  pice  man  hip  caprlep  makete 
antj  ajaioep  him  heolticn.  ant)  pylDen  j^e  lant)  pull 
op  caj-rU-p.  ^1  puencren  pui^c  )?e  ppccce  men 
op  I?'*  lant)  mit)  caprcl-peopcep.  j^a  ))e  caprltp 
papen  makit).  \i  j:ylt)en  hi  mit)  t)eou'ep  ant)yuele 
mtn.  Da  namen  hi  J^a  men  J7e  hi  pentitn  ^  am 
jot)  he):t)en.  ba&  be  r.ihrep  ?.nt)  be  t).Tipp.  capl- 
m  n  ■]  pimmen.  ant)  t)it);n  hcom  in  jpipun  eprep 
jolt)  ant)  pyluep.  -]  pmcb  heom  un-rellcnt5!ice 
pininj.  pop  n  p!Fpen  nasupe  nan  maprypp  ppa 
pinct)  alpi-  hi  ptcpon.  COe  henjet)  up  bi  |)c  per 
ant)  pmoket)  hcom  mit)  pul  pmoke.  me  henjet) 
"bi  j)t-  jjumbrp.  o^ep  bijie  hcpet).  -]  ■  cnjen  bpynijep 
on  hep  per.  OQe  bitie  cnorret)  prpen  ji  p  aburon 
hepe  iisuet).  -j  uupySen  ro  j5  ir  TEt)e  ro  j? 
hxpnep.  pi  t)it)cn  heom  in  quaprejxnc  pap  natipep 

•3  pnakep  ■]  pibep  pscpon  mne.  ■]  bpapen  heom 
ppj.  8umc  hi  t)it)en  in  cpucer  hup.  ■^  ip  in  an 
cepre  jJ  pap  pcopr  •]  napeu.  •]  un  t)ep.  •]  t)it>e 
pcfeppe  rranep  fiep  inne.  •]  ppenjt)e  J)e  man  \>x^ 
inne.  jJ  ni  bp^^con  alle  ^t  limep.  In  mam  op  j)e 
caprk-p  pa?pon  lop  -j  jpT.  -JJ  ps.pon  pachenrejep' 
■jj  rpa  o^ep  J)pe  men  hatiben  onoh  ro  bjepon 
onne.  -f  pap  ppa  macet)  j5  ip  pjeprnet)  ro  an 
beom.  •]  t)it)en  an  pcjepp  ipen  aburon  }pi  mannep 
l^pore  ■]  hip  halp.  -jJ  he  ne  mihre  nopit)eppapt)ep 
ne  pirren.  ne  lien,  ne  plepen.  oc  bjepon  at  jJ  ipen. 
COani  ])upen  hi  bpapen  mit)  hunja?p.  J  ne  canne. 
•]  ne  mai  rellen  alle  j)e  puntiep,  ne  alle  fe  pinep  -f 
hi  t)it)en  ppecce  men  on  hip  lant).  •]  ■;p  lapretoe  |:'a 
XIX.  pmrpe  pile  Srephne  pap  kinj.  -\  asupe  ir  pap 
uueppe  ant)  uueppe.  pi  lasit)enj^iit)ep  on  j^e 
runep  jeupeu  pile.  -]  clepetjen  ir  renpepie.  pa 
|)e  ppecce  men  ne  hat)t)en  nan  mopero  jiuen.  |ja 
p£uet)en  hi  ant)  bpent)on  alle  ]?€  runep.  -f  pel  pu 
mihrep  papen  all  aoaeip  pape  pcult)ej-r  j^u  neupe 
pint)en  man  in  rune  pirrentje.  ne  lant)  rilet).  Da 
pap  copn  baspe.  *]  plec.  ~\  ctepe.  ■]  burepe  pop 
nan  ne  pjep  o  |)e  lant).  Ujpecce  men  prupuen  op 
hunjsep.  pume  jcben  on  aelmep  pe  papen  pum 
pile  pice  men.  pum  plujen  ur  op  lantie.  lUep 
nasupe  jasr  mape  ppeccehet)  on  lant).  ne  nasupe 
he'^en  men  peppe  ne  t)it)en  pan  hi  t)it)en.  pop 
ouep  piSon  ne  pop-bapen  hi  nouSep  cipce.  ne 
cypce-ijept).  oc  nam  al  |?e  jot>  f  j^ap  inne  pap. 
~]  bpentJcn  pySen  |7e  cypce  •]  alrejst)epe.  Ne  hi 
ne  pop-bapen  bipcopep  lant).  ne  abborep.  ne 
ppeoprep.  ac  pasueben  munecep.  -3  clepckep.  ■] 
afupic  man  o^ep  |7e  ouep  myhre.  Dip  rpa  men 
oSep  jjpe  coman  piticnt)  ro  an  run.  al  jje  run- 
pcipe  piujain  pop  heom.  penben  -f  hi  prepon 
psuepcp.  De  bipcopep  -]  lepet)  meh  heom  cup- 
iftT>c  a;upe.  oc  pap  heom  nahr  j^ap  op.  pop  hi 
pa?pon  all  pop-cupj-set)  -3  pop-puopen  -3  pojiiopen. 
map  pjE  me  rilct)e.  J)e  epSe  ne  bap  nan  copn.  pop 
]je  lant)  pap  all  popbon  mit»  puilce  t)aEt)ep.  -3  hi 
pnEt)en  openlice  -f  Lpij-r  p!ep.  -3  hip  halechen.  8uilc 
•3  mape  Jeanne  pe  cunnen  pajin.  pe  ]iolent)en  xix. 
pinrpe  pop  upe  pinnep.  On  al  pip  yucle  rime 
hcolt)  ClDaprm  abbor  hip  abborpice  xx.  pinrep 
■3  halp  Jsp.  T  VIII.  t)aE'ip.  mit)  micel  puinc.  -3 
pant)  |-e  munekep.  -3  re  jej-rep  al  ■^  heom  behouet). 
•3  heolb  mycel  capireb  in  rhe  hup.  ant)  |7oS  pe- 
£epe  ppohre  on  |ie  cipce  -3  perre  j?ap  ro  lanbep  -3 
penrtp.  -3  jottt)  ir  puy^c  ant)  Isr  ir  pepen.  ant) 
bpohre  htom  inro  ]:e  neps  mynprpe  on  p.  Pcrpep 
niaype-t)a:i  mib  micel  puprpcipe.  f  pap  anno  ab 
incapnarione  Dom.  mcxl.  a  combuprione  loci 
XXIII.  Knt)  he  pop  ro  Rome  -3  ]i)^^  pa?p  pasl 
unt)ep-p.in5fn  ppam  |7e  Pape  Gujenie.  -3  bejjer 
rbape  ppiuilejiep.  an  op  alle  \>c  lanticp  op  pabbor- 
pice.  -3  an  oSep  op  ])e  lanSep  ])e  lien  ro  \>t  cipce- 
pican.   -3  jip  he  lenj  mopre  liuen.   aIpe  he  minr 



ro  T)on  op  f>e  hojibeji-pycan,     "Knt)  he  bejjcr  m  j'pac  pib  Robbejit  eojil  ^  pib  f»empejMce  anb|-pofi 

lantjer   -p  jtice   men  heptien  mit)  yvjien-^pe.    op  heom  aSaj-'iphe  neujiema  mib  rekinjhij"  bjio^eji 

U3il!elm  CDalOuir  pe  heolo  Rojinjham  |;fe  caprel  polbe  halben.   "]  ciijipbe  alle  fe  men  fe  mib  hitn 

he  pan  Eorinjham  •]  ej^run.  -^  op  pujo  op  Ulalr-  heolben.    anb  psbe  heom  -p  he  polbe  ifuen  heom 

uile  he  pan  ^f^iTlw^i).  -3  Sranepij.   •]   lx.  pof.  up  tUin-ceprji..   ■}  bibe  heom  cumen  |7ibe]i.    Da 

op  Stoepinjle  £ek  jasji.  Snti  he  maket)e  n  anie  hi  |7asp  inne  pa^jxen  |7a  com  f»e  kinjep  cuen  .^  i 

munekep.  -}  planrct5e  piniasjit).  ■]  maket>;  manie  hijie  prpenjSe  ■^  bepsc  heom,    -p  pep.  y^ey  inne 

peojikep.    -]  pent5e  |7e  run  berejie  fian  it  asp  pasp.  micel  hunjjep.    Da  hi  ne  lenj  ne  muhren  jjolen.  j^a 

anb p tp  jot)  munec •]  joT)  man.  ■]  popSi  hi  luuetien  prali  hi  ur  ~\  plu jen.    •]  hi  piipSen  pip  piSuren  "] 

Cot)  anb  TOiDe  men.     Nu  pe  pillen  psejen  pum  tjel  polecheben  heom.    anb  namtn  RotDbepr  eopi  op 

par  belamp  on   Srephne  kinjep  rime.     On  hip  DIou-ceprpe  ant)  lebben  him  ro  Roue-ceprpe.  ant> 

rime  f»e  Jut>eup  op  Nop-pic  bohron  an  Epipren  t)iben  him  j^ape  m  ppipun.  anb  re  empepice  pleh 

ciltJ  bepopen  Sprpen.  ant>  pinet)en  him  alle  pe  inro  an  mynprpe.     Da  peopt)en  Sa  pipe  men  be- 

ilce  pininT  -f  upe  Dpihrin  pap  pinet).  ant)  on  lanj-  rpyx.  pe  kinjep  ppeonb  ~]  re  eoplep  ppeonb.  ant) 

ppit)aei  him  on  potie  henjen  pop  upe  Dpihrnep  pahrlebe  pua  ■f  me  pculbe  leren  ur  pe  kinj  op 

luue.    ■]   py^sn    bypiet)en    him.     liUent)en    -f    ir  ppipun  pop  f»e  eopl.  ■]  reeopi  pop  f>e  kinj.  "]  pua 

pcutee  btn  pop  holen.  oc  upe  Dpihrin  arypet)e  bit)en.  8i^en  ^ep  eprepparhleben  f>e  kmj-]  Ran- 

•p  he  pap  hall  mapryp.  ~\  ro  munekep  him  namen.  toolp  eopi    ar   8ran-popt»    *]   aSep   ppopen  ant) 

•]  bebypiet)  him   hejiicc.  in  Se  mynprpe.  ■]    he  rpeuSep  psepron  f  hep  nou'Sep  pculbe  bepuiken 

maker  |7up  upe  Dpihrin  punt)eplice  ant)  mam-  o^ep.    -3  ir  ne  pop-prob  nahr.  pop  pe  kinj  him 

paelt)!ice  mipaciep.  ■]  harre  he  p.  Ulillelm:-  pi'Sen  nam  m  ^amrun.  J^uphe  ])icci  past).   ■]  bitjc 

On  |3ip  jafp  com  Dauit)  kinj  op  Scorlant)  mit)  him  in  ppipun.   ^  ep  ponep  he  ler  him  ur  fiuphe 

opmere  parpt)  ro  piy  lant)  polDe  pinnan  piy  lanti."  •]  pasppe  pet)ro  -p  popepaptie  -p  he  puop  on  halitiom. 

him  com  rojEeneplUillelmeoplopSlbamapljekinj  •]  jyplep  panb.   f  he  alle  hip  caprlep  pcult)e  iiuen 

at)t)eberehr  6uop-pic.   ■]  ro  oScp  a^uez  men  mit»  up.  Sume  he  lap  up  anb  pume  ne  lap  he  nohr. 

pasu  men  -]  puhren  pit)  heom.  •]  plemt)en  pe  king  a;r  anb  bibe  |janne  pjeppe  Sanne  he  hasp  pculbe.     Da 

re  prant)apt».  ■]  plojen  pG^e  micel  op  hip  jenje:-  pap  Gnjle-lanb  puioe  ro-belcb.  pume  helben  mib 

Un  f»ip  jjep  poloe  pe  kinj  Srephne  raecen  Rot)-  re  kinj.  -j  pume  mib  f  empepice.  pop  jja  j^c  king 

bepreoplop  Dlouceprpe.  jjekinjeppune^enpiep.  pap  in  ppipun.  fa  penben  pe  eoplep  "j  re  pice 

ac  he  ne  mihre  pop  he  papr  ir  pap.     Da  cprep  hi  men  -p  he  neupe   mape   pculbe   cumme  ur.     "j 

pe  lenjren  jjeprepebe  pe  punne  •]  re  tsrei  aburon  pashrleben  pyb  ]?empepice.  -j  bpohren  hipe  inro 

nonrit)  oejep.  pi  men  eren  "p  me  lihret)e  canblep  Oxen-popb.  ant)  lauen  hipe  pe  bupch:-  Da  Se  kinj 

ro  a.'ren  bi.  ~]  -p  pap  xiii.  kr.  Appil.  paspon  men  pap  ure.  J7a  hepbe  f  paejen.  anb  roc  hip  pcopb 

I'uiSe  oppuntipet).    Dejx  eprep  popt)-peopt)e  Ujil-  ■]  bepasr  hipe  in  pe  rup.  "3  me  lasr  hipe  bun  on 

elm  ^pce-bipcop  op  Eanrpap-bypij.  -j  re  king  nihr  op  pe  rup  mib  papep.  -j  pral  ur  •]  peas  pleh 

maket)e  Teobalt)  ^ffipce-bipcop,  l^epap  abbor  in  Jje  ^  isebe  on  pore  ro  lUalinj-popb.     Dasp  eprep 

Bee.    Dej\  eprep  psx  puiSe  micel  uueppe  beruyx  pes  pepbe  opep  pas.  •]  In  op  Nopmanbi  penben 

J^e  kinj  -j  Ranbolp  eopl  op  Useprpe  nohr  popSi  alle  ppa  pe  kinj  ro  pe  eopl  op  Snjasu.  pume  hepe 

•p  he  ne  jap  him  a!  -p  he  cuSe  axen  him.  alpe  he  Jjankep  -]  pume  hepe  un-j^ankep.   pop  he  bepser 

tiitx;  alle  oSpe.ocjeppe  femape  lap  heom  J?e  psppe  heom  ril  hi  aiauen  up  htpe  caprlep.    •]  hi  nan 

hi  paepon  him.     De  eopl  heolb  Lincol  ajsenep  pe  helpe  ne  haepben  op  jje  kinj.     Da  pepbe  Gupracc 

kinj.  ~]  benam  him  al  ■f  he  ahre  ro  hauen.   -j  re  |je  kinjeppuneroFpance. -jnamljekinjeppuprep 

kinj  pop  pitiep.  ■]   bcpasrre  him  -]  hip  bpoSep  op  Fpance  ro  pipe.  pent)e  ro  bijxron  Nopmant)i 

lUilielm  t)2   R . . .  ape  in  pd  caprel.  •]  re  eopl  |7.cp  Jjuph.  oc  he  ppet)t)e  lirel.  ■]  be  jotJe  pihre. 

prjel  ur  -]  p^ptie  eprep  Rotibcpr  eopl  op  Clou-  pop  he  pap  an  yucl  man.  pop  papepe  he  ... .  l)it)e 

ceprpe.  -3  bpohr   him  jjitsep   mit>   micel   pepb.  mape  yuel  Jeanne  jot),  he  peuet)e  pe  lantiep  •]  Iasit)c 

anb  puhren   ppiSe  on  Eantielmappe-t)asi  ajenep     mic pon.  hebpohre  hippiproGnjle-lant). 

hcope  lauept).   ~j   namen   him.  pop  hip  men  him     ~}  t)it)e  hipe  in  pe  capre reb.  Tot)  pimman 

puykcn  -j  plujaen.  ant)  liet)  him  ro  Bpiprope  ant)  pea?  psep.  oc  pcse  het)t)e  lirel  blippe  mit)  him.    *] 

oitJcn  flap  in  ppipun.    "]  .  . .  repep.     Da  pap  all  xpij^r  ne  polt)e  f  he  pcult)e  lanje  pixan.  -j  paspb 

Gnjlc-lant)  prypet)  map  ])an  aep  ysey.  ant)  all  yuel  t)eb  ant)  hip  moticpbelen.  -jreeoplopSnjEupjept) 

fxy  in  lant)e.     Deji  eprep  com  pe  kinjep  t)ohrep  t)et).  •]  hip  pune  ^enpi  roc  ro  pe  pice.  "Knb  re  cuen 

^enpi'p  p:  hepbe  ben  Gmpepic  on  Tvlamanie.  ■]  nu  op  Fpance  ro-t)s:lbe  ppa  pe  kinj.  "]  peas  com  ro  pe 

pasp  cunrepfe  in  T^njou.  •]  com  ro  Lunt)ene.  -j  re  lunje  eopl  ^enpi.  •]  he  roc  hipe  ro  pipe.  -3  al  Peirou 

Luntsenippce  pole  hipe  polt)e  ra;cen  •]  ycx  pleh.  T  mit»  hipe.     Da  pepbe  he  mit)   micel  pspb  inro 

poplep   pap  micel:-    Deji  eprep    be    bipcop  op  Gnjle-lanb.  ■]  pan  caprlep. -]  re  km  j  pepbe  ajencp 

Ujin  ceprpe  ^enpi.  pe  kmjcp  bpg^cp  Srephnep.  him  micel  mapepepS.  Tfo^pjEfepepurcnhinohr. 

Vol.  I.  c                                                         oc 

THE      HISTORY      OF     THE 

oc  |-cpbcn  Jtc  ^pce  biprop  -j  re  ]>\ye  men  be- 
rpux  hcom.  •]  makcbc  jJ  pahrcfrc  kinj  pculbe 
btii  laui  j\b  •}  kinj  pile  he  liutbe.  •]  aprep  hij-  bsi 
p;)pe  ^i  npi  kin  J.  •}  he  helbe  him  poji  pabeji  ■]  he 
nim  poji  pune.  ant>  pib  -]  psehre  pcultJe  ben  bcrpyx 
hconi  -]  on  al  Gnjlc  lanO.  i5ip  ant)  re  oSpe 
jrojimiapbrp  Jjtr  hi  makcben  poojien  ro  halbcn 
pc  kinj  •}  re  eojl'.  ant)  re  bipcop.  •]  re  eojilrp. 
-J  picciren  alle.  Da  pap  pe  eopl  untjejxpanjcn 
^r  lUin  ceprjie  ar.b  ser  L.unbene  mib  miccl 
pujirpcipe.  anb  alle  t)iT)en  him  man-pcb.  ant) 
puoptrn  pe  paip  ro  halt>en.  ant)  hir  papb  pone 

giSc  job  paip  pua  -p  ncujie  pap  hejie.  Da  pap 
ki('5  prjvtrnjcjie  Jjanne  he  seuejar  hep  pap.  •]  re 
f  opt  pepbe  oucp  pas.  •]  al  pole  him  luuebe.  pop  he 
XnX)c  got)  jupripe  -j  maktt)e  paip:- 

Nearly  about  this  time,  the  following  pieces  of 
poetry  fecm  to  have  been  written,  of  which  1  have 
inferted  only  (hort  fragments ;  the  firft  is  a  rude 
attempt  at  the  prefent  meafure  of  eight  fyllables, 
and  the  fccond  is  a  natural  introduftion  to  Robert 
of  Gloucejier,  being  compofed  in  the  fame  meafure, 
which,  however  rude  and  barbarous  it  may  feem, 
taught  the  way  to  the  AUxandrines  of  the  French 

■p*  U  R  in  fee  bi  wefr  fpaynge. 

•*•     If  a  lont)  ihorc  cokaygne. 

Dcr  nif  lont)  unt)er  heuennchc. 

Of  wel  of  gotJnif  hir  iliche. 

Doy  paraDif  be  miri  anD  briyr. 

Eokaygn  if  of  fairir  fiyr. 

Whar  if  fer  in  parat)if. 

Bor  graffe  ant)  flure  anD  grenerif. 

Doy  Jjer  be  loi  ant)  grcr  t)urc. 

Der  nif  mer  bore  frurc. 

Dcr  nif  halle  bure  no  bench. 

Bor  wanr  man  if  furfro  quench. 

Beb  per  no  men  bur  rwo. 

^ely  ant)  cnok  alfo. 

Oinghch  may  hi  go. 

Whar  |?er  woni|)  men  no  mo. 

In  cokaygne  if  mer  ant)  t)rink. 

Wi])ure  care  how  ant)  fwink. 

De  mtr  if  rrie  |)e  brink  fo  clere: 

To  none  ruflin  ant)  fopper.  ' 

I  figge  for  fo|)  boure  were. 

Der  nif  lont)  on  er|?e  if  pere. 

Unt)cr  hcuen  nif  lont)  i  wifle. 

Of  fo  mochil  loi  ant)  blifle. 

Dcr  if  mam  fwerc  fiyre. 

Al  if  l)ai  nif  ))er  no  niyre. 

Der  nif  barer  no)'er  frrif. 

Nif  ptr  no  t>ej7  ac  eucr  lif. 

Dcr  nif  lac  of  mer  no  clojr. 

Der  nif  no  man  no  woman  wrolr. 

Der  nif  ferpenr  wolf  no  fox. 
^orf  no  capil.  kowe  no  ox. 
Dcr  nif  fchepe  no  fwine  no  gore. 
No  non  horwyla  got)  ir  wore. 
Noficr  harare  nober  frot)'*. 
De  lant)  if  ful  of  o])er  got>e. 
Nif  f^er  flei  fie  no  lowfc. 
In  clo|)  in  roune  bet)  no  houfe. 
Der  nif  tounnir  flere  no  hawje. 
No  non  vile  worme  no  fnawile. 
No  non  frorm  rem  no  wint>e. 
Der  nif  man  no  woman  blint)e. 
Ok  al  if  game  loi  anr  gle. 
Wel  if  him  pax:  J7er  mai  be. 
Der  be))  riverf  grer  ant)  fine. 
Of  oile  mclk  honi  ant)  wine. 
Wanr  feruij)  jjer  ro  nojjing. 
Bor  ro  fiyr  ant)  ro  waufling. 


r^  LD  E  anr  yonge  i  preir  ou  oure  folief  for  ro 

^^  iere. 

Dencher  on  gob  ])ar  yef  ou  wir  oure  funnef  ro 

^ere  mai  reilen  ou.  wit)  wort)ef  feire  ant)  fwere. 
De  vie  of  one  meitian.  waf  horen  COaregrere. 

;^ire  fat)er  waf  a  parriac.  af  ic  ou  reilen  may. 
In  aunrioge  wif  echef  i  Se  fajic  lay. 
Deve  gotJcf  anr  t)oumbe.  he  fervet)  nitt  anr  t)ay. 
So  t)et)en  mony  ojpere.  picc  finger  weilawey. 
Theot)ofius  wafif  nome.  on  crift  Ae  levet>e  he 

pe  levet)e  on  pt  falfe  got)ef.  Sar  peren  wit)  hontoen 

Do  jjar  chilt)  fcult^e  chnftine  ben.  ic  com  him  well 

in  |?outt. 
€  bet)  wen  ir  were  ibore.  ro  t)tpt  ir  were  ibpoutt. 
De  mot)er  waf  an  hejjene  wif  pax  hire  ro  wyman 

Do  ^ar  chilD  ibore  waf.  nolt)e  ho  hir  furfare. 
^o  rent)e  ir  inro  afye.  wib  meflagerf  ful  yare. 
To  a  nopice  far  hire  wifte.  anr  ferre  hire  ro 

De  nonce  |)ar  hire  wifte.  chilt)ren  aheuet)e  feuene. 
De  eitte|)e  waf  maregrere.  crifref  may  of  heuene. 
Talef  ho  am  rolt»e.  ful  feire  anr  ful  euene. 
Wou  ho  ])olct)en  marrirt)om.  fern  Laurence  anr 

feinre  Sreuene. 

In  thefe  fragments,  the  adulteration  of  the  Saxon 
tongue,  by  a  mixture  of  the  Norman^  becomes 
apparent ;  yet  it  is  not  lb  much  changed  by  the 
admixture  of  new  words,  which  might  be  imputed 
to  commerce  with  the  continent,  as  by  changes 
of  its  own  forms  and  terminations  \  for  which  no 
reafon  can  be  given. 



Hitherto  the  language  ufed  in  this  illand,  how- 
ever different  in  fucccffive  time,  may  be  called 
Saxon;  nor  can  it  be  expeded,  from  the  nature  of 
things  oradually  changing,  that  any  time  can  be 
afiigned,  when  the  Saxon  may  be  faid  to  ceafe,  and 
the  Englilh  to  commence.  Rokrt  of  Gloucejltr 
however,  who  is  placed  by  the  criticks  in  the  thir- 
teenth century,  fecms  to  have  ufed  a  kind  of  in- 
termediate diction,  neither  Saxon  nor  Englijh ;  in 
his  work  therefore  we  fee  the  tranfition  exhibited, 
and,  as  he  is  the  firft  of  our  writers  in  rhyme,  of 
whom  any  large  work  remains,  a  more  cxtenfive 
quotation  is  extraded.  He  writes  apparently  in  the 
fame  mcafure  with  the  foregoing  authour  of  St. 
Margarite,  which,  polifhrd  into  greater  exadnefs, 
appeared  to  our  anceftors  fo  fuitable  to  the  genius 
of  the  Englijh  language,  that  it  was  continued 
in  ufe  almoft  to  the  middle  of  the  feventeenth 

/^F  fe  batayles  of  Denemarch,  J^at  hii  dude  in 

^-^  \ys  londe 

J>at  worft  were  of  alle  ojjere,  we  mote  abbe  an 

Worft  hii  were,  vor  ojrere  adde  fomwanne  ydo, 
As  Romeyns   &   baxons,  &  wel  wufte   J^at  lond 

Ac  hii  nc  kept  yt  holde  nojt,  bote  robby,  and 

And  deftrue,  &  bernc,  &  fle,  &  ne  coujje  abbe  non 

And  bote  lute  yt  nas  wor]?,  |?ey  hii  were  ouercome 

Vor  myd  flypes  and  gret  poer  as  preft  effone  hii 

Kyng  Adelwolf  of  ]py%  lond  kyng  was  tuenty  jer. 
|7e  Deneys  hym  ryuor  |7an  hii  dude  cr. 
Vor  in  ^e  al  our  vorft  jer  of  ys  kynedom 
Myd  j^re  &  frytty  flypuol  men  her  prince  hyder 

And  at  Sou]?hamtone  aryuede,  an  hauene  by  SouJ^e. 
Anojjer  gret  oft  jjulke  tyme  aryuede  at  Portef- 

}jc  kyng  nufte  wejjer  kepe,  at  delde  ys  oft  atuo. 
J7e  Denes  adde  j^e  mayftrc.  \o  al  was  ydo. 
And  by  Eftangle  and  Lyndcfeye  hii  wende  vorb  atte 

And  fo  hamward  al  by  Kent,  &  (lowe  &  barnde 

Ajen  wynter  hii  wende  hem.  anojjer  jer  eft  hii 

And  deftrude  Kent  al  out,  and  L.ondone  nome. 
jjus  al  an  ten  jer  J?at  lond  hii  brojte  j^er  doune, 
*So  fiat  in  \ic  te|je  jer  of  |)e  kynge's  croune, 
Al  byfou|3e  hii  come  alond,  and  f'et  folc  of  Somer- 

foru  J?e  byflbp  Alcfton  and  j^et  folc  of  Dorfete 

Hii  come  &  fmytc  an  batayle,  &  Jjere,  Jf>oru  Code's 

fe  Deneys  were  al  bynej^e,  &  J^e  lond  folc  adde  J^e 

And  more  prowelTe  dude  ]jo,  fan  J>e  kyng  my^te 

jjeruore  gode  lond  men  ne  be]?  nojt  al  verlore. 
\>c  kyng  was  |?e  boldore  ]?o,  &  ajen  hem  fe  more 

And  ys  foure  godes  fones  woxe  vafte  y  nou, 
Edclbold  and  Adelbryjt,  Edelred  and  Alfred, 
jpys  was  a  ftalwarde  tern,  &  of  gret  wyfdom  &  red. 
And  kynges  were  al  foure,  &  defendede  wel  Jjys 

An  Deneys  dude  flame  ynou,  J^at  me  volwel  vond. 
Is  fyxte)7e  jere  of  j^e  kynge's  kynedom 
In  eldeftc  lone  Adelbold  gret  oft  to  hym  nome. 
And  ys  fader  alfo  god,  and  ofiere  heye  nfen  al  fo. 
And  wende  ajenj^ys  Deneys,  j^a't  muche  wo  adde 

y  do. 
Vor  myd  tuo  hondred  flypes  8c  an  alf  at  Temfe 

mou]j  hii  come. 
And  Londone,   and  Kancerbury,  and  ojjer  tounes 

And  fo  vor|)  in  to  Soj^ereye,  &  floweSc  barnde  vafte, 
fere  fe  kyng  and  ys  fone  hem  mette  atte  lafte. 
fere  was  batayle  ftrong  ynou  yfmyte  in  an  frowe. 
f e  godes  kynjtes  leye  adoun  as  gras,  wan  medef 

Heueden,  (fat  were  of  yfmyte,)  &  oferlymes  alfo, 
Flete  in  blode  al  fram  fe  grounde,  ar  f e  batayle  were 

Wannef  at  blod  ftod  al  abrod,  vas  fer  gret  wo  y  nou. 
Nys  yt  reufe  vorto  hure,  fat  me  fo  vole  flou  ? 
Ac  our  fuete  Louerd  atte  lafte  fl'ewede  ys  fuete  grace. 
And  fende  fe  Criftyne  Englyfl^e  men  f e  mayftrye  in 

fe  place. 
And  fe  hefcne  men  of  Denemarch  bynefe  were 

Nou  nas  fer  jut  in  Denemarch  Criftendom  non  ; 
fe  kyng  her  after  to  holy  chyrche  ys  herte  fe  morfe 

And  tefejede  wel  &  al  ys  lond,  as  hii  ajte,  we!  y 

Seyn  Swythyn  at  Wyncheftre  byflTop  fo  was, 
And  Alcfton  at  Syrebourne,  fat  amendede  muche 

fys  cas. 
f  e  kyng  was  wel  f  e  betere  man  f  oru  her  beyre  red, 
Tuenty  wynter  he  was  kyng,  ar  he  were  ded. 
At  Wyncheftre  he  was  ybured,   as  he  jut  lyf  fere. 
Hys  tueye  fores  he  jef  ys  lond,  as  he  byjct  ham  ere, 
Adelbold,  the  eldore,  fe  kynedom  of  Kftfex, 
And  fuffe  Adelbryjc,  Kent  and  Wcftfex. 
Eyjtc  hondred  jer  yt  was  and  feuene  and  fyfty  al  fo. 
After  fat  God  anerfe  com,  fat  fys  dcde  was  ydo. 
Bofe  hii  wufte  by  her  tyme  wel  her  kynedom. 
At  f e  vyfte  jer  Adelbold  out  of  fys  lyue  nome. 


THE      HISTORY      OF    THE 

At  Sfyrcbourne  he  was  ybured,  &  ys  broker  Adel- 

His  kynedotn  adde  after  hym,  as  lawe  was  and  ryjt. 
By  ys  daye  pe  verde  com  of  )je  hej^ene  men  wel  prout. 
And  Hamteflyrc  and  deftrude  Wyncheftre  al  out. 
And  |jat  lond  folc  of  namteflTyre  her  red  ]jo  nome 
And  of  Barcflyre,  and  fojte  and  pc  ffrewen  ouer- 

AdelbryTC  was  kyng  of  Kent  jeres  folle  tene. 
And  of  Wcftfex  bote  vyue,  fo  he  dcyde  ych  wenc. 

A  DEL  RED  was  after  hym  kyng  y  mad  in  J?e 
**•  place, 

Eyjtehondred&feuene&fyxty  as  in|jejerof  grace. 
pc  vorfte  jer  oi  ys  kynedonf  J^e  Deneys  pycke  com. 
And  robbedc  and  deftrude,  and  cytes  vafte  nome. 
Mayftrcs  hii  addeof  her  oft,  as  yt  were  dukes,  tueye, 
Hynguar  and  Hubba,  J^at  flrewen  were  beye. 
In  Eft  Angle  hii  byleuede,  to  reft  hem  as  yt  were, 
Myd  her  oft  al  pe  wynter,  of  pe  vorft  jerc. 
feojjerjerhiidudehemvor]?,  &ouerHombercomc, 
And  flowe  to  grounde  &  barnde,  &Euerwyk  nome. 
fer  was  batayle  ftrong  y  nou,  vor  yflawe  was  )jere 
Ofryc  kyng  of  Hombcrlond,  &  monye  jjat  with  hym 

|?o  Homberlond  was  j?us  yflcnd,  hii  wende  &  tounes 

So  Jjat  atte  lafte  to  Eftangle  ajen  hym  come, 
^cr  hii  barnde  &  robbcde,  and  j^at  folc  to  grqunde 

And,  as  wolues  among  ffep,  reulych  hem  to  drowe. 
Seynt  Edmond  was  )70  her  kyng,  &  jjo  he  fey  Jjac 

deluol  cas  r 

fat  me  morjjrede  fo  jjat  folc,  &  non  amendemcntnas. 
He  ches  leuere  to  deye  hymfulf,  Jjat  fuch  forwe  to 

He  dude  hym  vorjj  among  hys  fon,  nolde  he  no)?yg 

Hii  nome  hym  &  fcourged  hym,  &  fujjjje  naked 

hym  bounde 
To  a  tre,   &  to  hym  flbte,   &  made  hym  mony  a 

fat  J?e  arewe  were  on  hym  jjo  fycce,   f>at  no  ftede 

nas  byleuede. 
Atte  lafte  hii  martred  hym,  and  fmyteof  ys  heued. 
pc  fyxte  3;cr  of  pe  crounement  of  Alderecl  be  kyng 
A  nywe  oft  com  into  fys  lond,  gret)7oru  allc  fyng. 
And  anon  to  Redynge  robbedc  and  flowe. 
be  king  and  Alfred  ys  broker  nome  men  ynowe, 
Mette  hem,  and  a  batayle  fmyte  vp  Aftefdoune, 
fer  was  mony  moder  chyld,  fatfonelay  jjerdoune. 
be  batayle  ylalte  vorte  nyi^t,  and  fer  were  aflawe 
Vyf  dukes  of  Dcnemarch,  ar  hii  wolde  wyf  drawe. 
And  mony  foufend  of  ofer  men,  &  fo  gonne  hii 

to  fle; 
Ac  hii  adde  alle  ybc  affcnd,  gyf  fe  nyjt  madde  y  be. 

Tueye  batayles  her  after  in  pc  fuif  jere 

Hii  fmyte,  and  at  boj^e  fe  hefene  mayftres  were." 

pc  kyng  Aldered  fone  )jo  fen  wey  of  def  nome. 

As  yt  vel,  pe  vyfty  jer  of  ys  kynedom. 

At  Wymbourne  he  was  ybured,  as  God  jef  fat  cas, 

fc  gode  Alfred,  ys  brof er,  after  hym  kyng  was. 

A  LFRED,  fys  noble  man,  as  in  f  e  jer  of  grace 
■^  he  nom 

Eyjte.hondred  &  fyxty  &  tuelue  fe  kynedom. 
Arft  he  adde  at  Rome  ybe,  &,  vor  ys  grete  wyfdom, 
fe  pope  Leon  hym  bleflfede,  fo  he  f uder  com. 
And  f e  kynge's  croune  of  hys  lond,  fat  in  fys  lond 

Tut  ys: 
And  he  led  hym  to  be  kyng,  ar  he  kyng  were  ywys. 
An  he  was  kyng  of  Engelond,  of  alle  fat  fer  come, 
fat  vorft  f us  ylad  was  of  f e  pope  of  Rome, 
An  fuffe  ofer  after  hym  of  fe  erchebyflbpes  echon. 
So  fat  hyuor  hym  pore  kyng  nas  fer  non. 
In  f  e  Souf  fyde  of  Temefe  nyne  batayles  he  nome 
Ajen  fe  Deneys  fe  vorft  jer  of  ys  kynedom. 
Nye  Ter  he  was  f  us  in  fys  lond  in  batayle  &  in  wo. 
An  oTte  fypt  aboue  was,  and  bynef e  oftor  mo ; 
So  longe,  fat  hym  nere  by  leuede  bote  f re  flTyren  in 

ys  hond, 
Hamteflfyre,  and  WylteflTyre,  and  Somerfete,  of  al 

ys  lond. 
A  day  as  he  wery  was,  and  afuoddrynge  hym  nome 
And  ys  men  were  ywend  auyflfef ,  Seyn  Cutbert  to 

hym  com. 
"  Icham,"  hcfeyde,  "-Cutbert,  to  fe  ycham  ywend 
"  To  brynge  f  e  gode  tytynges.   Fram  God  ychani 

"  Vor  fat  folc  of  fys  lond  to  fynne  her  wylle  al 

"  And  jut  nolle  herto  her  fynnes  byieue 
"  foru  me  &  ofer  halewen,  fat  in  fys  lond  were 

ybore ; 
"  fan  vor  jou  byddef  God,  wanne  we  bef  hym 

"  Hour  Louerd  myd  ys  cyen  of  milce  on  fe  lokef 

"  Andfy  poer  fe  wole  jyue  ajen,  fat  fou  aft  ney 

"  And  fat  fou   fer  of  fof  yfe,   fou  fl*alt  abbe 

"  Vor  fym  men,  fat  bef  ago  to  day  auyflynge, 
"  In  lepes  &  in  coufles  fo  muche  vyls  hii  ifolde 

hym  brynge, 
"  fat  ech  man  wondry  flfal  of  fo  grec  cacchynge. 
*'  And  fe  mor  vor  fe  harde  vorfte,  fat  fe  water 

yfrore  hys, 
*'  fat  be  more  ajen  fe  kunde  of  vyflTynge  yt  ys. 
"  Of  ferueyt  welajenGod,  andylefmeys  mefl"3ger, 
*'  And  fou  flail  fy  wylle  abyde,  as  ycham  ytold 





As  |?ys  kyng  herof  awoc,  and  of  |?ys  fyjte  jjojte, 
Hys  vyflTares  come  to  hym,  &  io  gret  won  of  fyfs 

hym  brojte^ 
pit  wonder  yt  was,  &  namelyche  vor  pe  weder  was 

fo  colde. 
j-o  lyuede  J3e  god  man  wel,  pn  Seyn  Cutbert  adde 

In  Deuenyfiyre  |5er  after  aryiiede  of  Deneys 
bre  and  tuenty  ffypuol  men,  all  ajen  pe  peys, 
be  kynge's  brojjer  of  Denemarcli  tiuc  of  oft  was. 
Oure  kynge's  men  of  Engelond  mette  hem  by  cas, 
And  fmyte  j^er  an  batayle,  and  her  gret  due  flowe. 
And  ey  jte  hondred  &  fourty  men,  &  her  caronyes 

to  drowe. 
po  kyng  Alfred  hurde  j;ys,  ys  herte  gladede  )jo, 
f>at  lond  folc  to  hym  come  fo  j^ycke  fo  yt  myjte  go, 
Of  Somerfcte,  of  Wyltefiyre,  of  Hamteffyre  jjcrio, 
Euere  as  he  wende,  and  of  ys  owe  folc  ai  fo. 
So  jjat  he  adde  poer  ynou,  and  atte  lafte  hii  come. 
And  a  batayle  at  Edendone  ajen  pe  Deneys  nome. 
And  flowe  to  grounde,  &  wonne  pe  mayftre  of  the 

pe  kyng  &  ys  grete  duke  bygonne  hem  to  jeldc 
To  pe  kyng  Alfred  to  ys  wylle,  and  oftages  toke, 
Vorto  wende  out  of  ys  lond,  jyf  he  yt  wolde  loke  ; 
And  jut  ]?erto,  vor  ys  loue,  to  auonge  Criftendom. 
Kyng  Gurmund,  pe  hexte  kyng,  vorft  jjer  to  come. 
Kyng  Alfred  ys  godfader  was.  &  ybaptyfcd  ek  |7er 

fretty  of  her  hexte  dukes,  and  muchc  of  j^at  folc  fiere 
Kyng  Alfred  hem  huld  wyf>  hym  tuelf  dawes  as  he 

And  fuj)]7e  he  jef  hem  large  jyftcs,  and  let  hym 

Hii,  )7at  nolde  Criftyn  be,  of  lande  flcve  {jo. 
And  byjonde  fte  in  France  dude  wel  muche  wo. 
jut  |7e  (Irewen  come  ajcn,  and  muche  wo  here  wrojte. 
i\c|jekyng  Alfred  atte  iafteto  flame  hem  euere  brojte. 
Kyng  Alfred  was  pt  wyfofl:  kynj,  ]7at  long  was 

Vor  l^ey  mefegge  Jjelawes  be)?  in  worre  tyme  vorlore, 
Nas  yt  nojt  fo  hiis  daye.  vor  |7ey  he  in  worre  were, 
Lawes  he  made  ryjtuoUore,  and  ftirengore  ]?an  er 

Clerc  he  was  god  ynou,  and  jut,  as  me  tellej?  me. 
He  was  more-  j^an  ten  jer  old,  ar  he  couj^e  ys  abece. 
Ac  ys  gode  moder  otte  fmale  jyftes  hym  tok, 
Vor  to  byleue  ojjer  pie,  arKi  loky  on  ys  boke. 
So  j:iat  by  por  clergyc  ys  rvjt  lawes  he  wonde, 
pu  ncuere  er  nere  y  mad,  to  gouerny  ys  lond. 
And  vor  pc  worre  was  fo  muche  of  J^e  lu|7er Deneys, 
pe  men  of  J?ys  fulue  lond  were  of  j^c  worfe  peys. 
And  robbedc  and  flowe  oj^ere,  jjeruor  he  byuondc, 
[;at  Jjer  were  hondredcs  in  eche  contreye  of  ys  lond. 
And  in  ech  toune  of  pe  hondred  a  te^^ynge  were  alfo, 
And  J)at  ech  man  wvjioute  gret  lond  in  tej'ynge  were 

Vol.  1. 

And  jjat  ech  man  knewe  o|»er  J^at  in  te|5ynge  were. 
And  wufte  fomdei  of  her  flat,  jyf  me  pa  vp  hem  here. 
So  ftreyt  he  was,  j^at  ptf  me  ledde  amydde  weyes 

Seluer,  jjat  non  man  ne  dorfte  yt  nyme,  |7ey  he  yt 

Abbeys  he  rcrde  mony  on,  and  mony  fliudes  ywys. 
Ac  Wyncheftrye  he  rerde  on,  jjat  nywe  munftre 

ycluped  ys. 
Elys  lyf  eyTte  and  tuenty  jer  in  ys  kynedom  ylafl;e. 
After  ys  dep  he  wos  yburcd  at  Wynciftcllre  atte  lafte. 

Sir  John  Maudeville  wrote,  as  he  himfelf  informs 
us,  in  the  fourteenth  century,  and  his  work,  which 
comprifing  a  relation  of  many  different  particulars, 
confequcntly  required  the  ufe  of  many  words  and 
phrafes,  may  be  properly  fpecified  in  this  place. 
Of  the  following  quotations,  I  have  chofen  the  firft, 
bccaufc  it  fliows,  in  fome  meafure,  the  ftate  of  Eu- 
ropean fcience  as  well  as  of  the  Engli/h  tongue ;  and 
the  fecond,  becaufe  it  is  valuable  for  the  force  of 
thought  and  beauty  of  exprefllon. 

TN  that  lond,  ne  in  many  othere  bezonde  that, 
•^  no  man  may  fee  the  fterre  tranfmontanc,  that 
is  clept  the  fterre  of  the  fee,  that  is  unmevable, 
and  that  is  toward  the  Northe,  that  we  clepen 
the  lode  fterre.  But  men  feen  another  fterre,  the 
contraric  to  him,  that  is  toward  the  Southe,  that 
is  clept  Antartyk.  And  right  as  the  fchip  men 
taken  here  avys  here,  and  governe  hem  be  the  lode 
fterre,  right  fo  don  fchip  men  bezonde  the  parties, 
be  the  fterre  of  the  Southe,  the  which  fterre  ap- 
percthc  not  to  us.  And  this  fterre,  that  is  toward 
the  Northe,  that  wee  clepen  the  lode  fterre,  ne 
apperethe  not  to  hem.  For  whiche  caufe,  men  may 
wel  pcrceyve,  that  the  lond  and  the  fee  ben  of 
rownde  fchapp  and  forme.  For  the  partie  of  the 
firmament  fchewethe  in  o  contrce,  that  fchewethc 
not  in  another  contrce.  And  men  may  well  preven 
be  experience  and  foty le  compaflTement  of  wy tt,  that 
zif  a  man  fond  paflTages  be  fchippes,  that  wolde  go 
to  ferchen  the  world,  men  myghte  go  be  fchippc 
alie  aboutc  the  world,  and  aboven  and  benethen. 
The  v/hiche  thing  I  prove  thus,  aftre  that  I  have 
fcyn.  For  I  have  been  toward  the  parries  of  Bra- 
ban,  and  beholden  the  Aftrolabre,  that  the  fterre 
that  is  clept  the  rranfmontayne,  is  53  degrees  highc. 
And  more  forthcre  in  Almayne  and  Bewme,  it 
hathe  58  degrees.  And  more  forthe  toward  the 
parties  feptemtrioneles,  it  is  62  degrees  of  hcghte, 
and  certvn  mynutes.  For  I  my  lelf  have  mefured 
it  by  the  Aftrolabre.  No*/  fchulle.ze  knowe,  that 
azen  the  Tranfmontayne,  is  the  tother  fterre,  that 
is  clept  Antartyke-,  as  I  have  feyd  before.  And 
tho  2  fterres  ne  mecven  neverc.  And  be  hem 
f  turnechs 

THE      HISTORY      OF      THE 

tiirnethe  alle  the  firmamcnr,  righte  as  dothe  a  wheel, 
that  turneche  be  his  axille  tree:  fo  that  tho  fterres 
bercn  the  firmament  in  2  egallc  parties;   fo  that  it 
hathe  als  mochel  aboven,  as  it  hath  benethcn.  Aftre 
this,  I  have  gon  toward  the  parties  meridionales, 
that  is  toward  the  Southe  :    and  I  have  founden, 
that  in  Lybye,  men  fccn  firft  the  fterre  Antartylc. 
And  lb  ter  I  have  gon  more  in  tho  contrees,  that  I 
have  f'ounde  that  tterrc  more  highe  ;    fo  that  to- 
ward the  highe  Lybye,  it  is  18  degrees  of  hcghte, 
and  certeyn  rrtinutcs  (of  the  whiche,  60  minutes 
maken  a  degree)  after  goynge  be  fee  and  be  londe, 
toward  this  contree,'of  that  1  have  fpoke,  and  to 
other  yles  and  londes  bezonde  that  contree,  I  have 
founden    the    fterre   Antartyk  of   33   degrees   of 
heghte,  and  mo  mynutes.     And  zif  1  hadde  had 
companye  and  fchippynge,  for  to  go  more  bezonde, 
1  trowe  wcl  in  certyn,  that  wee  fcholde  have  feen 
alle  the  roundnefle  of  the  firmament  alle  aboute. 
For  as  I  have  fcyd  zou  be  forn,  the  half  of  the 
firmament  is  betwene  tho  2  fterres :  the  whiche 
Kalfondellc  I  have  feyn.    And  of  the  other  halfon- 
delle,  I  have  feyn  toward  the  Northe,  undre  the 
Tranfmontane  62  degrees  and  10  mynutes ;    and 
toward  the  partie  meridionalle,  I  have  feen  undre 
the  Antartyk  3^  degrees  and  16  mynutes  :    and 
thanne  the  halfondelle  of  the  firmament  in  alle,  ne 
holdcthe  not  but  180  degrees.     And  of  tho  180,  I 
have  feen  62  on  that  o  part,  and  33  on  that  other 
part,  that  ben  95  degrees,  and  nyghe  the  halfondelle 
of  a  degree  •,    and  fo  there  ne  faylethe  but  that  I 
have  feen  alle  the  firmament,  faf  84  degrees  and 
the  halfondelle  of  a  degree ;   and  that  is  not  the 
fourthe  p.)rt  of  the  firmament.    For  the  4  partie  of 
the  roundnefle  of  the  firmament  hole  90  degrees  : 
fo  there  faylethe  but  5  degrees  and  an  half,  of  the 
fourthe  partie.     And  alfo  I  have  feen  the  3  parties 
of  alle  the  roundntfle  of  the  firmament,  and  more 
zit  5  degrees  and  an  half.     Be  the  whiche  I  feye 
zou  certrynly,  that  men    may  envirowne  alle  the 
erthe  of  alie  the  world,  as  wel  undre  as  aboven, 
and  turnen  azen  to  his  contree,  that  hadde  com- 
panye and  fchippynge  and  conduyt:  and  alle  wcyes 
he  fcholde  fynde  men,  londes,  and  yles,  als  wel  as 
in  this  contree.     For  zee  wyten  wclle,  that  ihei 
that  ben  toward  the  Antartyk,  thei  ben  ftreghte, 
feet  azen  feet  of  hem,  that  dweilen  undre  the  Tranf- 
montane j  als  wel   as  wee  and   thei  that  dwellyn 
undre  us,  ben  feet  azenft  feet.  For  alle  the  parties 
of  fee  and  of  lond  han  here  appofiiees,  habirablcs 
or  trepiflfiblcs,  and  thei  of  this  half  and  bezond 
half.     And  wytethe  wel,   that  afire  that,  that  I 
may   parccyve   and   comprehendt-,   the  londes   of 
Preftre  John,  cmperour  of  Yndc  ben  undre  us. 
For  in  goynge  from  Scotlonu  or  from  Hnglond  to- 
ward Jc-rufalem,  men   gon   upward  alwcys.     For 
oure  lond  is  in  th«-  lowe  partie  of  the  crihe,  toward 

the  Weft:  and  the  lond  of  Preftre  John  is  the  lov/e 
partie  of  the  erthe,  toward  the  Eft  :  and  thei  harj 
there  the  day,  whan  wee  have  the  nyghte,  and  alfo 
highe  to  the  contrarie,  thei  han  the  nyghte,  whan 
wee  han  the  day.  For  the  erthe  and  the  fee  ben  of 
round  forme  and  fchapp,  as  I  have  feyd  beforn. 
And  than  that  men  gon  upward  to  o  coft,  men  goa 
dounward  to  another  coft.  Alfo  zee  have  herd  me 
feye,  that  Jerufalcm  is  in  the  myddes  of  the  world; 
and  that  may  men  preven  and  Ichewen  there,  be  a 
fpere,  that  is  pighte  in  to  the  erthe,  upon  the  hour 
of  mydday,  whan  it  is  equenoxium,  that  i'chewcche 
no  fchadwe  on  no  fyde.  And  that  it  fcholde  bea 
in  the  myddes  of  the  world,  David  wytnefTethe  it 
in  the  Pfautre,  where  he  feythe,  Deus  operatus  eft 
falute  in  medio  terre.  Thanne'thci  that  parten  fro 
the  parties  of  the  Weft,  for  to  go  toward  Jcrufa- 
lem,  als  many  iorneyes  as  thei  gon  upward  for  ta 
go  thidre,  in  als  many  iorneyes  may.  thei  gon  fra 
Jerufalem,  unto  other  confynyes  of  thefuperficialtie 
of  the  erthe  bezonde.  And  whan  men  gon  bezonde 
tho  iourneycs,  towarde  Ynde  and  to  the  foreyn  yies, 
alle  is  envyronynge  the  roundnefle  of  the  erthe  and 
of  the  fee,  undre  oure  contrees  on  this  half.  And 
therfore  hathe  it  befallen  many  tymes  of  o  thing, 
that  I  have  herd  cownted,  whan  I  was  zong  ;  how 
a  worthi  man  departed  fometyme  from  oure  con- 
trees,  for  togoferche  the  world.  And  fo  he  pafted 
Ynde,  and  the  yles  bezonde  Ynde,  where  ben  mo 
than  5000  yles :  and  fo  longe  he  wente  be  fee  and 
lond,  and  fo  enviround  the  world  be  many  feyfons,. 
that  he  fond  an  yle,  where  he  herde  fpeke  his  owne 
langage,  callynge  on  oxen  in  the  plowghe,  fuchc 
wordes  as  men  fpekcn  to  beftes  in  his  own  contree: 
whereof  he  hadde  gret  raervayle:  for  he  knevve 
not  how  it  myghte  be.  But  I  feye,  that  he  had 
gon  fo  longe, -be  londe  and  be  fee,  that  he  had- 
envyround  alle  the  erthe,  that  he  was  comen  azer\ 
cnvirounynge,  that  is  to  feye,  goynge  aboute,  un- 
to his  pwne  marches,  zif  he  woide  have  pafled 
torthe,  til  he  had  founden  his  contree  and  bis  owne 
knouleche.  But  he  turned  azen  from  thens,  from 
whens  he  was  come  fro ;  and  fo  he  lofte  moche 
peynefiille  labour,  as  him  felf  feyde,  a  gret  while 
aftre,  that  he  was  comen  horn.  For  it  befclle  aftre, 
that  he  wente  in  to  Norweye-,  and  there  tempelt  of 
the  fee  toke  him;  and  he  arryved  in  an  yle;  and 
whan  he  was  in  that  yle,  he  knew  wel,  that  it  wa» 
the  yle,  where  he  had  herd  fpeke  his  owne  lan- 
gage before,  and  the  callynge  of  the  oxen  at  the 
plowghe:  and  that  was  poftible  thinge.  But  how 
it  femethe  to  lymple  men  unlerned,  that  men  ne 
mowc  not  go  undre  the  erthe,  and  alfo  that  men 
fcholde  fallc  towarde  the  hevene,  frotn  undre!  But 
that  may  not  be,  upon  lefie,  than  wee  mowe  f.iile 
toward  hevene,  fro  the  erthe,  where  wee  ben.  Fof 
;.ro  what  partie  of  the  erthe,  that  naen  du?!ie, 



outher  aboven  or  benethen,  it  femethe  alweyes  to 
hem  that  duellen,  that  thei  gon  more  rights  than 
ony  other  folk.     And  righte  as  it  femethe  to  us, 
that  thti  ben  undre  us,  righte  fo  it  femethe  hem, 
that  wee  ben  undre  hem.     For  zif  a  man  myghte 
falle  fro  the  erthe  unto  the  firmament;  be  grettere 
rrfoun,  the  erthe  and  the  fee,  that  ben  fo  grete  and 
fo  hevy,  fcholde  fallen  to  the  firmament:   but  that 
may  not  be:  and  therfore  feithe  oure  Lord  God, 
Non  timeas  me, qui  fufpendi  terra  ex  nichilo?  And 
alle  be  it,  that  it  be  poflible  thing,  that  men  may 
fo  envyronne  al!e  the  world,  natheies  of  a  looo 
perfones,  on  ne  myghte  not  happen  to  returncn  in 
to  his  contrce.     For,  for  the  grecnefle  of  the  erthe 
and  of  the  fee,  men  may  go  be  a  looo  and- a  lOoo 
other  weyes,  that  no  man  cowde  reyde  him  pcrfitely 
toward  the  parties  that  he  cam  fro,  but  zif  it  were 
be  aventure  and  happ,  or  be  the  grace  of  God. 
For  the  erthe  is  fulle  large  and  fulle  gret,  and  holt 
in  roundneffe  and  aboute  envyroun,  be  aboven  and 
be  benethen  20425  myles,  aftre  the  opynyoun  of 
the  old  wife  aftronomeres.     And  here  feyenges  I 
repreve  noughie.     But   aftre   my    lytylle  wyt,   it 
femethe  me,    favynge   here  reverence,  that   it   is 
more.    And  for  to  have  bcttere  underftondynge,  I 
fcye  thus,  be  ther  ymagyned  a  figure,  that  hathe  a 
gret  compas;  and  aboute  the  poynt  of  the  gret 
compas,  that  is  clept  the  centre,  be  made  another 
litille  compas:  than  aftre,  be  the  gret  compafs  de- 
vifed  be  lines  in  manye  parties ;  and  that  alle  the 
lynes  meeten  at  the  centre  •,  fo  that  in  as  many 
parries,  as  the  grete  compas  fchal  be  departed, 
in  als  manye,  fchalle  be  departed  the  litille,  that 
is  aboute   the  centre,  alle  be  it,   that  the  fpaces 
ben  Icfle.    Now  thanne,  be  the  gret  compas  repre- 
fentcd  for  the  firmament,  and  the  litille  cornpas 
reprcfented  for  the  erthe.    Now  thanne  the  firma- 
ment is  devyfed,  be  aftronomeres,  in  12  fignes ; 
and  every  figne  is  devyfed  in  30  degrees,  that  is 
360  degrees,    that  the  firmament  hathe  aboven. 
Alfo,  be  the  erthe  devyfed  in  als  many  parties,  as 
the  firmament;  and  let  every  partye  anfwere  to  a 
degree  of  the  firmament:  and  wytethe  it  wel,  that 
afire  the  audoures  of  aftronomye,  700  furlonges  of 
erthe  anfweren  to  a  degree  of  the  firmament ;  and 
tho  ben  87  miles  and  4  furlonges.     Now  be  that 
here  multiplyed  be  360  fithes;  and  then  thei  ben 
315000  myles,  every  of  8  furlonges,  aftre  myles  of 
oure  coniree.    So  moche  hathe  the  erthe  in  round- 
neffe, and  of  heghte  enviroun,  aftre  myn  opynyoun 
and  myn  undirftondynge.     And  zee  Ichulieundir- 
ftonde,  that  aftre  the  opynyoun  of  olde  wife  philofo- 
phrcs  and  aftronomeres,  oure  contrce  ne  Irelond  ne 
Wales  nc  Scotlond  ne  Norweye  ne  the  other  yies 

coHiynge  to  hem,  ne  ben  not  in  the  fuperficyalte 
cownted  aboven  the  erthe;  as  it  fchewethe  be  alle 
the  bokes  of  aftronomye.  For  the  fuperficialtee  nf 
the  erthe  is  departed  in  7  parties,  for  the  7  planetes: 
and  tho  parties  ben  clept  cly mates.  And  oure  par- 
ties be  not  of  the  7Xlymates:  for  thei  ben  defcend- 
ynge  toward  the  Weft.  And  ajfo  thofe  yles  of 
Ynde,  which  beth  evene  azenft  us,  beth  noghc 
reckned  in  the  clymates :  for  thei  ben  azi-'nft  us, 
that  ben  in  the  lowe  contree.  And  the  7  clymates 
ftrecchen  hem  envyrounynge  the  world. 

II.  And  I  John  Maundevylle  knyghteabovefeyd, 
(alle  thoughe  I  be  unworthi)  that  departed  from 
ou.e  contrees  and  paflTcd  the  fee,  the  zeer  of  grace 
1322.  that  have  pafltfd  manye  londes  and  manye 
yles  and  contrees,  and  cerched  manye  fulle  ftraunge 
places,  and  have  ben  in  many  a  fulle  gode  ho- 
nourable  companye,  and  at  many  a  fairc  dede  of 
amies,  (alle  be  it  that  1  dide  none  myle'f,  for  myn 
unable  infuffifince)  now  I  am  comen  horn  (mawgrce 
my  lelf)  to  rcfte :  for  gowces,  arteiykes,  that  me 
diftreynen,  tho  diffynen  the  ende  of  my  labour, 
azenft  my  wille  (God  knowethe.)  And  thus  tak- 
ynge  folace  in  my  wrecched  rcfte,  rccordynge  the 
tyme  paffed,  I  have  fulfilled  tlicife  thinges  and 
pucte  hem  wryten  in  this  boke,  as  it  wolde  come 
in  to  my  mynde,  the  zeer  of  grace  1356  in  the  34 
zeer  that  I  depjrtede  from  oure  contrecs.  Wher- 
fore  I  preye  to  alle  the  redcres  and  hereres  of  tnis 
boke,  zif  it  plcfe  hem,  that  thei  wolde  preycn  to 
God  for  me :  and  J  fchalle  preye  for  hem.  And 
alle  tho  that  feyn  for  me  a.  Pater  nofter,  with  ar» 
Ave  Maria,  that  God  forzeve  me  my  fynnts,  I 
make  hem  partneres  and  graunte  hem  part  of  alle 
the  gode  pilgrymages  and  of  alle  the  gode  dedes, 
that  I  have  don,  zif  ony  be  to  his  plefance :  and 
noghte  only  of  tho,  but  of  alle  that  evere  I  fchalle 
do  unto  my  lyfes  ende.  And  I  befeche  Almyghty 
God,  fro  whom  alle  godcntfle  and  grace  comethe 
fro,  that  he  vouchefaf,  of  his  excellent  mercy  and 
habundant  grace,  to  fulle  fyUe  hire  foules  with  infpi- 
racioun  of  theHolyGoft,  in  makynge  defence  of  alle 
hire  goftly  enemycs  here  in  erthe,  to  hire  falvacioun, 
botheof  body  andfoule;  toworfchipeandthankynge 
of  him,  that  is  three  and  on,  with  outen  begy  nny  nge 
and  withouten  endynge;  that  is,  with  outen  qua- 
litee,  good,  and  with  outen  quantytee,  gret ;  that 
in  alle  places  is  prefent,  and  alle  thinges  contenyn- 
ynge ;  the  whichc  that  no  goodneffe  may  amende, 
ne  non  evelle  empeyre;  that  in  perfeyte  trynytee 
lyvethe  and  rcgnethe  God,  be  alle  worldes  and  be 
alle  cymes.     Amen,  Amen,  Amen. 


THE      HISTORY      OF     THE 

The  fifft  of  our  authours,  who  can  be  properly 
ijiid  to  have  written  Englijh,  was  Sir  John  Govoer^ 
who,  in  his  Confejfton  of  a  Lover,  calls  Chaucer  his  dif- 
ciplc,  and  may  therefore  be  confidercd  as  the  father 
of  our  poetry. 

"VJOWE  for  to  fpeke  of  the  commune, 
■^       It  is  to  drcde  of  that  fortune, 
Whiche  hath  befalle  in  fondryc  londes: 
But  ot'te  for  dcfaute  of  bondes 
All  fodcinly,  er  it  be  wift, 
A  tunne,  when  his  lie  arift 
Tobreketh,  and  renncth  all  aboute, 
Whi.hc  els  (liulde  nought  gone  out. 

And  eke  full  ofte  a  littcll  Ikarc 
Vpon  a  banke,  er  men  be  ware. 
Let  in  the  ftrcme,  whiche  with  gret  peine. 
If  any  man  it  Ihall  rcftreine. 
Where  lawe  failleth,  errour  groweth. 
He  is  not  wife,  who  that  nc  trowcth. 
For  it  hath  proucd  oft  er  this. 
And  thus  the  common  clamour  is 
In  euery  londe,  where  people  dwelieth: 
And  eche  in  his  complainte  tellethj 
How  that  the  worlde  is  mifwent, 
And  thervpon  his  argument 
Yeueth  euery  man  in  fondrie  wife: 
But  what  man  wolde  him  fclfe  auife 
His  confcience,  and  nought  mifufe, 
He  maie  well  at  the  firft  excufe 
His  god,  whiche  euer  ftant  in  one. 
In  him  there  is  detaute  none 
So  muft  it  ftand  vpon  vs  felue. 
Nought  only  vpon  ten  ne  twelue. 
But  plcnarly  vpon  vs  all. 
For  man  is  caufe  of  that  fliall  fall. 


ALAS!  1  wepyngamconllrained  to  begin  verfe 
*^  of  forowfull  matter,  that  whilom  in  florifhyng 
ftudie  made  delitable  ditees.  For  lo !  rendyng 
mufes  of  a  Poctes  cditen  to  me  thingcs  to  be 
writcn,  and  dreric  teres.  At  lade  no  drede  ne 
might  overcame  tho  inufes,  ihat  thci  ne  werren  fel- 
lowcs,  and  foloweden  my  waic,  that  is  to  faie, 
when  I  was  exiled,  thei  that  weren  of  my  youth 
whilom  wclfull  and  grene,  comforten  now  forow- 
full wcirdcs  of  me  olde  man  :  for  clde  is  comcn 
unwarely  upon  mc,  haflcd  by  the  harmes  that  I 
have,  and  forowc  hath  commaunded  his  age  to  be 
in  mc.  Heres  hore  arcn  fhad  overtimcliche  upon 
my  hed  :  and  the  flackc  fkinne  irembleih  of  mine 
cmptcd  bodie.  Thilke  dtth  of  men  is  wclefuil, 
that  he  ne  comcth  not  in  ycrcs  that  be  fwete,  but 
5  comcth 

The  hiftoryof  our  language  is  now  brought  to  the 
point  at  which  the  hiftory  of  our  poetry  is  generally 
fuppofed  to  commence,  the  time  of  the  illuftriou« 
Geoffry  Chaucer,  who  may,  perhaps,  with  great  juf- 
tice,  be  ftiled  the  firft  of  our  verfifiers  who  wrote 
poetically.     He  does  not,  however,  appear  to  have 
defervcd  all  the  praifc  which  he  has  received,  or  all 
the  cenfure  that  he  has   fufFered.     Dryden,  who, 
miftaking  genius  for  learning,  in  confidence  of  his 
abilities,  ventured  to  write  of  what  he  had  not  ex- 
amined, afcribes  to  Chaucer  the  firft  refinement  of 
our  numbers,  the  firft  produftion  of  eafy  and  natural 
rhymes,  and  the  improvement  of  our  language,  by 
words  borrowed  from  the  more  polilhed  languages 
of  the  continent.     Skinner  contrarily  blames  him  in 
harftj  terms  for  having  viiiatcdhis  native  fpeech  by 
'whole  cartloads  of  foreign  words.     But  he  that  reads 
the  works  of  Cower  will  find  fmooth  numbers  and 
eafy  rhymes,  of  which  Chaucer  is  fuppofed  to  have 
been  the  inventor,  and  the  Frorch  words,  whether 
good  or  bad,  of  which  Chaucer  is  charged  as  the 
importer.     Some  innovations  he  might  probably 
make,  like  others,  in  the  infancy  of  our  poetry, 
which  the  paucity  of  books  does  not  allow  us  to  dif- 
cover  with  particular  exadnefs ;  but  the  works  of 
Ccmer  and  Lydgate  fufficiently  evince,  that  his  dic- 
tion was  in  general  like  that  of  his  contemporaries  : 
and  fome  improvements  he  undoubtedly  made  by 
the  various  difpofitions  of  his  rhymes,  and  by  the 
mixture  of  different  numbers,  in  which  he  feems  to 
have  been  happy  and  judicious.     I  have  fcleftcd 
feveral  fpecimens  botii  of  his  profe  and  verfe  ;  and 
among  them,   part  of  his  tranflation  of  Boetius,  to 
which  another  vcrfion,  made  in  the  time  of  queen 
Mary,  is  oppolcd.     It  would  be  improper  to  quote 
very  ff.aringly  an  author  of  fo  much  reputation,  or 
to  make  very  large  extradts  from  a  book  fo  gene- 
rally known. 

C  O  L  V  I  L  E. 

T  That  in  tyme  of  profperite,  and  floryfhing 
-^  ftudye,  made  plcaHiunte  and  delegable  dities, 
or  verfes :  alas  now  beyng  heauy  and  fad  ouer- 
throwen  in  aduerfuie,  am  compelled  to  fele  and  taft 
hcuines  and  greit.  Beholde  the  mufes  Poeticall, 
that  is  to  laye  :  the  pleafure  that  is  in  poetes 
verfes,  do  appoynt  me,  and  compel  mc  to  writ 
thefe  verfes  in  meter,  and  the  forowfull  verfes  do 
wet  my  wretched  face  with  very  watcrye  teares, 
yffuinge  out  of  my  eyes  for  forowe.  Whiche  mufes 
no  icare  without  doute  could  ouercome,  but  that 
they  wold  folow  me  in  my  iourney  of  exile  or  ba- 
niflimcnt.  Soniecyme  the  ioye  of  happy  and  lufly 
delegable  youth  dyd  comfort  me,  and  nowe  the 
rourfe  of  forowfull  olde  age  caufeth  me  to  reioyfe. 
For  hafty  old  age  vnloked  for  is  come  vpon  me 



comcth  to  wretclies  often  icleped  :  Alas,  alas ! 
with  how  defe  an  ere  deth  cruell  turneth  awaie  fro 
wretches,  and  naieth  for  to  clofe  wepyng  eyen. 
While  fortune  unfaithful!  favoured  me  with  light 
godes,  that  forowfull  houre,  that  is  to  faie,  the 
deth,  had  almofte  t'rente  myne  hedde :  but  now 
for  fortune  cloudie  hath  chaunged  her  decevable 
chere  to  mewarde,  myne  unpitous  life  drawech 
along  ungreable  dwellynges.  O  ye  my  frendes, 
what,  or  whereto  avaunted  ye  me  to  ben  welfuU  ? 
For  he  that  hath  fallin,  (lode  in  no  ftedfaft  degre. 

with  al  her  incommodities  and  euyls,  and  forow 
hath  commaunded  and  broughteme  into  the  fame 
old  age,  that  is  to  fay  :  that  forowe  caufcth  me  to 
be  oide,  before  my  time  come  of  olde  age.  The 
hoer  heares  do  growe  vntimely  vpon  my  heade, 
and  my  reuiled  (kynne  trembleth  my  flefh,  cleane 
confumed  and  wafte  with  forowe.  Mannes  death 
is  happy,  that  cometh  not  in  youth,  when  a  man 
is  luftye,  and  in  pleafure  or  welth:  but  in  time  of 
aduerfitie,  when  it  is  often  defyred.  Alas  Alas 
how  dull  and  deffe  be  the  eares  of  cruel  death  vnto 
men  in  mifery  that  would  fayne  dye :  and  yet  re- 
fufythe  to  come  and  (hutte  vp  thcyr  carefuU  wep- 
yng eyes.  Whiles  that  falfe  fortune  fauoryd  me 
with  her  tranfitorye  goodcs,  then  the  howre  of 
death  had  alnioft  oucrcome  me.  That  is  to  fay 
deathe  was  redy  to  opprefTe  me  when  I  was  in  pro- 
fperitie.  Nowe  for  by  caufe  that  fortune  beynge 
turned,  from  profperitie  into  aduerfuie  (as  the  clere 
day  is  darkyd  with  cloudes)  and  hath  chaungyd  her 
deceyuable  countenaunce  :  my  wretched  life  is  yet 
prolonged  and  doth  continue  in  dolour.  O  my 
ftendes  why  haue  you  fo  often  bofted  me,  fayinge 
that  I  was  happy  when  I  had  honour  pofleflions 
riches,  and  authoritie  whych  be  tranfitory  thynges. 
He  that  hath  fallen  was  in  no  ftedefaft  degre. 

TN  the  mene  while,  that  I  ftill  record  thcfc  thynges 
■*•  with  my  felf,  and  marked  my  wepelie  complainte 
with  office  of  poin(n:c!l :  I  faugh  (londyng  aboven 
the  hight  of  myn  hed  a  woman  of  full  grcte  reve- 
rence, by  femblaunt.  Her  eyen  brennyng,  and 
clere,  feyng  over  the  common  m'.ght  of  menne, 
with  a  lively  colour,  and  with  fothe  vigour  and 
ftrength  that  it  nc  might  not  be  nempned,  all  were 
it  fo,  that  fhc  were  full  of  fo  grete  age,  that  menne 
wouKirn  not  trowcn  in  no  manere,  that  Ihe  were  of 
our  elde. 

The  ftature  of  her  was  of  dourous  Judgemente, 
for  fometyme  flie  conftrained  and  (hronke  her  felven, 
like  to  the  common  mefure  of  menne  :  And  fome- 
tyn-e  it  femed,  that  fhe  touched  the  heven  with 
the  hight  of  her  hedde.  And  when  flie  hove  her 
hedde  higher,  fhe  perced  the  felf  heven,  fo  that  the 
fight  of  menne  lokyng  was  in  ydell :  her  clothes 
wer  maked  of  right  dclie  thredes,  and  fiibtel  craft 
of  perdurable  matter.  The  whiche  clothes  (he  had 
woven  with  her  owne  handes,  as  1  kncwe  well  after 
by  her  felf  declaryng,  and  fhewyng  to  me  the 
beautie  :  The  whiche  clothes  a  darknefle  of  a  for- 
leten  and  difpifed  eldc  had  dufked  and  darked,  as 
it  is  wonte  to  darke  by  fmoked  Images. 

In  the  nethereft  hemme  and  border  of  thefe 
clothes  menne  reddc  iwoven  therein  a  Grekifhe  A. 
that  fignifieth  the  life  adive,  and  above  that  letter, 
in  the  hieft  bordure,  a  Grekifhe  C.  that  fignifieth 
the   life  contemplatife.     And  betwene  thefe  two 

Vol.  I.  letters 

Y\7"HYLES  that  I  confiderydde  pryuylye  with 
'  my  felfe  the  thynges  before  fayd,  and  defcry- 
bed  my  wofuU  complaynte  after  the  maner  and 
ofFyce  of  a  wrytter,  me  thought  I  fawe  a  woman 
ftand  oucr  my  head  of  a  reuerend  countenaunce, 
hauyng  quycke  and  glyflcryng  clere  eye,  aboue 
the  common  forte  of  men  in  lyuely  and  delegable 
coloure,  and  ful  of  ftrength,  although  fhe  femed  fo 
olde  that  by  no  meanes  fhe  is  thought  to  be  one  of 
this  oure  tymc,  her  ftature  is  of  douteful  know- 
ledge, for  nowe  fhe  fhewethe  herfclfe  at  the  corn- 
men  length  or  ftatur  of  men,  and  other  whiles  fhe 
femeth  fo  high,  as  though  flie  touched  heuen  with 
the  crown  of  her  hed.  And  when  (he  wold  ftretch 
fourth  her  hed  hygher,  it  alfo  perced  thorough 
heauen,  fo  that  mens  fyghte  coulde  not  attaine  to 
behold  her,  Her  veftures  or  cloths  were  perfyt  of 
the  finyfte  thredes,  and  fubtyll  workemanfliyp,  and 
of  fubliaunce  permanent,  whych  vefturs  fhe  had 
wouen  with  her  own  hands  as  I  perceyued  after  by 
her  owne  faiynge.  The  kynde  or  beawtye  of  the 
whyche  veftures,  a  certayne  darkenes  or  rather  ig- 
noraunce  of  oldenes  forgotten  hadde  obfcuryd  and 
darkened,  as  the  fmoke  is  wont  to  darken  Images 
that  ftand  nyghe  the  fmoke.  In  the  lower  parte  of 
the  faid  veftures  was  read  the  greke  letter  P.  wouen 
whych  fignifyeth  praftife  or  aftyffe,  and  in  the 
hygher  parte  of  the  veftures  the  greke  letter  T. 
whych  ettandeth  for  theorica,  that  fignifyeth  fpecu- 
lacion  or  contemplation.  And  betwene  both  the 
[  g  ]  fayd 


letters  there  were  ken  degrees  nobly  wrought,  in 
mancr  of  lad^icrs,  by  whiche  degrees  mcnne  might 
climben  from  the  ncthercfl:  letter  to  the  uppercrt: 
nathclcne  handes  of  fomc  men  hadden  kerve  that 
clothe,  by  violence  or  by  ftrcngth,  and  evcriche 
marine  of  'hem  had  borne  awaic  Ibche  ptrces,  as  he 
might  getten.  And  forfothe  this  forlaied  woman 
bare  fmalc  bokes  in  her  right  hande,  and  in  her  left 
hand  fhe  bare  a  fcepter.  And  when  flie  fawe  thefe 
Pocticall  miifes  approchyng  about  my  bed,  and 
endityng  wordes  to  my  wtpynges,  (he  was  a  litle 
amoved,  and  glowed  with  cruell  cycn.  Who  (q^ 
fhe)  hath  fuffcrcd  approchen  to  this  fike  mannc 
ihcfe  commen  ftrompettes,  of  which  is  the  place 
that  mcnne  callen  Theatre,  the  whiche  onely  ne 
iffwagen  not  his  forowcs  with  renrwdies,  but  thei 
would  feden  and  norifhe  hym  with  fwete  venime  ? 
forfothe,  that  ben  iho  that  with  thornes,  and 
prickynges  of  talentesof  affeccions,  whiche  thatben 
nothyng  fruftuous  nor  profitable,  diftroicn  the 
Corne,  plcntuous  of  fruiites  of  refon.  For  thei 
holden  hcrtes  of  men  in  ufage,  but  thei  ne  deliver 
no  folke  fro  maladie.  But  if  ye  mufes  had  with- 
drawcn  fro  me  with  your  flatteries  any  unconnyng 
and  unprofitable  manne,  as  ben  wont  to  finde  com- 
menly  emong  the  peple,  I  would  well  fuffre  the 
lafle  grcvoufly.  For  why,  in  foche  an  unprofitable 
man  myn  ententes  were  nothyng  endamaged.  But 
ye  withdrowen  fro  me  this  man,  that  hath  ben 
nourifhed  in  my  ftudies  or  fcoles  of  Eleaticis,  and 
of  Academicis  in  Grece.  But  goeth  now  rather 
awaie  ye  Mermaidens,  whiche  that  ben  fwete,  till 
it  be  at  the  laft,  and  lufFreth  this  man  to  be  cured 
and  hcled  by  my  mufes,  that  is  to  fay,  by  my  note- 
full  fciences.  And  thus  this  companie  of  mufes 
iblamed  caften  wrothly  the  chere  dounward  to  the 
yerth,  and  Ihewing  by  rcdnelTc  ther  fhame,  thei 
pafTeden  forowfully  the  threlholde.  And  I  of  whom 
the  fight  piounged  in  teres  was  darked,  fo  that  I  ne 
might  not  know  what  that  woman  was,  of  fo  Im- 
perial audthoritie,  I  woxe  all  abalhed  and  ftonied, 
and  caft  my  fight  doune  to  the  yerth,  and  begin 
ftill  tor  to  abide  what  fhe  would  doen  afterward. 
Then  came  flie  nere,  and  fct'her  doune  upon  !.he 
uttereit  corner  of  my  bed,  and  fhe  beholdyng  my 
chere,  'hat  was  caft  to  the  yerth,  hevie  and  grevous 
of  wei-yng,  complained  with  thefe  wordes  (that  I 
fliall  fainc)  the  periurbacion  of  my  thought. 

fayd  letters  were  fcne  ccrtayne  degrees,  wrought 
after  the  maner  of  ladders,  wherein  was  as  it  were 
a  paflage  or  waye  in  lleppes  or  degrees  from  the 
lower  part  wher  the  letter  P.  was  which  is  vnder- 
ftand  from  pradtys  or  aftyf,  unto  the  hygher  parte 
wher  the  letter  T.  was  whych  is  vnderfland  fpecu- 
!acion  or  contemplacion,  Neucrthcles  the  handes 
of  fome  vyolente  perfones  had  cut  the  faydc  veftures 
and  had  taken  awaye  certayne  pecis  thereof,  fuch 
as  euery  one  coulde  catch.  And  fhe  her  lelre  dyd 
bare  in  her  ryght  hand  litcl  bokes,  and  in  her  lefce 
hande  a  fcepter,  which  forefayd  phylofophy  (when 
fhe  faw  the  mufes  poetycal  prefent  at  my  bed,  fpck- 
yng  forowfull  wordes  to  my  wepynges)  beyng  angry 
iayd  (with  terrible  or  frownynge  countenaunce)  who 
fuffred  thefe  crafty  harlottes  to  com  to  ihys  fycke 
man  ?  whych  can  help  hym  by  no  means  of  hys 
griefe  by  any  kind  of  medicines,  but  rather  increaie 
the  fame  with  fwete  poyfon.  Thefe  be  they  that 
doo  dyftroye  the  fertile  and  plentious  commodytyes 
of  reafon  and  the  fruytes  therof  wyth  their  pryck- 
ynge  thornes,  or  barren  affecles,  and  accuftome  or 
fubdue  mens  myndes  with  fickenes,  and  heuynes, 
and  do  not  delyuer  or  heale  them  of  the  fame.  But 
yf  your  flatterye  had  conueyed  or  wythdrawen  from 
me,  any  vnlernyd  man  as  the  comen  forte  of  people 
are  wonte  to  be,  I  coulde  haue  ben  better  con- 
tentyd,  for  in  that  my  worke  fbould  not  be  hurt  or 
hynderyd.  But  you  haue  taken  and  conueyed 
from  me  thys  man  that  hath  ben  broughte  vp  in  the 
fludyes  of  Arif^otel  and  of  Plato.  But  yet  get  you 
hence  maremaids  (that  feme  fwete  untyil  you  haue 
brought  a  man  to  deathe)  and  fuffer  me  to  heale 
thys  my  man  wyth  my  mufes  or  fcyences  that  be 
holfome  and  good.  And  after  that  philofophy  had 
fpoken  thefe  wurdes  the  fayd  companyeof  the  mufys 
poeticall  beyng  rebukyd  and  fad,  cafle  down  their 
countenaunce  to  the  grounde,  and  by  blulTyng  con- 
feffed  their  fhamfaftnes,  and  went  out  of  the  dores. 
But  I  (that  had  my  iyght  dull  and  blynd  wyth 
wepyng,  fo  that  1  knew  not  what  woman  this  was 
hauing  foo  great  audthoritie)  was  amalyd  or  afto- 
nyed,and  lokyng  downeward,  towarde  ehe  grounde, 
I  began  pryvylye  to  look  what  ihyng  fhe  would 
faye  ferther,  then  fhe  had  fa  id.  Then  fhe  ap« 
proching  and  drawynge  ncre  vnto  me,  fat  downe 
vpon  the  vttermoll  part  of  my  bed,  and  lokyng 
vpon  my  face  fad  with  weplng,  and  declynyd 
toward  the  earth  for  Ibrow,  bewayied  the  trouble  of 
my  minde  wyth  thde  layinges  folowynge. 



The  condufions  of  the  Astrolabie. 
This  book  (written  to  his  fon  in  the  year  of  our 
Lord  1391,  and  in  the  14  of  King  Richard  II.) 
ftandeth  fo  good  at  this  day,  efpecially  for  the 
horizon  of  Oxfcrd,  as  in  the  opinion  of  the 
learned  it  cannot  be  amended,  fays  an  Edit,  of 

T  Y  T  E  L  Lowys  my  fonne,  I  perceve  well  by 
■■-'  certaine  evidences  thync  abylyte  to  lerne  fcy- 
ences,  touching  nombres  and  proporcions,  and 
alfo  well  conlydre  I  thy  bcfye  prayer  in  efpecyal 
to  lerne  the  tretyfe  of  the  alfrolabye.  Than  for 
as  moche  as  a  philofophcr  faithe,  he  wrapeth  hym 
in  his  frende,  that  condilcendeth  to  the  ryghc- 
full  prayers  of  his  frende :  therfore  I  have  given 
the  a  I'ufficient  aftrolabye  for  oure  orizont,  com- 
powned  after  the  latitude  of  Oxenforde :  upon  the 
•whiche  by  mediacion  of  this  lytell  tretife,  I  pur- 
pole  to  teche  the  a  certaine  nombre  of  conclufions, 
pcrtainynge  to  this  fame  inllrumcnt.  1  lay  a  cer- 
taine nombre  of  conclufions  for  thre  caufcs,  tUe 
firft  caule  is  this.  Trufte  wel  that  al  the  conclufions 
that  have  be  founden,  or  ells  pofliblye  might  be 
founde  in  fo  noble  an  inftrument  as  in  the  aftro- 
labye, ben  unknowen  perfitely  to  anye  mortal  man 
in  this  region,  as  1  iuppofe.  Another  caule  . 
this,  that  foihely  in  any  cartes  of  the  aftrolabye 
that  I  have  yff  ne,  ther  ben  fome  conclufions,  that 
wol  not  in  al  thinges  perfourme  ther  beheftes:  and 
fome  of  'henj  ben  to  harde  to  thy  tender  age  of 
ten  yere  to  conceve.  This  tretife  divided  in  five 
partes,  wil  1  fhewe  the  wondir  *lighi  rules  and 
naked  wordes  in  Engliftie,  for  Latine  ne  canft 
thou  nat  yet  but  fmale,  my  litel  fonne.  But  ne- 
verthclerTe  luffifcth  to  the  thefe  trewe  conclufyons 
in  Engliftic,  as  wel  as  fufHfeth  to  thefe  noble 
clerkes  grekes  thefe  fame  conclufyons  in  greke, 
•  and  to  the  Arabines  in  Arabike,  and  to  Jewes 
in  Hebrewe,  and  to  the  Latin  folke  in  Latyn: 
whiche  Latyn  folke  had  'hem  firfte  out  of  other  di- 
vers langages,  and  write  'hem  in  ther  owne  tonge, 
that  is  to  faine  in  Latine. 

And  God  wote  ihat  in  all  thefe  langages  and  in 
manyc  mo,  have  thef^  conclufyons  ben  fufficientlye 
lerned  and  taught,  and  yet  by  divers  rules,  right 
as  divers  pathes  ledcn  divers  folke  the  right  waye 
to  Rome. 

Now  wol  I  pray  mekely  every  perfon  difcrete, 
that  redcth  or  hereth  this  lityl  tretife  to  have  my 
rude  ententing  cxcufed,  and  my  fupcrfluite  of 
wordes,  for  two  caufcs.  The  firft  caufe  is,  for 
that  curious  eniiityng  and  harde  fentences  is  ful 
hevy  at  ones,  for  foch  a  childe  to  lerne.  And  the 
feconde  caufe  is  this,  that  fothely  me  femeth  better 
to  writen  unto  a  childe  twife  a  gode  fentence,  than 


he  foriete  it  ones.  And,  Lewis,  if  it  be  fo  that  I 
(hewe  the  in  my  lith  Engliftie,  as  trew  conclu- 
fions touching  this  mater,  and  not  only  as  trewe 
but  as  many  and  fubtil  conclufions  as  ben  yftiewed 
in  latin,  in  any  comon  tretife  of  the  aftrolabye, 
conne  me  the  more  thanke,  and  praye  God  fave  the 
kinge,  thaf  is  lorde  of  this  langage,  and  all  that 
him  faith  bereth,  and  obeieth  everiche  in  his  de- 
gree, the  more  and  the  lafle.  But  confydreth 
well,  that  I  ne  ufurpe  not  to  have  founden  this 
werkc  of  my  labour  or  of  myne  engin.  I  n'ame 
but  a  leude  compilatour  of  the  laboure  of  olde 
aftrologiens,  and  have  it  tranllated  in  myn  engliftie 
onely  for  thy  dodrine :  and  with  this  fwerde  ftial 
1  ftene  e.^vy. 

The  firft  party. 

The  firft  partye  of  this  tretife  ftial  reherce  the 
figures,  and  the  membres  of  thyne  aftrolaby,  by- 
caufe  that  thou  ftialte  have  the  greter  knowinge  of 
thine  owne  inftrument. 

The  feconde  party. 

Th  feconde  partye  ftial  teche  the  to  werken  the 
very  praftike  of  the  forefai i  conclurn>ns,  as  fer- 
forthe  and  alfo  narowe  as  may  be  fnewed  in  ft> 
fmale  an  inftrument  portatife  aboute.  For  wel 
wote  every  aftrologien,  thai  fmalleft  frailions  ne 
wol  not  be  ftiewe  i  in  fo  i'mal  an  inftrument,,  as  in 
fubtil  tables  caculcd  for  a  caufe. 

The  Prologue  of  the  Testament  of  LOVE. 

■jV/TANY  men  there  ben,  that  with  eres  openly 
^^■^  fprad  fo  moche  fwalowen  the  delicioufnefte  of 
jeftes  and  of  ryme,  by  queint  knittinge  coloures, 
that  of  the  godenefle  or  of  the  badneffe  of  the  fen- 
tence take  they  lilel  hede  or  els  none. 

Sothelye  dulle  witte  and  a  thoughtfuUe  foule  fo 
fore  have  mined  and  grafted  in  my  fpirites,  that 
foche  craft  of  enditingc  woll  nat  ben  of  mine 
acquaintaunce.  And  for  rude  wordes  and  boiftous 
percen  the  herte  of  the  herer  to  the  inreft  point,  and 
planten  there  the  fentence  of  thinges,  fo  that  with 
litel  helpe  it  is  able  to  fpring,  this  boke,  that  no- 
thynge  hath  of  the  grete  flode  of  wytte,  ne  of 
fcmelyche  colours,  is  dolven  with  rude  wordes  and 
boiftous,  and  fo  drawe  togiSer  to  maken  the  catch- 
ers therof  ben  the  more  redy  to  hent  fentence. 

Some  men  there  ben,  that  painten  with  colours 
riche  and  fome  with  wers,  as  with  red  inke,  and 
foine  with  coles  and  chalke  :  and  yet  is  there  gode 
matter  to  the  leude  peple  of  thylke  chalkye  pur- 
trcyture,  as  'hem  thinketh  for  the  time,  and  after- 

THE      HISTORY      OF    THE 

ward  the  fyght  of  the  better  colours  yeven  to  'hem 
more  joyc  tor  the  firft  leudncflTe.  So  foihly  this 
Icude  clowdy  occupacyon  is  not  to  prayfe,  but  by 
the  leude,  for  comenly  leude  leudeneflc  commend- 
eth.  Eke  it  (hal  ycve  fight  that  other  precyous 
thynges  fhall  be  the  more  in  reverence.  In  Latin 
and  French  hath  many  foveraine  wittes  had  grete 
dclyte  to  endite,  and  have  many  noble  thinges  ful- 
fildc,  but  ccrtes  there  ben  fome  that  fpeken  ther 
poifye  mater  in  Frenche,  of  whiche  fpcche  the 
Frenche  men  have  as  gode  a  fantafye  .as  we 
have  in  hcryng  of  Frenche  mens  Engliflie.  And 
many  termes  there  ben  in  Englyfhe,  whiche 
unncth  we  Englifhe  men  connen  declare  the 
knowkginge :  howe  fhould  than  a  Frenche  man 
borne  ?  loche  tcrmcs  connejumperc  in  his  matter, 
but  as  the  jay  chatcreth  Englifhe.  Right  fo  truely 
the  underftandyn  of  Englifhmen  woll  not  ftretche 
to  the  privie  termes  in  Frenche,  what  fo  ever  we 
boften  of  ftraunge  langage.  Let  then  clerkes  en- 
■ditcn  in  Latin,  for  they  have  the  propertie  of 
fcience,  and  the  knowinge  in  that  facultie:  and 
lette  Frenche  men  in  iher  Frenche  alfo  enditen  ther 
queint  termes,  for  it  is  Jcyndcly  to  ther  mouthes ; 
and  let  us  (hewe  our  fantafies  in  fuch  wordes  as  we 
lernedcn  of  our  dame's  tonge.  And  although  this 
boke  be  lytel  thank  worthy  for  the  leudnefTe  in 
travaile,  yet  foch  writing  exiten  men  to  thilke 
thinges  that  ben  neceffarie ;  for  every  man  therby 
may  as  by  a  perpetual  myrrour  fcne  the  vices  or  ver- 
tues  of  other,  in  whyche  thynge  lightly  may  be 
conceved  to  cfchue  perils,  and  neceffarics  to  catch, 
after  as  aventures  have  fallen  to  other  peplc  or 

Certcs  the foverainft  thinge  of  defirc  and  mod 
creture  refonable,  have  or  els  (huld  have  full  ap- 
petite to  ther  perfeccyon :  unrefonable  beftes 
mowcn  not,  fithe  rcfon  hath  in  *hem  no  workinge : 
ihan  refonable  that  wol  not,  is  compari'bned  to  un- 
refonable, and  made  lyke  'hem.  Forfothe  the  molt 
foveraine  and  finall  pcrfeccion  of  man  is  in  know- 
-yngc  of  a  fothe,  withouten  any  entent  dccevable, 
and  in  love  ot  one  very  God,  that  is  inchaungeable, 
*hat  is  to  knowe,  and  love  his  creator. 

Nowe  principally  the  menc  to  brynge  in  know- 
leging  and  lovynge  his  creatour,  is  the  confidera- 
<yon  of  thynges  made  by  the  creatour,  wher  through 
by  thylke  thinges  that  ben  made,  underltandynge 
here  to  our  wyttes,  arne  the  unlcne  pryvities  of 
God  made  to  us  fyghtfuU  and  knowinge,  in  our 
contcmplacion  and  underftondinge.  Tnele  thinges 
than  forfothe  moche  bringen  us  to  the  ful  know- 
leginge  fothe,  and  to  the  parfyte  love  of  the  maker 
ot  htvenly  thynges.  Lo!  David  laith:  thou  hade 
dclitcd  mc  in  makinge,as  who  faith,  to  have  deiite 
in  the  tunc  how  God  hat  lent  me  in  confideracion 
of  thy  inakinge.     Whcrof  Ariftotle  in  the   boke 

de  Animalibus,  faith  to  naturell  philofophcrs :  it  is 
a  grete  likynge  in  love  of  knowinge  ther  cretourc: 
and  alfo  in  knowinge  of  caufes  in  kindelye  thynges, 
conQdrid  forfothe  the  formes  of  kindelye  thinges 
and  the  fhap,  a  gret  kyndely  love  we  fliulde  have 
to  the  werkman  that  'hem  made.  The  crafte  of  a 
werkman  is  fhewed  in  the  werk.  Herefore  trulie 
the  philofopliers  with  a  lyvely  ftudie  manie  noble 
thinges,  righte  precious,  and  worthy  to  memoryc, 
writen,  and  by  a  gret  fwet  and  travaille  to  us  leften 
of  caufes  the  properties  in  natures  of  thinges,  to 
whiche  therfore  philofophers  it  was  more  joy,  more 
lykinge,  mere  herty  lull  in  kindely  vertues  and 
matters  of  refon  the  perfeccion  by  bufy  ftudy  to 
knowe,  than  to  have  had  all  the  trefour,  al  the 
richeflTe,  al  the  vainctglory,  that  the  pafled  empe- 
rours,  princes,  or  kinges  hadden.  Therfore  the 
names  of  'hem  in  the  boke  of  perpetuall  memorie 
in  vertue  and  pece  arne  writen  -,  and  in  the  con- 
trarie,  that  is  to  faine,  in  Styxe  the  foule  pitte  of 
helle  arne  thilke  prefled  that  foch  godenes  hated. 
And  bicaufe  this  boke  fliall  be  of  love,  and  tha 
prime  caufes  of  ftering  in  that  doinge  with  paf- 
fions  and  dilefes  for  wantinge  of  defire,  I  wil  that 
this  boke  be  clcped  the  teftament  of  love. 

But  nowe  thou  reder,  who  is  thilke  that  wirtnot 
in  fcorne  laughe,  to  here  a  dwarle  or  els  halfe  a 
man,  fay  he  will  rende  out  the  fwerde  of  Hercules 
handes,  and  alfo  he  fhulde  fet  Hercules  G;ides  a 
mile  yet  ferther,  and  over  that  he  had  power  of 
ftrengch  to  pull  up  the  fpere,  that  Alifander  the 
noble  might   never  wagge,  and  that  paflmge    al 
thinge  to  ben  mayfter  of  Fraunce  by  might,  there 
as  the  noble  gracious  Fdwarde  the  thirde  for  al  his 
grete  prowelTe  in  viftories  nc  might  al  yet  conquere? 
Certes  I  wote  well,  ther  fiiall  be  made   more 
fcorne  and  jape  of  me,  that  I  fo  unwortheiy  clothed 
altogither  in  the  cloudie  cloude  of  unconning,  wil 
putten  me  in  prces  to  fpeke  of  love,  or  els  of  the 
caufes  in  that  matter,  fuhen  al  the  grettefl;  clerkes 
han  had  ynough  to  don,  and  as  who  faith  gathered 
up  clene  tofornc  'hem,  and  with  ther  fharp  fithes  of 
conning  al  mowen  and  made  cherof  grete  rekes  and 
noble,  ful  of  al  plenties  to  fede  me  and  many  an 
other.     Envye  forfothe  commendeth  noughte  his 
refon,  that  he  hath  in  hain,  be  it  never  fo  trulty. 
And  although  thefe  noble  repers,  as  gode  work- 
men and  worthy  ther  iiier,  han  al  draw  and  bounde 
up  in  the  Iheves,  and  made  many  fhockcs,  yet  have 
1  enfample  to  gaScr  the  fmale  crommes,  and  fullin 
ma  walet  of  tho  that  fallen  from  the  bourde  among 
the  fmalle  houndes,  notwithftanding  the  travaile  of 
the  almoigner,  that  hath  draw  up  m  il)e  cloth  al 
the  remilfiiles,  as   trenchours,   and  the  relefe  to 
bere  to  the  almeire.     Yet  alfo  have  1  ieve  of  the 
noble  hulbande  Boece,  although  I  be  a  (Iraunger 
of  conningc  to  come  after  his  dodrinc,  and  thefe 




grete  workmen,  and  glene  my  handfuls  of  the 
Ihedynge  after  ther  handes,  and  yf  me  faile  ought 
of  my  ful,  to  encrefe  my  porcion  with  that  I  fhal 
drawe  by  privy  ties  out  of  fhockes-,  a  flye  fervaunte 
in  his  owne  heipe  is  often  moche  commended  5 
knowynge  of  trouthe  in  caufcs  of  thynges,  was 
more  hardier  in  the  firfte  fechers,  and  fo  fayth 
Ariftotle,  and  lighter  in  us  that  han  folowed  after. 
For  ther  pafTing  ftudy  han  freflied  our  wittes,  and 
oure  underftandynge  han  excited  in  confideracion 
of  trouth  by  fliarpenes  of  ther  refons.  Utterly 
thcfe  thingcs  be  no  dremcs  ne  japes,  to  throwe  to 
hoc^tres,  it  is  lifelych  mete  for  children  of  trouth, 
and  as  they  me  betiden  whan  I  pilgramed  out  of 
my  kith  in  wintere,  whan  the  wether  out  of  mefure 
was  bolftous,  and  the  wyld  w.ynd  Boreas,  as  his 
kind  afketh,  with  dryingc  coldes  maked  the  wawes 
of  the  ocean  fe  fo  to  arife  unkindely  over  the  com- 
mune bankes  that  it  was  in  point  to  fpill  all  the 

The  Prologues  of  the  Canterbury  Tales  of 
CHAUCER,  from  the  MSS. 

XX/HEN  that  Aprilis  with  his  (houris  fote, 
^  ^    The  drought  of  March  had  percid  to  the  rote. 
And  iiathid  every  veyn  in  fuch  licpur, 
Of  which  vcrtuc  engendrid  is  the  flour. 
When  Zephyrus  eke,  with  his  fwete  brcth 
Enfpirid  hath,  in  every  holt  and  heth 
The  tender  croppis  ;  and  that  the  yong  Sunn 
Hath  in  the  Kamm  his  halve  cours  yrunn  : 
And  fmale  foiriis  makin  melodye. 
That  Qepin  alle  night  with  opin  eye, 
(So  prickith  them  nature  in  ther  corage) 
Then  longin  folk  to  go  on  pilgrimage  : 
And  palmers  for  to  fekin  ftrange  ftrondes, 
To  fervin  hallowes  couth  in  fondry  londes: 
And  fpeciaUy  fro  every  fhir'is  end 
Of  England,  to  Canterbury  they  wend. 
The  holy  blisfull  martyr  for  to  fckc. 
That  them  hath  holpin,  whan  that  they  were  feke. 

Befell  that  in  that  fefon  on  a  day 
In  Southwerk  at  the  Tabberd  as  I  lay, 
Redy  to  wcndin  on  my  pilgrimage 
To  Canterbury,  with  devote  corage. 
At  night  wer  come  into  that  hoftery 
Wcle  nine  and  twenty  in  a  cumpany 
Of  lundrie  folk,  by  aventure  yfall 
In  felafhip  ;  and  pilgrimes  wer  they  all: 
That  toward  Canterbury  wouldin  ride. 

The  chambers  and  the  ftabiis  werin  wide, 
[And  well  we  werin  efid  at  the  beft  : 
And  fhortly  whan  the  funne  was  to  red. 
So  had  I  ipokin  with  them  everych  one. 
That  I  was  of  ther  felalhip  anone  j 

Vol.  I. 

And  made  forward  erli  for  to  rife. 

To  take  our  weye,  ther  as  I  did  devife. 

But  nathlefs  while  that  I  have  time  and  fpace, 
Er'  that  I  farther  in  this  tale  pace, 
Methinkith  it  accordaunt  to  refon. 
To  tell  you  alle  the  condition 
Of  ech  of  them,  fo  as  it  femid  me. 
And  which  they  werin,  and  of  what  degree. 
And  eke  in  what  array  that  they  wer  in  : 
And  at  a  knight  then  woll  I  firft  begin. 

The  Knight. 

A  knight  ther  was,  and  that  a  worthy  man, 
That  fro  the  time  that  he  firft  began 
To  ridin  out,  he  lovid  Chevalrie, 
Trouth  and  honour,  fredome  and  curtefy. 
Full  worthy  was  he  in  his  lordis  wcrre. 
And  thereto  had  he  riddin  nane  more  ferre 
As  well  in  Chriftendom,  as  in  Hethnefs  j 
And  evyr  honoured  for  his  worthinefs. 

At  Aleflandre'  he  was  whan  it  was  wonj 
Full  oft  timis  he  had  the  bord  begon 
Abovin  alle  naciouns  in  Pruce  -, 
In  Lettow  had  he  riddin,  and  in  Luce, 
No  Chriften-man  fo  oft  of  his  degree 
In  Granada  •,  in  the  fege  had  he  be 
Of  Algezir,  and  ridd  in  Belmary ; 
At  Leyis  war  he,  and  at  Sataly, 
Whan  that  they  wer  won  ;  and  in  the  grete  fee 
At  many'a  noble  army  had  he  be  : 
At  mortal  battails  had  he  ben  fiftene. 
And  foughtin  for  our  feith  at  Tramefcne, 
In  liftis  ihrys,  and  alwey  flein  his  fo. 

This  ilke  worthy  knight  hath  ben  alfo 
Sometimis  with  the  lord  of  Palathy, 
Ayens  anothir  hethin  in  Turky  j 
And  evirmore  he  had  a  fov'rane  prize  ; 
And  though  that  he  was  worthy,  he  was  wife  j 
And  of  his  port  as  mtke  as  is  a  maid. 
He  nevir  yet  no  villany  ne  faid 
In  all  his  life  unto  no  manner  wight: 
He  was  a  very  parfit  gentil  knight. 
But  for  to  tellin  you  of  his  array. 
His  hors  wer  good  ;  but  he  was  nothing  gay  j 
Of  fuftian  he  werfd  a  gipon, 
Alle  bcfmottrid  with  his  haburgeon. 
For  he  was  late  ycome  from  his  viage, 
And  wcnte  for  to  do  his  pilgrimage. 

The  House  of  FAME. 

The  Firft  Boke. 

"XT  O  W  herken,  as  I  have  you  faied, 
■*-^    What  that  I  mette  or  I  abraied, 
Of  December  the  tenith  daie. 
When  it  was  night,  to  flepe  1  laie, 


THE      HISTORY      OF      THE 

Right  as  I  was  wontc  for  to  docn. 
And  fill  aQcpe  wondir  lone. 
As  he  that  was  weiie  forgo 
On  pilgrimage  milis  two 
To  the  corps  of  fainft  L.eonarde, 
To  makin  lith  that  erll  was  harde. 

But  as  mc  flcpt  mc  mette  I  was 
Within  a  temple'  imadc  of  glas, 
In  whiche  there  wcrin  mo  images 
Of  golde,  ftandyng  in  fondric  lbge», 
Sette  in  mo  riche  tabirn-icles. 
And  with  perrc  mo  pinnacles. 
And  mo  curious  portraituris, 
And  qucint  manir  of  figuris 
Of  goldc  worke,  then  1  fawc  CTir. 

But  certainly  1  n'ift  ncvir 
Where  that  it  was,  but  well  wift  I 
It  was  of  Venus  rcdily 
This  temple,  for  in  purtrciture 
1  fawe  anone  right  her  figure 
Nakid  yfletyng  in  a  fe. 
And  alfo  on  her  hedde  parde 
Her  rofy  garUnd  white  and  redde. 
And  her  combe  for  to  kcmbe  her  hcddc. 
Her  dovis,  and  Dan  Cupido 
Her  blinde  fonne,  and  Vulcano, 
That  in  his  face  ywas  full  broune. 

But  as  I  romid  up  and  doune, 
I  founde  that  on  the  wall  there  was 
Thus  writtin  on  a  table*  of  bras. 

I  woll  now  fyng,  if  that  I  can. 
The  armis,  and  alio  the  man. 
That  firll  came  through  his  deftine 
Fiigitific  fro  Troye  the  countre 
Into  itaile,  with  full  mochc  pine. 
Unto  the  ftrondis  of  Lavine, 
And  tho  began  the  ftoric'  anone. 
As  I  (hall  tellin  you  ecbone. 

Firll  fawe  I  the  dilUuccion 
Of  Troie,  thorough  the  Grcke  Sinon, 
With  his  falTc  untrue  forfwcryngcs. 
And  with  his  chere  and  his  Icfynges, 
That  made  a  hori'e,  brought  into  Troye, 
By  whiche  Trojans  lofte  all  their  joye. 

And  aftir  this  was  graved,  alas ! 
How  llions  calhll  aHailed  was. 
And  won,  and  kyng  Friamus  llain. 
And  PoJites  his  ionre  certain, 
Difpitoutly  of  Dan  Pyrrhus. 

And  next  that  fawc  I  howc  Venus, 
When  that  (he  fawe  the  caftill  brcnde, 
Doune  from  hevin  (he  gan  difccnde. 
And  bade  her  fonne  ^neas  He, 
And  how  he  fled,  and  how  that  he 

Efcapid  was  from  all  the  pre?, 
And  toko  his  fathrc*,  old  Anchifes, 
And  bare  hym  on  his  backe  awaie. 
Crying  alas  and  wclawale  ! 
The  whiche  Anchifes  in  his  hande. 
Bare  tho  the  godJis  of  the  lande 
I  mene  thilke  that  unbrcnnid  were. 
Then  fawe  1  next  that  all  in  fere 
How  Creufa,  Dan  /Eneas  wife. 
Whom  that  he  lovid  all  his  life. 
And  her  yong  fonne  clepid  Julo, 
And  eke  Afcanius  alio, 
Fleddin  eke,  with  full  dreric  chere. 
That  it  was  pile  for  to  here. 
And  in  a  foreft  as  thei  went 
How  at  a  tournyng  of  a  went 
Creufa  was  ilollc,  alas ! 
That  rede  not  I,  how  that  it  was 
How  he  her  fought,  and  how  her  ghofte 
Bad  hym  to  flic  the  Grekis  hofte. 
And  faied  he  mufl:  into  Itaile, 
As  was  his  deftinie,  fauns  faile. 
That  it  was  pitic  for  to  here. 
When  that  her  fpirite  gan  appere. 
The  wordis  that  Ihe  to  hym  laied. 
And  for  to  kepc  her  fonne  hym  praied. 
There  fawe  I  gravin  eke  how  he 

His  fathir  eke,  and  his  meine 

With  his  Ihippis  began  to  faile 

Toward  the  countrey  of  Itaile, 

As  llreight  as  ere  thei  mightm  go. 
There  fawe  I  eke  the,  cruill  Juno, 

That  art  Dan  Jupiter  his  wife. 

That  hsft  ihated  all  thy  life 

Mercilefs  all  the  Trojan  blode, 

Rennin  and  crie  as  thou  were  wodc 

On  j^olus,  the  god  of  windcs. 

To  blowin  out  of  alie  kindes 

So  loude,  that  he  (hould  ydrenche 

Lorde,  and  ladie,  and  grome,  and  wenche 

Of  all  the  Trojanis  nacion. 

Without  any*  of  their  falvacion. 
There  fawe  I  foche  tempell  arife. 

That  every  herte  might  agrife. 

To  fe  it  painiid  on  the  wall. 
There  lawe  I  eke  grawin  withall, 

Venus,  how  ye,  my  ladie  dere, 

Ywcpyng  with  full  wofuU  cherc 

Yprayid  Jupiter  on  hie. 

To  lave  and  kepin  that  navie 

Of  that  dere  Trojan  ^neas, 

Sithins  that  he  your  fonne  ywas. 



Gode  counfallc  of  Chaucer. 

17  L  I  E  fro  the  prcfe  and  dwell  with  fothfallnefle, 
■*■     Suffife  unto  the  gode  though  it  be  Jmali, 
For  horde  hath  hate,  and  climbyiig  tikilneirc, 
Prtce  hath  cnvie,  and  wcle  it  brent  oer  ail, 
Savour  no  more4bcn  the  bchovin  fhall. 

Rede  well  thy  felf,  that  othir  folkc  canft  rede. 
And  trouthe  the  ihall  delivir  it  'is  uodrcdc. 
Paine  the  not  cche  crokid  to  rcdrefle. 

In  truft  of  her  that  tournith  as  a  balle, 
Crete  reft  ft.jndith  in  litil  bulincfle. 
Beware  alio  to  fpurne  ag^in  a  nalle. 
Strive  not  as  doith  a  crockc  with  a  walle, 
Dcmirh  thy  felf  that  demill  othir's  dcde. 
And  trouthe  the  fhall  deliver  it  'is  no  drede. 
That  the  is  fcnt  rcceve  in  buxomentfll-  •, 

The  wralUyng  of  this  worlds  aikith  a  fjU  ; 
Here  is  no  home,  here  is  but  wildirncflV, 
For'.he  pilgrim,  forthe  o  befl:  out  of  thy  flail, 
Loke  up  on  high,  and  thanke  thy  God  of  all, 
Wcivith  thy  luile  and  let  thy  gholl  the  lede. 
And  trouthe  the  fhall  delivir,  it  'is  no  drede. 

Balade  of  the  village  without  paintyng. 

'T'  H 1 S  wrctchid  world'is  tranfmutacion 
■*•    As  wcle  and  wo,  nov/e  pore,  and  now  honour. 
Without  ordir  cr  due  difcrecion 
Govirnid  is  by  fortun'is  crrour. 
But  nathelefle  the  lacke  of  her  favour 

Nc  male  not  doc  me  fyng  though  that  I  die, 
J'ay  tout  perdu,  mon  temps  &  mon  labcur 
For  finally  fortune  I  doc  defie. 
Yet  is  me  left  the  fight  of  my  rcfoun 

To  knowin  frende  fro  foe  in  thy  mirrour. 
So  moche  hath  yet  thy  tournyng  up  and  doun, 
I  taughtin  me  to  knowin  in  an  hour, 
But  truily  no  force  of  thy  reddour 

To  hym  that  ovir  hymfelf  hath  maiftrie,. 
My  fuffifaunce  yflial  be  my  fuccour. 
For  finally  fortune  I  do  defie. 
O  Socrates,  ihou  ftedfalt  champion. 

She  nc  might  nevir  be  thy  turmcntour. 
Thou  nevir  dreddilt  her  oppreffion, 

Ne  in  her  chcrc  foundin  thou  no  favour, 
Thou  knewe  wcle  the  difccipt  of  her  colour. 

And  that  her  mofte  worfliip  is  for  to  lie, 
1  knowe  her  eke  a  falfe  dilTimulour. 
For  finally  fortune  I  do  defie. 

The  anfwerc  of  Fortune. 

No  man  is  wretchid  but  hymfelf  it  wene. 
Me  that  yhaih  hymfelf  hath  fuffifaunce. 

Why  faiert  thou  then  I  am  to  the  fo  kene, 
1  hat  hath  ihyfclf  out  of  my  govirnaunce  ? 

Sale  thus  grant  mercie  of  thin  iiabundauncr,. 

That  thou  hafl  lentor  this,  thou  (lialt  not  llrivej. 
What  wort  thou  yet  how  1  the  woll  avauncc? 
And  eke  thou  hall  thy  beflc  frende  alive. 
1  have  the  taught  divifion  bctwene 

Frende  of  effcde,  and  frende  of  countinaunce. 
The  nedith  not  the  galle  of  an  hine. 

That  curith  eyin  derke  for  ther  penaunce, 
Now  feeft  thou  clere  that  wcr  in  ignoraunce. 
Yet  holt  thine  anker,  and  thou  maicfl  arive 
There  bountie  bereth  the  key  of  my  fubftauncc, 
And  ckc  thou  hartc  thy  befte  frende  alive. 
How  many  have  I  refufed  to  fuftene, 

Sith  I  have  the  follrid  in  tliy  pltfaunce  ? 

Wolt  thou  thcrn  make  a  (latute  on  thy  quene, 

That  I  fhall  be  aie  at  thine  ordinaoncc? 

Thou  born  art  in  my  reign  of  variaunce, 

About  the  vi'hde  with  othir  muft  thou  drive 
My  loie  is  bet,  then  wickc  is  thy  grevaunce. 
And  ckc  thou  haft  thy  befte  frende  alive. 

The  anfwere  to  Fortune. 
Thy  lore  I  dampne,  it  is  adverfitie. 

My  frcnd  maill  thou  not  revin  blind  goddefle, 
That  I  thy  frendis  knowe  I  thanke  it  the, 
Take  'hem  again,  let  'hem  go  lie  a  preftc-. 
The  nigardis  in  kepyng  ther  richcfTe 

Pronoftike  is  thou  wolt  ther  toure  afTailf, 
Wicke  appetite  comcth  aie  before  fickenclle. 
In  gcncrall  this  rule  nc  maie  not  failc. 

Thou  pinchift  at  my  mutabilitie. 

For  I  the  lent  a  droppe  of  my  richcfte. 
And  now  me  likith  to  withdrawin  me. 
Why  fliouldirt  thou  my  roialtie  opprclle  ? 
The  fe  maie  ebbe  and  fl>)win  more  and  lefTc, 

Thewclkin  hath  might  to  ftiine,  rain,  and  haile. 
Right  fo  muft  I  kithin  my  brotilnefti?. 
In  generall  this  rule  ne  maie  not  faile. 

The  PlaintiiTe. 
Lo,  the'  execucion  of  the  majcftie, 

That  all  purveighith  of  his  rightwifencfTe, 
That  fame  thyng  fortune  yclcpin  ye; 
Ye  blinde  beftia  full  of  leudenefs ! 
The  hevcn  hath  propirtie  of  fikirnefs. 

This  worldc  hath  evir  reftlefTe  travailc. 
The  laft  dale  is  the  ende  of  myne  cntrcfTe, 
In  generall  this  rule  nc  maie  not  failc. 

Th'  cnvoye  of  Fortune. 
Princes  I  praie  you  of  your  gentilncfTe, 

Let  not  this  man  and  me  thus  crie  and  plain. 
And  I  fhall  quitin  you  this  bufinelTe, 

And  if  ye  lifte  rcleve  hym  of  his  pain, 
Praie  ye  his  bcft  frende  of  his  nobltnefTc 
1  hat  to  fome  bettir  ftate  he  maie  attain. 


THE      HISTORY     OF      THE 

Lyigale  was  a  rrtonk  of  5«ry.  who  wrote  about 
the  fame  time  with  Chaucer.  Out  of  his  prologue 
to  his  third  book  of  The  Fall  of  Princes  a  few 
(lanzas  are  fclefted,  which,  being  compared  with 
the  ftylcof  his  two  contemporaries,  will  fhow  that 
our  language  was  then  not  written  by  caprice,  but 
was  in  a  fettled  (late. 

T    IKE  a  pilgrime  which  that  goeth  on  foote, 
•*-*  And  hath  none  horfe  to  releue  his  trauayle, 
Whote,  drye  and  wery,  and  may  finde  no  bote 
Of  wel  cold  whan  thruft  doth  hym  aflayle. 
Wine  nor  licour,  that  may  to  hym  auayle. 
Tight  fo  fare  I  which  in  my  bufinefle, 
No  fuccour  fynde  my  rudenes  to  redrefTe. 

1  meane  as  thus,  I  haue  no  frcfh  licour 
Out  of  the  conduices  of  Calliope, 
Nor  through  Clio  in  rhetorike  no  floure. 
In  my  labour  for  to  refrefh  me  : 
Nor  of  the  fufters  in  noumber  thrife  three. 
Which  with  Cithera  on  Parnafo  dwell,  ' 

They  neuer  me  gaue  drinke  once  of  their  wel. 

Nor  of  theyr  Ipringes  clere  and  chriftaline, 
'  That  fprange  by  touchyng  of  the  Pegafe, 
Their  fauour  lacketh  my  making  ten  lumine 
I  fynde  theyr  bawme  of  fo  great  fcarcitie. 
To  tame  their  tunnes  with  fome  drop  of  plentie 
For  Foliphemus  tTirow  his  great  blindnes, 
Hath  in  me  derked  of  Argus  the  brightnes. 

Our  life  here  fliort  of  wit  the  great  dulnes 
The  heuy  foule  troubled  with  trauayle. 
And  of  memorye  the  glafyng  brotelnes, 
Drede  and  vncunning  haue  made  a  ftrong  batail 
With  werines  my  fpirite  to  affayle. 
And  with  their  fubtil  creping  in  mod  queint 
Hath  made  my  fpirit  in  makyng  for  to  feint. 

And  ouermore,  the  ferefull  frowardnes 
Of  my  ftepmother  called  obliuion. 
Hath  a  baftyil  of  foryetfulnes, 
To  ftoppe  the  paflagc,  and  Ihadow  my  reafon 
That  I  might  haue  no  clere  direccion. 
In  tranflatinf^  of  new  to  quicke  me, 
Stories  to  write  of  olde  antiquite. 

Thus  was  I  fet  and  ftode  in  double  werre 
At  the  metyng  of  fearefiil  wayes  tweyne. 
The  one  was  this,  who  cuer  lift  to  lere, 
"Whereas  good  wyll  gan  me  conftrayne, 
Bochas  taccomplifli  for  to  doe  my  payne. 
Came  ignoraunce,  with  a  menace  of  drede, 
My  penne  to  reft  I  durft  not  procedc. 

Fortefcue  was  chief  juftice  of  the  Common  Plea's, 
in  the  reign  of  king  Henry  W.  He  retired  in 
147 1,  after  the  battle  of  Tcwkefbury,  and  pro- 
bably wrote  mod  of  his  works  in  his  privacy. 
The  following  pafla^e  is  fclectcd  from  his  book 

of  the' Difference  between  an  abfolute  and  limited  Mo- 

TJYT  may  peraventure  be  marvelid  by  fome  men, 
■*■•■•  why  one  Realme  is  a  Lordlhyp  only  Royally 
and  the  Prynce  thereof  rulyth  yt  by  his  Law,  callid 
Jus  Regale ;  and  another  Kyngdome  is  a  Lordfchip, 
Royalland  Polilike,  and  the  Prince  thereof  rulyth  by 
a  Lawe,  callyd  Jus  Politicum^  Regale-,  fythen  thes 
two  Princes  bcth  of  egail  Aftate. 

To  this  dowte  it  may  be  anfwcryd  in  this  man- 
ner; The  firft  Inftitution  of  thes  twoo  Rcalmys, 
upon  the  Incorporation  of  them,  is  the  Caufe  of 
this  diverfyte. 

When  Nembroth  by  Might,  for  his  own  Glorye, 
made  and  incorporate  the  firft  Realme,  and  lub- 
duyd  it  to  hymfelf  by  Tyrannye,  he  would  not 
have  it  governyd  by  any  other  Rule  or  Lawe, 
but  by  his  own  Will ;  by  which  and  for  th'  ac- 
complifliment  thereof  he  made  it.  And  therfor, 
though  he  had  thus  made  a  Realme,  holy  Scripture 
denyyd  to  cal  hym  a  Kyng,  ^da  Rex  dicitur  a  Re- 
^ende;  Whych  thyng  he  dyd  not,  but  oppreflyd 
the  People  by  Myght,  and  therfor  he  was  a  Ty- 
rant, and  callid  Primus  Tyranmrum,  But  holy 
Writ  callith  hym  Robuftus  Venator  coram  Deo.  For 
as  the  Hunter  takyth  ttie  wyld  befte  for  to  fcleand 
eatehymj  fo  Nembroth  fubduyd  to  him  the  People 
with  Might,  to  have  their  fervice  and  their  goods, 
ufing  upon  them  the  Lordfchip  that  is  callid  Domi- 
vium  Regale  tantum.  After  hym  Bclus  that  was 
callid  firft  a  Kyng,  and  after  hym  his  Sone  Nynus, 
and  after  hym  other  Panyms ;  They,  by  Example 
of  Nembroth,  made  them  Realmys,  would  not 
have  them  rulyd  by  other  Lawys  than  by  their  own 
Wills.  Which  Lawys  ben  right  good  under  good 
Princes;  and  theirKyngdoms  a  then  moftrefemblyd 
to  the  Kyngdome  of  God,  which  reynith  upon  Man, 
rulyng  iiim  by  hys  own  Will.  Wherfor  many 
Cryftyn  Princes  ufen  the  fame  Lawe;  and  therfor  it 
is,  that  the  Lawys  fay  en,  ^od  Principi  placuit  Legis 
habet  vigorem.  And  thus  I  fuppofe  firft  beganne  in 
Realmy-s,  Dominium  tantum  Regale.  But  afterward, 
whan  Mankynd  was  more  manfuete,  and  better  dif- 
pofyd  to  Vertue,  Grete  Communalties,  as  was  the 
Felifhip,  that  came  into  this  Lond  with  Brute, 
wyllyng  to  be  unyed  and  made  a  Body  Politike 
callid  a  Realme,  havyng  an  Heed  to  govcrne  it ;  as 
after  the  Saying  of  the  Philofophcr,  every  Com- 
munahie  unyed  of  many  parts  muft  needs  have  an 
Heed  ;  than  they  chole  the  fame  Brute  to  be  their 
Heed  and  Kyng.  And  they  and  he  upon  this  In- 
corporation and  Inftitution,  and  onyng  of  themfclf 
into  a  Realme,  ordeynyd  the  fame  Realme  fo  to  be 
rulyd  and  juftyfyd  by  fuch  Lawys,  as  they  al  would 
aflcnt  unto  ;  which  Law  therfur  is  callid  Politicum; 
and  bycaufe  it  is  mynyftrid  by  a  Kyng,  it  is  callid 




Regale.  Dominium  Poliiicum  dicitur  quafi  Regimen, 
flurium  Scientia,Jive  Confiiio  tnimfiratum.  The  Kyng 
of  Scotts  reyniih  upon  his  People  by  this  Lawc, 
videlicet,  Regimine  Politico  fc?  Regali.  And  as  Dio- 
dorus  Syculus  faith,  in  his  Boke  de  prifcis  Hijloriis, 
The  Realme  of  Egvpre  is  rulid  by  the  fame  Lawe, 
and  therfor  the  Kyng  therof  chaungith  not  his 
Lawes,  without  the  Aflent  of  his  People.  And  in 
like  forme  as  he  faith  is  ruled  the  Kyngdome  of 
Saba,  in  Felici  Arabia,  and  the  Lond  of  Libie; 
And  alfo  the  more  parte  of  al  the  Realmys  in 
Afrike.  "Which  manner  of  Rule  and  Lordfljip,  the 
fayd  Diodorus  in  that  Boke,  prayfith  gretely.  For 
it  is  not  only  good  for  the  Prince,  that  may  thereby 
the  more  fewerly  do  Jurtice,  than  by  his  owne  Ar- 
bitriment ;  but  it  is  alfo  good  for  his  People  that 
receyve  therby,  fuch  Jullice  as  they  defyer  them- 
feif.  Now  as  me  feymth,  it  ys  fhewyd  opinly 
ynough,  why  one  Kyng  rulyth  and  re_ynith  on  his 
People  Dominio  tantum  Regali,  and  that  other  rey- 
nith  Dominio  Politico  ^Regali:  For  that  one  Kyng- 

dome beganne,  of  and  by,  the  Might  of  the  Prince, 
and  the  other  beganne,  by  the  Defter  and  Inftitu- 
tion  of  the  People  of  the  fame  Prince. 

Of  the  works  of  Sir  Thomas  More  it  was  necefTary 
to  give  a  larger  fpecimcn,  both  becaufe  our  lan- 
guage was  then  in  a  great  degree  formed  and 
fettled,  and  becaufe  it  appears  from  Ben  Jonjon, 
that  his  works  were  confidered  as  models  of  pure 
and  elegant  ftyle.  The  tale,  which  is  placed  firft» 
becaufe  earlicft  written,  will  Ihow  what  an  atten- 
tive reader  will,  in  perufing  our  old  writers,  often 
remark,  that  the  familiar  and  colloquial  part  of 
our  language,  being  diffufed  among  thofe  clafles 
who  had  no  ambition  of  refinement,  lOr  affedlation 
of  novelty,  has  fuHered  very  little  change.  There 
is  another  reafon  why  the  extrads  from  this  author 
are  more  copious  :  his  works  are  carefully  and  cor- 
rectly printed,  and  may  therefore  be  better  f  ulled 
than  any  other  edition  of  the  Engltjh  books  of  that, 
or  the  preceding  ages. 

A  merry  iefl  how  a  fergeant  would 
Icarne  to  playe  the  frere.  Writ- 
ten by  maifter  Thomas  More  in 
hys  youth. 

"IXT'YSE  men  alway, 

"      Affyrmc  and  fay. 

That  beft  is  for  a  man : 
For  to  apply, 

The  bufincs  that  he  can. 
And  in  no  wyfe, 
To  enterpryfe. 

An  other  faculte. 
For  he  that  wyll. 
And  can  no  fkyll. 

Is  neuer  lyke  to  the. 
He  that  hath  lafte. 
The  hofiers  crafte. 

And  falleth  to  making  fhone, 
The  fmythe  that  (hall, 
To  payntyng  fall. 

His  thrift  is  well  nigh  done. 
A  blacke  draper. 
With  whyte  paper. 

To  goe  to  writyng  fcole," 
An  olde  butler, 
Becum  a  cutler, 

I  wene  fhall  proue  afole. 
And  an  olde  trot. 
That  can  I  wot, 

Nothyng  but  kylTc  the  cup. 
With  her  phifick, 
Wil  kepe  on  ficke, 

Tyll  (he  have  foufed  hym  vp. 

Vol.  I. 

A  man  of  lawe. 
That  neuer  fawe. 

The  wayes  to  bye  and  fell, 
Wenyng  to  ryfe. 
By  marchaundife, 

I  wi(h  to  fpede  hym  well, 
A  marchaunt  eke. 
That  wyll  goo  feke. 

By  all  the  meanes  he  may, 
To  fall  in  fute, 
Tyll  he  difpute. 

His  money  cleane  away, 
Pletyng  the  lawe. 
For  euery  ftrawe. 

Shall  proue  a  thrifty  man, 
With  bate  and  ftrifc, 
But  by  my  life, 

I  cannot  tell  you  whan. 
Whan  an  hatter 
Wyll  go  fmattcr 

In  philofophy. 
Or  a  pedlar. 
Ware  a  medlar. 

In  theology. 
All  that  enfufc, 
Suche  craftes  new. 

They  driue  fo  farre  a  caft, 
That  euermore. 
They  do  therfore, 

Befhrewe  themfelfe  at  laft. 
This  thing^was  tryed 
And  verefyed. 

Here  by  a  fergeaunt  late. 


That  thriftly  was. 
Or  he  coulde  pas, 

Rapped  about  the  pate, 
Whyle  that  he  would 
See  how  he  could, 

A  little  play  the  frere  : 
Now  yf  you  wyll, 
Knowe  how  it  fyll, 

Take  hede  and  ye  (hall  here. 
It  happed  fo. 
Not  long  ago, 

A  thrifty  man  there  dyed. 
An  hundred  pounde. 
Of  nobles  rounde. 

That  had  he  layd  a  fide : 
His  fonne  he  wolde. 
Should  haue  this  golde. 

For  to  beginne  with  all : 
But  to  fuffife 
His  chylde,  well  thrife. 

That  money  was  to  fmal. 
Yet  or  this  day 
1  have  hard  fay. 

That  many  a  man  certefle, 
Hath  with  good  cafl, 
Be  ryche  at  laft. 

That  hath  begonne  with  lefle. 
But  this  yonge  manne, 
So  well  beganne, 

His  money  to  imploy. 
That  certainly. 
His  policy. 

To  fee  it  was  a  joy. 


THE     HISTORY     OF     THE 

For  left  fum  blaft, 
Myght  ouer  raft. 

His  (hip,  or  by  mifchauncc, 
Men  with  fum  wile, 
Myght  hym  begyle. 

And  mini(h  his  fubftaunce, 
For  to  put  out. 
All  mancr  dout. 

He  made  a  good  puruay. 
For  euery  whyt. 
By  his  owne  wyr, 

And  toke  an  other  way  : 
Firft  fayrc  and  wele, 
Therof  much  dele. 

He  dygged  it  in  a  pot, 
But  then  him  thought. 
That  way  was  nought. 

And  there  he  left  it  not. 
So  was  he  faine. 
From  thence  agayne. 

To  put  it  in  a  cup. 
And  by  and  by, 

He  fupped  it  fayre  vp. 
In  his  owne  brcft. 
He  thought  it  bcft. 

His  money  to  cnclofe, 
Therv  wift  he  well, 
"What  euer  fell, 

He  coulde  it  neuer  lofe. 
He  borrowed  then, 
Of  other  men, 

Money  and  marchaundife : 
Neuer  payd  it. 
Up  he  laid  it. 

In  like  maner  wyfe. 
Yet  on  the  gere. 
That  he  would  were,' 

He  reight  not  what  he  fpent. 
So  it  were  nyce. 
As  for  the  price. 

Could  him  not  mifcontent. 
"With  lufty  fporte, 
And  with  rclort, 

Of  ioly  company, 
In  mirth  and  play. 
Full  many  a  day. 

He  liU'.d  merely. 
And  men  had  fworne. 
Some  man  is  borne. 

To  haue  a  lucky  howre. 
And  fo  was  he. 
For  fuch  dcgrc, 

He  gat  and  fuche  honour. 
That  without  dour, 
"Whan  he  went  our,    ^ 

A  fergcaunt  well  and  fayrc, 

Was  redy  ftrayte. 
On  him  to  wayte. 

As  fone  as  on  the  mayre. 
But  he  doubtlefTe, 
Of  his  mckcnefrc. 

Hated  fuch  pompc  and  pride. 
And  -would  not  go, 
Companicd  fo. 

But  drewe  himfelf  a  fide. 
To  faint  Kaiharin?, 
Strei^  as  a  line. 

He  gate  him  at  a  tyde. 
For  deuocion. 
Or  promocion. 

There  would  he  nedcs  abyde. 
There  fpent  he  f^ft, 
Till  all  were  paft. 

And  to  him  came  there  meny. 
To  afke  theyr  debt. 
But  none  could  get. 

The  valour  of  a  peny. 
With  vifage  ftout, 
He  bare  it  our, 

Euen  vnto  the  harde  hedge, 
A  month  or  twaine, 
Tyll  he  was  fayne. 

To  lay  his  gowne  to  pledge. 
Than  was  he  there. 
In  greater  feare. 

Than  ere  that  he  came  thither. 
And  would  as  fayne. 
Depart  againe. 

But  that  he  wift  not  whither. 
Than  after  this. 
To  a  frende  of  his, 

He  went  and  there  abode, 
Where  as  he  lay. 
So  fick  alway. 

He  myght  not  come  abrcde. 
It  happed  than, 
A  marchaunt  man. 

That  he  ought  money  tro. 
Of  an  officere, 
That  gan  enquere. 

What  him  was  bcft  to  do. 
And  he  anfwerde. 
Be  not  aferde. 

Take  an  accion  thcrfore, 
I  you  belicrte, 
I  ftiall  hym  rcfte. 

And  than  carc  for  no  more. 
I  feare  qviod  he. 
It  wyll  not  be. 

For  he  wyll  not  come  out. 
The  fergc,!unt  faid. 
Be  not  afra\d. 

It  ftiall  be  brought  about. 

In  many  a  game, 
Lyke  to  the  fame, 

Haue  I  bene  well  in  vre. 
And  for  your  fake. 
Let  me  be  bake. 

But  yf  I  do  this  cure. 
Thus  part  they  both. 
And  foorth  then  goth,. 

A  pace  this  officere. 
And  for  a  day. 
All  his  array. 

He  chaunged  with  a  frcre. 
So  was  he  dight, 
That  no  man  might, 

Hym  for  a  frere  deny. 
He  doppcd  and  dooked. 
He  fp>ike  and  looked. 

So  religioofly. 
Yet  in  a  glafle. 
Or  he  would  pafie. 

He  toted  and  he  peered,' 
His  harte  for  pryde, 
Lepte  in  his  fyde. 

To  fee  how  well  he  freeied. 
Than  forth  a  pace. 
Unto  the  place. 

He  goeth  withouten  ftiame 
To  do  this  dede. 
But  now  take  hede. 

For  here  begynneth  the  game. 
He  drew  hym  ny. 
And  foftely, 

Streyght  at  the  dore  he  knocked : 
And  a  damfeil, 
That  hard  hym  well. 

There  came  and  it  vnlocked. 
The  frere  fayd. 
Good  fpede  fayre  mayd. 

Here  lodgeth  fuch  a  man, 
It  is  told  me  : 
Well  fyr  quod  flie. 

And  yf  he  do  what  than. 
Qiiod  he  mayftrefTe, 
No  harm  doutieffe  : 

It  longeth  for  our  order. 
To  liurt  no  man. 
But  as  we  can, 

Euery  wight  to  forder. 
With  hym  truly, 
Fayne  fpeake  would  I. 

Sir  quod  flie  by  my  fay. 
He  is  fo  fike. 
Ye  be  not  lyke. 

To  fpeake  with  hym  to  day. 
Qiiod  he  fayrc  may. 
Yet  I  you  prjy. 

This  muclr  at  my  defire, 



Vouchefafe  to  do, 
As  go  hym  to. 

And  fay  an  auften  frere 
Would  with  hym  Tpeke, 
And  matters  breake. 

For  his  auayle  certayn. 
Quod  fhe  I  wyll, 
Stonde  ye  here  ftyll, 

Tyll  1  come  dovvne  agayn. 
Vp  is  (he  go. 
And  told  hym  fo, 

As  fhe  was  bode  to  fay. 
He  miftruftyng, 
No  maner  thyng, 

Sayd  mayden  go  thy  way. 
And  fetch  him  hyder. 
That  we  togyder. 

May  talk.     A  downe  (he  goth 
Vp  fhe  hym  brought. 
No  harme  (he  thought. 

But  it  made  fome  foike  wrothe, 
This  officere. 
This  fayned  frere. 

Whan  he  was  come  aloft, 
He  dopped  than, 
And  grece  this  man, 

Religioudy  and  oft. 
And  he  agayn, 
Ryght  glad  and  fayn, 

Toke  hym  there  by  the  hande. 
The  frere  than  fayd. 
Ye  be  difmayd. 

With  trouble  I  underllande. 
In  dede  quod  he. 
It  hath  with  me, 

Bene.better  than  it  is. 
Syr  quod  the  frere. 
Be  of  good  cherr. 

Yet  (hall  it  after  this. 
But  I  would  now, 
Comen  with  you, 

In  counfayle  yf  you  pleafe, 
Or  ellys  nac 
Of  matters  that. 

Shall  fet  your  heart  at  cafe. 
Downe  went  the  mayd. 
The  marchauni  fayd. 

No  fay  on  gentle  frere, 
Of  thys  tydyng. 
That  ye  me  bryng, 

I  tong  full  fore  to  here. 
Whan  there  was  none, 
But  they  alone, 
The  frere  with  cuyll  gracp, 

Sayd,  I  reft  the. 
Come  on  with  me. 

And  out  he  toke  his  mace  : 
Thou  (halt  obay. 
Come  on  thy  way, 

I  have  the  in  my  douche. 
Thou  goeft  not  hence. 
For  all  the  penfe 

The  mayre  hath  in  his  pouche. 
This  marchaunt  there. 
For  wrath  and  fere,. 

He  waxyng  welnygh  wood, 
Sayd  horlbn  thefe, 
Witli  a  mifchefc. 

Who  hach  taught  thee  thy  good. 
And  with  his  filb, 
Vpon  the  lyft, 
e.     He  gaue  hym  fuch  a  blow. 
That  backward  downe, 
Almoft  in  fowne. 

The  frere  is  ouerthrow. 
Yet  was  this  man. 
Well  fearder  than. 

Left  he  the  frere  had  flayne. 
Till  with  good  rappes. 
And  heuy  clappes. 

He  dawde  hym  vp  agayne. 
The  frere  toke  harte. 
And  vp  he  ftarte. 

And  well  he  layde  about, 
And  fo  there  goth, 
Bctwene  them  both. 

Many  a  lufty  clout. 
They  rent  and  tcre, 
Eche  others  here. 

And  claue  togyder  faft, 
Tyll  with  luggyng. 
And  with  tuggyng. 

They  fell  downe  bothe  at  laft. 
Than  on  the  grounde, 
Togyder  rounde. 

With  many  a  fadde  ftroke. 
They  roll  and  rumble. 
They  turne  and  tumble. 

As  pygges  do  in  a  poke. 
So  long  aboue. 
They  heus  and  (houe, 

Togider  that  at  laft. 
The  mayd  and  wyfc. 
To  breake  the  ftrife, 

Hyed  ihem  vpward  fafl-. 
And  whan  they  fpye, 
The  captaynes  lye. 

Both  wahring  on  the  place. 

The  freres  hood. 
They  pulled  a  good, 

Adowne  about  his  face. 
Whyle  he  was  blynde. 
The  wenche  behynde. 

Lent  him  leyd  on'^he  flore, 
M;'.ny  a  ioule. 
About  the  noule. 

With  a  great  batyldore. 
The  wyfe  came  yet. 
And  with  her  fete. 

She  holpe  to  kepe  him  downe. 
And  with  her  rocke. 
Many  a  knocke. 

She  gaue  hym  on  the  crowne. 
They  layd  his  mace. 
About  his  face. 

That  he  was  wood  for  payne : 
The  fryre  frappe, 
Gate  many  a  fwappe, 

Tyll  he  was  full  nygh  flayne. 
Vp  they  hym  life. 
And  with  yll  thrift, 

Hedlyng  a  long  the  ftayre, 
Downe  they  hym  threwe. 
And  fayde  adewe, 

Commcnde  us  to  the  mayre. 
The  frere  arofe. 
But  I  fuppofe, 

Amafed  was  his  hed. 
He  Pnoke  his  eares. 
And  from  grcte  feares. 

He  thought  hym  well  yfled. 
Qiiod  he  now  loft. 
Is  all  this  coft. 

We  be  neuer  the  nere. 
Ill  mote  he  be. 
That  caufcd  me. 

To  make  my  felf  a  frere. 
Now  mafters  all. 
Here  now  I  ftiall, 

Ende  there  as  I  began. 
In  any  wyfe, 
1  would  auyfe. 

And  counfayle  euery  man, 
His  owne  craft  vfe. 
All  newe  rcfufe. 

And  lyghtly  let  them  gone: 
Play  not  the  frere. 
Now  make  good  chere. 

And  welcome  euerych  one. 

[ij   2 

A  ruful 

THE     HISTORY     OF     THE 

A  ruful  lamentacion  (writcn  by  maftcr  Thomas 
More  in  his  youth)  of  the  dcth  of  quene  Elifa- 
beth  mother  to  king  Henry  the  eight,  wife  to 
king  Henry  the  feucnth,  and  the  cldeft  doughter 
to  king  Edward  the  fourih,  which  quene  Elifa- 
bcth  dyed  in  childbed  in  February  in  the  yere  of 
our  Lord  1503,  and  in  the  18  yere  of  the  raigne 
of  king  Henry  the  feucnth. 

/^  Y  li  that  put  your  truft  and  confidence, 

^^   In  worldly  ioy  and  frayle  profperiie. 

That  fo  lyue  here  as  ye  (hould  neuer  hence, 

Remember  death  and  loke  here  vppon  me. 

Enfaumple  I  thynke  there  may  no  better  be. 

Your  felfc  wottc  well  that  in  this  realme  was  T, 

Your  quene  but  late,  and  lo  now  here  I  lye. 
Was  I  not  borne  of  olde  worthy  linage  ? 

Was  not  my  mother  quecne  my  father  kyng  ? 

Was  I  not  a  kinges  fere  in  marriage  ? 

Had  I  not  plenty  of  euery  plcafaunt  thyng  ? 

Mercifull  god  this  is  a  ftraunge  reckenyng : 

Rychcffc-,  honour,  welth,  and  aunceftry. 

Hath  me  forfaken  and  lo  now  here  I  ly. 

If  worfhip  myght  haue  kept  me,  I  had  not  gone. 

If  wyt  myght  haue  me  faued,  I  neded  not  fere. 

If  money  myght  haue  holpe,  I  lacked  none. 

But  O  good  God  what  vayleth  all  this  gere. 

When  dtth  is  come  thy  mighty  mefTangcre, 

Obey  we  muft  there  is  no  remedy. 

Me  hath  he  fommoned,  and  lo  now  here  I  ly. 
Yet  was  I  late  promifed  otherwyfe. 

This  yere  to  liue  in  welth  and  delice. 

Lo  where  to  commeth  thy  blandifhyng  promyfe, 

O  falfe  aftrolagy  and  deuynatrice. 

Of  goddes  fecretes  makyng  thy  felfe  fo  wyfe. 

How  true  is  for  this  yere  thy  prophecy. 

The  yere  yet  lafteth,  and  lo  now  here  I  ly. 
O  bryttil  welth,  as  full  of  bitternefle. 

Thy  fingle  pleafure  doubled  is  with  payne. 

Account  my  forow  firft  and  my  diftrefTe, 
In  fondry  wyfe,  and  recken  there  agayne. 
The  ioy  that  I  haue  had,  and  I  dare  fayne. 
For  all  my  honour,  endured  yet  haue  ly, 
More  wo  than  welth,  and  lo  now  here  1  ly. 

Where  are  our  cartels,  now  where  are  our  towers. 
Goodly  Rychmonde  foiie  arc  thi)U  gone  from  me, 
Al  Weftminfter  that  coftly  worke  of  yours, 
Myne  owne  derc  lorde  now  (hall  I  neuer  fee. 
Almighty  god  vouchefafe  to  graunt  that  ye. 
For  you  and  your  children  well  may  edety. 
My  paly.e  bylded  is,  and  lo  now  here  I  ly. 

Adew  myne  owne  dcre  fpoufe  my  worthy  lorde, 
The  faithfull  loue,  that  dyd  vs  both  combyne. 
In  mariagc  and  peafable  concorde. 
Into  your  han.ies  here  1  clcane  refyne. 
To  be  beftowed  vppon  your  children  and  myne. 
Erft  wer  you  father,  and  now  muft  ye  fupply. 
The  mothers  part  alfo,  for  lo  now  here  1  ly. 

Farewell  my  doughter  lady  Margerete. 
God  wotce  full  oft  it  greucd  huh  my  mynde, 
That  ye  fliould  go  where  we  fliould  feldome  metCt 
Now  am  1  gone,  and  haue  left  you  behynde. 
O  mortall  folke  that  we  be  very  blyndc. 
That  we  leaft  feare,  full  oft  it  is  moft  nyc. 
From  you  depart  I  fyrft,  and  lo  now  here  I  ly. 

Farewell  Madame  my  lordes  worthy  mother. 
Comfort  your  fonne,  and  be  ye  of  good  chere. 
Take  all  a  worth,  for  it  will  be  no  nother. 
Farewell  my  doughter  Katherine  late  the  fere, 
To  prince  Arthur  myne  owne  chyld  fo  dere. 
It  booteth  not  for  me  to  wepe  or  cry. 
Pray  for  my  foule,  for  lo  now  here  I  ly. 

Adew  lord  Henry  my  louyng  fonne  adew. 
Our  lorde  encreafe  your  honour  and  eftate, 
Adew  my  doughter  Mary  bright  of  hew, 
God  make  you  vertuous  wyfe  and  fortunate. 
Adew  fwete  hart  my  litle  doughter  Kate, 
Thou  (halt  fwete  babe  fuche  is  thy  defteny. 
Thy  mother  neuer  know,  for  lo  now  here  I  ly. 

Lady  Cicyly  Anne  and  Katheryne, 
Farewell  my  welbeloved  fillers  three, 

0  lady  Briget  other  fifter  myne, 

Lo  here  thcende  of  worldly  vanitee. 
Now  well  are  ye  that  earthly  foly  fiee. 
And  heuenly  thynges  loue  and  magnify. 
Farewell  and  pray  for  me,  for  lo  now  here  I  ly, 

A  dew  my  lordes,  a  dew  my  ladies  all, 
A  dew  my  faithful  feruauntes  euerych  one, 
A  dew  my  commons  whom  1  neuer  fliall, 
See  in  this  world  wherfore  to  the  alone. 
Immortal!  god  verely  three  and  one, 

1  me  conimende.     Thy  infinite  mercy. 
Shew  to  thy  feruant,  for  lo  now  here  I  ly. 

Certain  meters  in  Englilh  written  by  mafter  Thomas 
More  in  hys  youth  for  the  boke  of  fortune,  and 
caufed  them  to  be  printed  in  the  begynnyng  of 
that  boke. 

The  wordes  of  Fortune  to  the  people. 

TV/TINE  high  eftate  power  and  audtoritie, 
■^  ■*■  If  \e  ne  know,  enferche  and  ye  (hall  fpye. 
That  riche{re,  worfhip,  welth,  and  dignirie, 
Joy,  reft,  and  peace,  and  all  thyng  fynally. 
That  any  pleafure  or  profit  may  come  by. 
To  mannes  comfort,  ayde,  and  fuftinaunce. 
Is  all  at  my  deuyfe  and  ordinaunce. 

Without  my  fauour  there  is  nothyng  wonne. 
Many  a  matter  haue  I  brought  at  laft, 
To  good  conckifion,  that  fondly  was  begonne. 
And  many  a  purpofe,  bounden  fure  and  taft 
With  wife  prouifion,  I  haue  ouercaft. 
Without  good  happe  there  may  no  wit  fufEfe. 
Better  is  to  be  fortunate  than  wyfe. 



And  therefore  hath  there  fome  men  bene  or  this. 
My  deadly  foes  and  written  many  a  boke. 
To  my  diiprayfe.     And  other  caufe  there  nys. 
But  for  me  hft  not  fiendly  on  them  loke. 
Thus  lyke  the  fox  they  fare  that  once  iorfoke, 
The  pleafaunt  grapes,  and  gan  for  to  defy  them, 
Becaufe  he  Icpt  and  yet  could  not  come  by  them. 

But  let  them  write  thcyr  labour  is  in  vayne. 
For  well  ye  wote,  myrth,  honour,  and  ticheffe. 
Much  better  is  than  penury  and  payne. 
The  nedy  wretch  that  iihgereth  in  diftrefle. 
Without  myne  helpe  is  euer  comfortlefle, 
A  wery  burden  odious  and  loth. 
To  all  the  world,  and  eke  to  him  felfe  both. 

But  he  that  by  my  fauour  may  afcende. 
To  mighty  power  and  excellent  degree, 
A  common  wele  to  gouerne  and  dcfendc, 
O  in  how  blift  condition  ftandeth  he: 
Him  felf  in  honour  and  fclicite, 
And  ouer  that,  may  forther  and  increafe, 
A  region  hole  in  ioyfull  reft  and  peace. 

Now  in  this  poynt  there  is  no  more  to  fay, 
Eche  man  hath  of  him  fclf  the  gouernaunce. 
Let  euery  wight  than  folowe  his  owne  way. 
And  he  that  out  of  pouertee  and  mifchaunce. 
Lift  for  to  liue,  and  wyll  him  fclfe  cnhaunce. 
In  wealth  and  richefle,  come  forth  and  wayie  on 

And  he  that  wyll  be  a  beggar,  let  hym  be. 

Thomas  More  to  them  that  truft  in  Fortune. 

'T'HOU  that  art  prowde  of  honour  (hape  or  kynne, 
"*•    That  hepeft  vp  this  wretched  worldes  treafure. 
Thy  fingers  ftirined  with  gold,  thy  tawny  fkynne. 
With  freftj  apparyle  garnilhed  out  of  meafure. 
And  weneft  to  haue  fortune  at  thy  plcafure, 
Caft  vp  thyne  eye,  and  loke  how  flipper  chaunce, 
llludeth  her  men  with  chaunge  and  varyaunce. 

Sometyme  ftie  lokcth  as  louely  fayre  and  bright, 
As  goodly  Ucnus  mother  of  Cupydc. 
She  becketh  and  ftie  fmileth  on  eucry  wight. 
But  this  chere  fayned,  may  not  long  abide. 
There  comcth  a  cloude,  and  farewell  all  our  pryde. 
Like  any  ferpcnt  ftie  beginneth  to  fwell. 
And  looketh  as  fierce  as  any  fury  of  hell. 

Yet  for  all  that  we  brotle  men  are  fayne, 
(So  wretched  is  our  nature  and  fo  blynde) 
As  foone  as  Fortune  lift  to  laugh  agayne, 
With  fayre  countenaunce  and  difceitfull  mynde. 
To  crouche  and  knele  and  gape  after  the  wynde. 
Not  one  or  twayne  but  thoufandes  in  a  rout, 
Lyke  fwarmyng  bees  come  flickeryng  her  aboute. 

Then  as  a  bayte  ftie  bryngeth  forth  her  ware, 
Siluer,  gold,  riche  perle,  and  precious  ftone; 
On  whiche  the  mated  people  gafe  and  ftare. 
And  gape  therefore,  as  dogges  doe  for  the  bone, 
l^criune  ac  them  laughctb,  and  in  her  trone 

Amyd  her  treafure  and  waueryng  rychefle, 
Prowdly  ftie  houeth  as  lady  and  emprefic. 

Faft  by  her  fyde  doth  wery  labour  ftand. 
Pale  fere  alfo,  and  forow  all  bewept, 
Difdayn  and  hatred  on  the  other  hand. 
Eke  reftles  watchefro  flepe  with  trauayle  kept. 
His  eyes  drowfy  and  lokyng  as  he  flept. 
Before  her  ftandeth  daunger  and  enuy. 
Flattery,  dyfceyt,  mifchitfe  and  tiranny. 

About  her  commeth  all  the  world  to  begge. 
He  afl<e:h  lande,  and  he  to  pas  would  bryng. 
This  toye  and  that,  and  all  not  worth  an  cgge: 
He  would  in  loue  profper  aboue  all  thyng: 
He  kneleth  downe  and  would  be  made  a  kyng: 
He  forceth  not  fo  he  may  money  haue, 
Though  all  the  worlde  accompt  hym  for  a  knauc. 

Lo  thus  ye  fee  diucrs  heddes,  diuers  wittes. 
Fortune  alone  as  diuers  as  they  all, 
Vnftable  here  and  there  among  them  flittesr 
And  at  auenture  downe  her  giftcs  fall. 
Catch  who  fo  may  ftie  throweth  great  and  fmall 
Not  to  all  men,  as  commeth  fonne  or  dewe. 
But  for  the  moft  part,  all  among  a  fewe. 

And  yet  her  brotell  giftes  long  may  not  laft. 
He  that  ftiegaue  them,  loketh  prowde  and  hyc. 
She  whirlth  about  and  pluckth  away  as  faft. 
And  geueth  them  to  an  other  by  and  by. 
And  thus  from  man  to  man  continually. 
She  vfeth  to  geue  and  take,  and  flily  tofle. 
One  man  to  wynnyng  of  an  others  lofte. 

And  when  ftie  robbeth  one,  down  goth  his  pryde. 
He  wepeth  and  wayleth  and  curfeth  her  full  fore. 
But  he  that  receueth  it,  on  that  other  fyde. 
Is  glad,  and  blefth  her  often  tymes  therefore. 
But  in  a  whyle  when  ftie  loueth  hym  no  more» 
She  glydeth  from  hym,  and  her  giftes  to. 
And  he  her  curfeth,  as  other  fooles  do. 

Alas  the  folyfti  people  can  not  ceafe, 
Ne  voyd  her  trayne,  tyll  they  the  harme  do  fele. 
About  her  alway,  befely  they  preace. 
But  lord  how  he  doth  thynk  hym  felf  full  wele. 
That  may  fct  once  his  hande  vppon  her  whele. 
He  holdeth  faft:  but  vpward  as  he  flieth. 
She  whippeth  her  whele  about,  and  there  he  lyeth. 

Thus  fell  Julius  from  his  mighty  power. 
Thus  fell  Darius  the  worthy  kyng  of  Perfe. 
Thus  fell  Alexander  the  great  conquerour. 
Thus  many  mo  then  I  may  well  reherfe. 
Thus  double  fortune,  when  flie  lyft  reuerfe 
Her  flipper  fauour  fro  them  that  in  her  truft. 
She  fieeth  her  wey  and  leyeth  them  in  the  duft. 

She  fodeinly  enhaunceth  them  aloft. 
And  fodeynly  mifcheueth  all  the  flocke. 
The  head  that  late  lay  eafily  and  full  loft. 
In  ftede  of  pylows  lyeth  after  on  the  blocke. 
And  yet  alas  the  moft  crucll  proude  mocker 
1  he  deynty  mowth  that  ladyes  kifled  haue. 
She  bryngeth  in  the  cafe  to  kyCfe  a  knaue. 


THE      HISTORY      OF      THE 

In  chaungyngof  her  courfe,  the  chaunge  {hcwth 
Vp  ftartth  a  knaue,  and  downe  there  faith  a  knight, 
The  beggar  ryche,  and  the  ryche  man  pore  is. 
Hatred  is  turned  to  loue,  loue  to  defpyght. 
This  is  her  fporr,  thus  proueth  fhe  her  myght. 
Great  bode  flie  maketh  yf  one  be  by  her  pov/cr, 
Wclthy  and  wretched  both  within  an  howre. 

I'oucrtec  that  of  her  giftcs  wyl  nothing  take, 
"Wyth  mery  chere,  looketh  vppon  the  prece. 
And  feeth  how  fortunes  houlhold  goeth  to  wrake. 
Faft  by  her  ftandeth  the  wyfe  Socrates, 
Arriftippus,  Pythagoras,  and  many  a  Icfe, 
Of  olde  philofophcrs.     And  eke  agaynft  the  fonnc 
Btrkyth  hym  poors  Diogenes  in  his  tonne. 

With  her  is  Byas,  whofe  countrey  lackt  defence, 
And  whylom  of  their  foes  ftode  fo  in  dout. 
That  eche  man  hartely  gan  to  cary  thence. 
And  afked  hym  why  he  nought  caryed  out. 
1  bere  quod  he  all  myne  with  me  about: 
Wiledom  he  ment,  not  fortunes  brotle  fees. 
For  nought  he  counted  his  that  he  might  leefe. 

Heraclitus  eke,  lyft  felowfliip  to  kepe 
With  glad  pouertee,  Democritus  alio: 
Of  which  the  fyrfl:  can  neuer  ceafe  but  wepe, 
To  fee  how  thick  the  blynded  people  go, 
"With  labour  great  to  purchafe  care  and  wo. 
That  other  laughcth  to  fee  the  foolyfh  apes, 
How  earneftly  they  walk  about  theyr  capes. 

Of  this  poore  fcft,  it  is  comen  vfage, 
Onely  to  take  that  nature  may  foftayne, 
Binilhing  cleane  all  other  furplufage. 
They  be  content,  and  of  nothyng  complayne. 
No  nygarde  eke  is  of  his  good  lo  fayne. 
But  they  more  ple^fure  haue  a  thoufande  folde, 
'1  he  i'ecrete  draughtes  of  nature  to  beholde. 

Set  fortunes  lervauntes  by  them  and  ye  wull,  one  is  free,  that  other  euer  thrall. 
That  one  content,  that  other  neuer  full, 
'I'hat  one  in  furetye,  that  other  lyke  to  fall. 
"Who  lyrt  to  adiiile  them  bothe,  parceyue  he  (hall. 
As  great  difference  between  them  as  we  fee, 
Betv.ixte  wretchcdnes  and  fciicite.  haue  I  fhewed  you  bothe:  thefe  whiche  ye 


Stately  fortune,  or  humble  poucrtec: 
That  is  to  fay,  nowe  lyeth  it  in  your  fyft. 
To  take  here  bondag'e,  or  free  liberiee. 
But  in  thys  poynte  and  ye  do  after  me, 
Dr.iw  you  to  fortune,  and  labour  her  to  pleafe, 
If  that  ye  thynke  your  fclfe  to  well  at  eafe. 

And  fyrft  vppon  the  louely  (hall  (he  fmile, 
And  frcndlv  on  the  caft  her  wandering  eyes 
Embrace  the  in  her  armes,  and  for  a  whyle, 
Put  the  and  kepe  the  in  a  foolcs  paradifc: 
And  foorth  with  all  whit  fo  thou  lyft  deuife. 
She  wyll  the  graunt  it  liberally  perhappes  : 
But  for  all  that  beware  of  after  clappcs. 

Recken  you  neuer  of  her  fauoure  fure: 
Ye  may  in  clowds  as  eafily  trace  an  hare. 
Or  in  drye  lande  caufe  fiflies  to  endure. 
And  make  the  burnyng  fyrc  his  hcate  to  fpare. 
And  all  thys  worlde  in  compace  to  forfare, 
As  her  to  make  by  craft  or  engine  (lable. 
That  of  her  nature  is  euer  variable. 

Serue  her  day  and  nyght  as  reuerently, 
Vppon  thy  knees  as  any  feru^unt  may. 
And  in  conclufion,  that  thou  flialt  winne  thereby 
Shall  not  be  worth  thy  fervyce  I  dare  fay. 
And  looke  yet  what  Ihe  geueth  the  lo  day. 
With  labour  wonne  (he  (hall  happly  to  morow 
Plucke  it  agayne  out  of  thyne  hand  with  forow. 

Wherefore  yf  thou  in  furetye  lyft  to  ftande. 
Take  pouerties  parte  and  let  prowde  fortune  go-, 
Receyue  nothyng  that  commeth  from  her  hande. 
Loue  maner  and  vertue:  they  be  onely  tho. 
Whiche  double  fortune  may  not  take  the  fro. 
Then  may  ft  th6u  boldly  defye  her  turnyng  chaunce : 
She  can  the  neyther  hynder  nor  auaunce. 

But  and  thou  wylt  nedes  medie  with  her  treafure/ 
Truft  not  therein,  and  fpende  it  liberally. 
-Beare  the  not  proude,  nor  take  not  out  of  meafure. 
Bylde  not  thyne  houfe  on  heyth  vp  in  the  (kye. 
Nonne  falleth  farre,  but  he  that  climbeth  hye. 
Remember  nature  fent  the  hyther  bare. 
The  gyftes  of  fortune  count  them  borowed  ware. 

Thomas  More  to  them  that  fcke  Fortune. 

WHO  {o  delyteth  to  prouen  and  aCfay, 
Of  waveryng  fortune  the  vncertayne  lot, 
If  that  the  aunfwere  pleafe  you  not  alway. 
Blame  ye  not  tne:  for  I  commaunde  you  nor. 
Fortune  to  truft,  and  eke  full  well  ye  vvor, 
I  haue  of  her  no  brydle  in  my  lift, 
She  rcnneth  loofe,  and  turnetn  where  (lie  lyft. 

TheroUyngdyfe  inwhomeyourluckedothltande. 
With  whole  vnhappy  chaunce  ye  be  fo  wroth. 
Ye  knowe  your  felfe  came  neuer  in  myne  hande. 
Lo  in  rjiis  ponde  be  fydie  and  frogges  both. 
Caft  in  your  nette :  but  be  you  liefe  or  lotiie. 
Hold  you  content  as  fortune  lyft  ailyne: 
For  it  is  your  owne  fylhyng  and  not  myne. 

And  though  in  one  chaunce  fortune  you  oftcnd. 
Grudge  not  there  at,  but  beare  a  mery  face. 
In  many  an  other  Ihe  (hall  it  amende. 
There  is  no  manne  fo  farre  out  of  her  grace. 
But  he  Ibmetyme  hath  comfort  and  folace: 
Ne  none  agayne  fo  farre  foorth  in  her  fauour. 
That  is  full  fatisfyed  with  her  behauiour. 

Fortune  is  llately,  folemne,  prowde,  and  hye: 
And  rychelTe  geueth,  to  haue  feruyce  therefore. 
The  nedy  begger  catcheth  an  halfpeny. 
Some  manne  a  thoufande  pounde,  fome  lefie  feme 

But  for  all  chat  (he  kepcth  euer  in  (lore. 



From  euery  manne  fome  parcell  of  his  wyl!. 
That  he  may  pray  therfore  and  ferue  her  ftyll. 

Some  manne  hath  good,  but-chyldren  hath  he 
Some  manne  hath  both,  but  he  can  get  none  health. 
Some  hath  al  thre,  but  vp  to  honours  trone, 
Can  he  not  crepe,  by  no  maner  of  ftelth. 
'J"o  fome  fhe  fendt-ih,  children,  ryches,  welthe. 
Honour,  woorfhyp,  and  reuerence  all  hys  lyfe: 
But  yet  fhe  pynchech  hym  with  a  fhrewde  wyfe. 

Then  for  afmuch  as  it  is  fortunes  guyfe. 
To  graunt  to  manne  all  thyng  that  he  wyll  axe. 
But  as  her  felfe  lyft  order  and  deuyfe, 
Toth  eucry  manne  his  parte  diuide  and  tax, 
1  counlayle  you  eche  one  trufTe  vp  your  packes. 
And  take  no  thyng  at  all,  or  be  content. 
With  fnche  rcvvarde  as  fortune  hath  you  fent. 

All  thynges  in  this  boke  that  ye  fhall  rede. 
Doe  as  ye  lyft,  there  Jhall  no  manne  you  bynde. 
Them  to  beleue,  as  furely  as  your  crede. 
But  notwithltandyng  certes  in  my  mynde, 
I  durft  well  fwere,  as  true  ye  (hall  them  fynde. 
In  euery  poynt  eche  anfwere  by  and  by. 
As  are  the  iudgementes  of  aftronomye. 


The  Defcripcion  of  Richard  the  thirde. 

ICHARDE  the  third  fonne,  of  whom  we 
nowe  entrcate,  was  in  witte  and  courige  egall 
with  cither  of  ihem,  in  bodye  and  prowefle  farre 
vnder  them  bothe,  little  of  ftature,  ill  fetured  of 
limmes,  croke  backed,  his  left  (boulder  much 
higher  than  his  right,  hard  fauoured  of  vifage,  and 
fuch  as  is  in  ftates  called  warlye,  in  other  menne 
otherwife,  he  was  malicious,  wrathfull,  cnuious, 
and  from  afore  his  binh,  euer  frowarde.  It  is  for 
trouth  reported,  that  the  duches  his  mother  had  fo 
much  a  doe  in  her  trauaile:  that  fhee  coulde  not 
bre  deliuered  of  hym  vncutte,  and  that  he  came 
into  the  world  with  the  feete  forwarde,  as  menne 
bee  borne  outwarde,  and  (as  the  fame  runneth)  alfo 
not  vntothed,  whither  menne  of  hatred  reporte 
aboue  the  trouthe,  or  elles  that  nature  chaungcd 
her  courfe  in  hys  beginninge,  whiche  in  the  courfe 
of  his  lyfe  many  thinges  vnnaturallye  committed. 
None  euill  captaine  was  hce  in  the  warre,  as  to 
whiche  his  difpoficion  was  more  metcly  then  for 
peace.  Sundrye  viftories  hadde  hee,  and  fomme- 
time  ouerthrowes,  but  neuer  in  defaulte  as  for  his 
owne  parfone,  either  of  hardineffe  or  polytike  order, 
free  was  hee  called  of  dyfpence,  and  fommcwhat 
aboue  hys  power  liberall,  with  large  giftes  hee  get 
him  vnftedfarte  frendelhippe,  for  whiche  hee  was 
fain  to  pil  and  fpoyle  in  other  places,  and  get  him 
p ...u  a  t-ijtrt-d,  Hee  was  dole  and  fecrete,  a  deepe 
<  T,  lowlye  of'couiiteynaunce,  arrogant  of 

heart,  outwardly  coumpinable  where  he  inwardf  ly 

hated,  not  letting  to  kifle  whome  he  thoughte  to 
k\l!:  difpitious  and  crucll,  not  for  euill  will  alway, 
but  after  for  ainbicion,  and  either  for  the  I'uretie  arvd 
encreafe  of  his  eftate.  Frende  and  foo  was  muche 
what  indificrent,  where  his  aduauntage  grew,  he 
fpared  no  mans  deathe,  whofe  life  withltoode  his 
purpofe.  He  flewe  with  his  owne  handes  king 
Henry  the  fixt,  being  piiloner  in  the  Tower,  as 
menne  ccnftantly  fayc,  and  that  without  com- 
maundemcnt  or  knoweledge  of  the  king,  whiche 
woulde  vndoubtedly  yf  he  had  entended  thatthinge^ 
haue  appointed  that  boocherly  office,  to  foirie  other 
then  his  owne  borne  brother. 

Somme  wife  menne  alfo  weene,  that  his  drift 
couertly  conuayde,  lacked  not  in  helping  furth  his 
brother  of  Clarence  to  his  death:  whiche  hee  refifted 
openly,  howbcit  fomwhat  (as  menne  deme)  more 
faintly  then  he  that  wer  hartely  minded  to  his 
welth.  And  they  that  thus  dcnic,  think  that  he 
long  time  in  king  Edwardes  life,  forethought  to  be 
king  in  that  cafe  the  king  his  brother  (whole  life 
hee  looked  that  euil  dyete  Ihoulde  (horten)  flioulde 
happen  to  deceafe  (as  in  dede  he  did)  while  his 
children  wer  yonge.  And  thci  deme,  that  for  thys 
intente  he  was  gladde  of  his  brothers  death  the 
duke  of  Clarence,  whofe  life  muft  nedes  haue  hin- 
dered hym  (o  entendynge,  whither  the  fame  duke 
of  Clarence  hadde  kepte  him,  true  to  his  nephew 
the  yonge  king,  or  enterprifed  to  be  kyng  him- 
felfe.  But  of  al  this  pointe,  is  there  no  certain  tie, 
and  whofo  diuineih  vppon  conicdhures,  maye  as  wel 
fliote  to  farre  as  to  fliort.  Howbcit  this  h  -ue  I  by 
credible  informacion  learned,  that  the  felfe  nighte 
in  whiche  kynge  Edwarde  died,  one  Myftlebrooke 
longe  ere  mornynge,  came  in  greate  hafte  to  the 
houle  of  one  Pottyer  dwellyng  in  Reddecroffe  ftrete 
without  Crepulgate  :  and  when  he  was  with  haftye 
rappyng  quickly  Ictten  in,  hee  fhcwed  vnto  P?ttyer 
that  kynge  Edwarde  was  departed.  By  my  trouthe 
mjfhne  quod  Pettier  then  wyll  my  mayfter  the  duke 
of  Gloucefter  bee  kynge.  What  caufe  hee  hailde  foo 
to  thynke  hirde  it  is  to  faye,  whyther  hce  being  to- 
ward him,  anye  thynge  knewe  that  hee  fuche  tnynge 
purpofed,  or  otherwyfe  had  anye  inkclyngc  thereof: 
for  hce  was  not  likelye  to  fpeake  it  of  noughte. 

But  nowe  to  recurne  to  the  courfe  of  this  hyftorye, 
were  it  that  the  duke  of  Gloucefter  hadde  of  old 
fore-minded  this  conclufion,  or  was  nowe  at  erfte 
thereunto  moued,  and  putte  in  hope  by  the  occa- 
fion  of  the  tender  age  of  the  younge  princes,  his 
nephues  (as  opportunitye  and  lykcly  hoode  of  fpede, 
putteth  a  manne  in  cdurage  of  -that  hee  neuer  en- 
tended)  certayn  is  it  that  hee  contriued  theyr  de- 
ftruccion,  with  the  vfurpacion  of  the  regal  dig- 
nitye  vppon  hymfelfe.  And  for  as  muche  as  hee 
well  wifte  and  holpe  to  mayntayn,  a  long  continued 
grudge  and  hearce  brennyngc  bccwcnc  the  quenes 
5  kinrpd 

'THE      HISTORY      OF    THE 

kinred  and  the  kinges  blood  eyther  partye  enuying 
others  authorityc,  he  nowe  thought  that  their  dc- 
uifion  ihoulde  bee  (as  it  was  in  dcdc)  a  fortherlye 
begynnynge  to  the  purfuite  of  his  intente,  and  a 
lure  ground  for  the  foundacion  of  al  his  building 
yf  he  might  firlle  vnder  the  pretext  of  reucngynge 
of  olde  diipleafure,  abufe  the  anger  and  ygnorauncc 
of  the  tone  partie,  to  the  deftruccion  of  the  tother: 
and  then  vvynne  to  this  purpofe  as  manye  as  he 
coulde:  and  thofe  that  coulde  not  be  wonne,  myght 
be  lode  ere  they  looked  therefore.  For  of  one 
thynge  was  hee  certayne,  that  if  his  entente  were 
perceiued,  he  fhold  loone  haue  made  peace  bee- 
twene  the  bothe  parties,  with  his  owne  bloude. 

Kyngc  Edwarde  in  his  life,  albeit  that  this  dif- 
cencion  beetwene  hys  frendes  fommewhat  yrked 
hym :  yet  in  his  good  healthe  he  fommewhat  the 
Icflc  regarded  it,  becaufe  hee  thought  whatfocuer 
bufines  fliouldc  falle  betwene  them,  hymfelfe 
Ihould  alwaye  bee  hable  to  rule  bothe  the  parties. 

But  in  his  laft  ficknefie,  when  hee  receiued  his 
natural!  ftrengthe  foo  fore  cnfebled,  that  hee  dyf- 
payred  all  recouerye,  then  hee  confyderynge  the 
youthe  of  his  chyldren,  albeit  hee  nothynge  lefle 
miftrufted  then  that  that  happened,  yet  well  for- 
fcynge  that  manye  harmes  myghtc  growe  by  theyr 
debate,  whyle  the  youth  of  hys  children  ihoulde 
lackc  difcrecion  of  themfclf,  and  good  counfayle  of 
their  frendes,  of  whiche  either  party  (hold  coun- 
fayle for  their  owne  commodity  and  rather  byplea- 
faunte  aduyfe  toowynne  themfelfe  fauour,  then  by 
profitable  aduertifemente  to  do  the  children  good, 
he  called  fome  of  them  before  him  that  were  at 
variaunce,  and  in  efpecyall  the  lorde  marques  Dor- 
fette  the  quenes  fonne  by  her  fyrlle  houfebande, 
and  Richarde  the  lorde  Haftynges,  a  noble  man, 
than  lorde  chaumberlayne  agayne  whome  the  quene 
fpecially  grudged,  for  the  great  fauoure  the  kyng 
bare  hym,  and  alio  for  that  ihee  thoughte  hym  fe- 
cretclye  familyer  with  the  kyngc  in  wanton  coom- 
panye.  Her  kynred  alio  bare  hym  fore,  as  well 
for  that  the  kynge  hadde  made  hym  captayne  of 
Calyce  (whiche  oflke  the  lorde  Ryuers,  brother  to 
the  quene,  claimed  of  the  kinges  former  promyfe) 
as  for  diuerfe  other  great  giftes  whiche  hee  receyued, 
that  they  loked  for.  \Vhen  thefe  lordes  with  di- 
ueiTc  other  of  bothe  the  parties  were  comaie  in 
prefence,  the  kynge  liftinge  vppe  himfelfe  and 
vnderfettc  with  pillowcs,  as  it  is  reported  on  this 
wyfe  fayd  vnto  them,  My  iordcs,  my  dere  kinf- 
menne  and  alies,  in  what  plighte  I  lye  you  fee,  and 
I  feele.  By  whiche  the  lelTc  whyle  I  lookc  to 
lyue  with  you,  the  more  depelye  am  I  moued  to 
care  in  what  cafe  I  leaue  you,  for  fuch  as  1  leauve 
you,  fuche  bee  my  children  lyke  to  fynde  you. 
"Whiche  if  they  (houlde  (that  Godde  forbydde) 
fynde  you  at  varyaunce,  myght  happe  to  fall  thtm- 

felfe  at  warrc  ere  their  difcrecion  woulde  ferue  to 
fette  you  at  peace.  Ye  fee  their  youthe,  of  whiche 
I  recken  the  onely  furetie  to  refte  in  youre  con- 
cord. For  it  fuffifeth  not  that  al  you  loue  them, 
yf  eche  of  you  hate  other.  If  they  wer  menne, 
your  faithfulneffe  happelye  woulde  fuflife.  But 
childehood  mull  be  maintained  by  mens  authoritye, 
and  flipper  youth  vnderpropped  with  elder  coun- 
fayle, which  neither  they  can  haue,  but  ye  geue  it, 
nor  ye  geue  it,  yf  ye  gree  not.  For  wher  eche  la- 
boureth  to  breake  that  the  other  maketh,  and  for 
hatred  of  eche  of  others  parfon,  impugneth  eche 
others  counfayle,  there  muft  it  nedes  bee  long  ere 
anye  good  conclufion  goe  forwarde.  And  alfo 
while  either  partye  laboureth  to  be  chiefe,  flattery 
(hall  haue  more  place  then  plaine  and  faithful!  ad- 
uyfe, of  whyche  mufte  needes  enfue  the  euyll  bring- 
ing vppe  of  the  prynce,  whofe  mynd  in  tender 
youth  infedl,  (hal  redily  fal  to  mifchief  and  riot,  and 
drawe  down  with  this  noble  relme  to  ruine:  but  if 
grace  turn  him  to  wifdom,  which  if  God  fend, 
then  thei  that  by  euill  menes  before  pleafed  him 
beft,  (hal  after  fall  fartheft  out  of  fauour,  fo  that 
cuer  at  length  euil  driftes  dreue  to  nought,  and 
good  plain  wayes  profper.  Great  variaunce  hath 
ther  long  bene  betwene  you,  not  alway  for  great 
caufes.  Sometime  a  thing  right  wel  intended,  our 
mifconftruccion  turneth  vnto  worfe  or  a  fmal  dif- 
pleafure  done  vs,  eyther  our  owne  affeccion  or  euil 
tongues  agreueth.  But  this  wote  I  well  ye  neucr 
had  fo  great  caufe  of  hatred,  as  ye  have  of  loue. 
That  we  be  al  men,  that  we  be  chrillen  men,  this 
(hall  I  leave  for  prechers  to  tel  you  (and  yet  1  wote 
nere  whither  any  prechers  wordes  ought  more  to 
nioue  you,  then  his  that  is  by  and  by  gooyng  to 
the  place  that  thei  all  preache  of.)  But  this  (hal  I 
defire  you  to  remember,  that  the  one  parte  of  you 
is  of  my  bloode,  the  other  of  myne  alies,  and  eche 
of  yow  with  other,  eyther  of  kinred  or  afhnitie, 
which  fpirytuall  kynred  of  affynyty,  if  the  facra- 
mentes  of  Chriftes  churche,  beare  that  weyghte 
with  vs  that  would  Godde  thei  did,  flioulde  no 
IcfTe  moue  vs  to  charitye,  then  the  refpeifle  of 
fleihlye  confanguinitye.  Oure  Lorde  forbydde,  that 
you  loue  together  the  worfe,  for  the  felfe  caufe  that 
you  ought  to  loue  the  better.  And  yet  that  hap- 
pcneth.  And  no  where  fynde  wee  fo  deadlye  de- 
bate, as  amonge  them,  whyche  by  nature  and  lawe 
moltc  oughte  to  agree  together.  Such  a  peftilcntc 
ferpente  is  ambicion  and  defyre  of  vainc  glorye  and 
foueraintye,  whiche  amonge  ftatcs  where  he  once 
entreth  crepeth  foorth  fo  farre,  tyll  with  deuifion 
and  variaunce  hee  turneth  all  to  mifchiefe.  Firfte 
longing  to  be  nexte  the  befl,  aftcrwarde  egall  with 
the  belle,  and  at  lafte  chiefe  and  aboue  the  befte. 
Of  which  immoderate  appetite  of  woorfliip,  and 
thereby  of  debate  and  diflencion  what  lofle,  what 




forowe,  what  trouble  hathe  within  thefe  feweyeares 
growen  in  this  realme,  I  praye  Godde  as  wel  for- 
geate  as  wee  wel  remember. 

Whiche  thinges  yf  I  coulde  as  wel  haue  forefene, 
as  I  haue  with  my  more  payne  then  pleafure  proucd, 
by  Goddes  bleffed  Ladk  (that  was  euer  his  bthe) 
1  woulde  neuer  haue  won  the  courtefye  of  mennes 
knees,  with  the  lofle  of  foo  many  heades.  But  fithen 
thynges  pafled  cannot  be  gaine  called,  muche  oughte 
wee  the  more  beware,  by  what  occafion  we  haue 
taken  foo  greate  hurte  afore,  that  we  eftefoones  fall 
not  m  that  occafion  agayne.  Nowe  be  thofe  griefes 
pafled,  and  all  is  (Godde  be  thanked)  quiete,  and 
Jikelie  righte  wel  to  profper  in  wealthfull  peace 
vnder  youre  cofeyns  my  children,  if  Godde  fende 
them  life  and  you  loue.  Of  whiche  twoo  thinges, 
the  lefTe  lofle  wer  they  by  whome  thoughe  Godde 
dydde  hys  pleafure,  yet  fhoulde  the  realme  alway 
finde  kinges  and  paraducnture  as  good  kinges.  But 
yf  you  among  your  felfe  in  a  childcs  reygne  fall  at 
debate,  many  a  good  man  fhall  perifli  and  happcly 
he  to,  and  ye  to,  ere  thys  land  finde  peace  again. 
VVherfore  in  thefe  lafl:  wordes  that  euer  1  looke  to 
fpeak  with  you  :  1  exhort  you  and  require  you  al, 
for  the  loue  that  you  haue  euer  borne  to  me,  for 
the  loue  that  I  haue  euer  borne  to  you,  for  the  loue 
that  our  Lord  beareth  to  vs  all,  from  this  time  for- 
warde,  all  grieues  forgotten,  eche  of  you  loue 
other.  Whiche  I  verelye  trufte  you  will,  if  ye  any 
thing  earthly  regard,  either  Godde  or  your  king, 
affinitie  or  kinrcd,  this  realme,  your  owne  coun- 
trey,  or  your  owne  furcty.  And  therewithal  the 
king  no  longer  enduring  to  fitte  vp,  laide  him 
down  on  his  right  fide,  his  face  towarde  them:  and 
none  was  there  prefent  that  coulde  refrain  from 
weping.  But  the  lordcs  recomforting  him  with  as 
good  wordes  as  they  could,  and  anfwcring  for  the 
time  as  thei  thought  to  ftand  with  his  pleafure, 
there  in  his  prefence  (as  by  their  wordes  appercd) 
eche  forgaue  other,  and  ioyned  their  hands  toge- 
ther, when  (as  it  after  appeared  by  their  dedes) 
their  hearcs  wer  far  a  fonder.  As  fone  as  the  king 
was  departed,  the  noble  prince  his  fonne  drew  to- 
ward London,  which  at  the  time  of  his  deceafe, 
kept  his  houfliold  at  Ludlow  in  Wales.  Which 
countrey  being  far  of  from  the  law  and  recourfe  to 
iuftice,  was  begon  to  be  farre  cute  of  good  wyll 
and  waxen  wild,  robbers  and  riucrs  walking  at  li- 
bcrtic  vncorreded.  And  for  this  encheafon  the 
prince  was  in  the  life  of  his  father  fcnte  thither,  to 
the  cnde  that  the  authoritie  of  his  prefence  fliould 
refraine  euill  difpofed  parfons  fro  the  holdnes  of 
their  former  outerages,  to  the  gouernaunce  and  or- 
dering of  this  yong  prince  at  his  fending  thyther, 
was  there  appointed  Sir  Anthony  Woduile  lord 
Kiucrs  and  brother  vnto  the  quene,  a  right  ho- 
nourable man,  as  valiaunte  of  hande  as  politike  in 

Vol.  1. 

counfaylc  Adioyned  wer  there  vnto  him  other  of 
the  fame  partie,  and  in  effcft  euery  one  as  he  was 
nereft  of  kin  vnto  the  quene,  fo  was  planted  next 
about  the  prince.  That  drifte  by  the  quene  not 
vnvvifely  deuifed,  whereby  her  bloode  mighte  of 
youth  be  rooted  in  the  princes  fauour,  the  duke  of 
Gloucefler  turned  vnto  their  defl:ruccion,  and  vpon 
that  groLinde  fet  the  foundacion  of  all  his  vnhappy 
building.  For  whom  foeuer  he  perceiued,  either 
at  variance  wi?h  them, or  bearing  himfelf  their  fauor, 
hee  brake  vnto  them,  forne  by  mouth,  fom  by 
writing  or  fecret  melfengers,  that  it  neyther  was 
reafon  nor  in  any  wife  to  be  fuffered,  that  the  yong 
king  their  mafl:cr  and  kinfmanne,  (hoold  bee  in  the 
handcs  and  cuftodye  of  his  mothers  kinred,  fe- 
quefl:red  in  maner  from  theyr  compani  and  at- 
tendance, of  which  eueri  one  ought  him  as  faith- 
ful fcruice  as  they,  and  manye  of  them  far  more 
honorable  part  of  kin  then  his  mothers  fide : 
whofe  blood  (quod  he)  fauing  the  kinges  pleafure, 
was  ful  vnmetely  to  be  matched  with  his;  whiche 
nowe  to  be  as  who  fay  remoued  from  the  kyng, 
and  the  leflTe  noble  to  be  left  aboute  him,  is  (quod 
he)  neither  honorable  to  hys  magefl:ie,  nor  vnto 
V5,  and  alfo  to  his  grace  no  furety  to  haue  the 
niightieftof  his  frendes  from  him,  and  vnto  vs  no 
little  ieopardy,  to  fuffer  our  welproued  cuil  willers, 
to  grow  in  ouergret  authoritie  with  the  prince  in 
youth,  namely  which  is  lighte  of  beliefe  and  fone 
perfvvadcd.  Ye  remember  1  trow  king  Edward 
himfelf,  albeit  he  was  a  manne  of  age  and  of  dif- 
crecion,  yet  was  he  in  manye  thynges  ruled  by  the 
bende,  more  then  (lode  cither  with  his  honour,  or 
our  profite,  or  with  the  commoditie  of  any  manne 
els,  except  onely  the  immoderate  aduauncemcnt  of 
them  felfc.  Whiche  whither  they  forer  thidled 
after  their  owne  weale,  or  our  woe,  it  wer  hard  I 
wene  to  geflJe.  And  if  fome  folkes  frendfliip  had 
not  holden  better  place  with  the  king,  then  any  re- 
fpe6b  of  kinred,  thei  might  peraduenture  eafily 
haue  be  trapped  and  brought  to  confufion  fomme 
of  vs  ere  this.  Why  not  as  eafily  as  they  haue 
done  fome  other  alreadye,  as  neere  of  his  royal 
bloode  as  we.  But  our  Lord  hath  wrought  his  wil, 
and  thanke  be  to  his  grace  that  peril  is  paite.  Howe 
be  it  as  great  is  growing,  yf  wee  fuffer  this  yonge 
kyng  in  oure  enemyes  hande,  whiche  without  his 
wyttyng,  might  abufe  the  name  of  histommaun- 
dement,  to  ani  of  our  vndoing,  which  thyng  God 
and  good  prouifion  forbyd.  Of  which  good  pro- 
uifion  none  of  vs  hath  any  thing  the  lefl"e  ncde,  for 
the  late  made  attonemente,  in  whiche  the  kinges 
pleafure  hadde  more  place  then  the  parties  wilies. 
Nor  none  of  vs  I  beleue  is  fo  vnwyfe,  oucrfone  to 
trufte  a  newe  frende  made  of  an  olde  foe,  or  to 
think  that  an  houerly  kindnes,  fodainely  contradl  in 
one  houre  continued,  yet  fcant  a  fortnight,  Ihold 
Lk]  be 

THE     HISTORY     OF     THE 

be  df  per  fetlcd  in  their  ftomackcs :   then  a  long 
accuflomed  malice  many  yercs  rooted. 

With  thefe  wordes  and  writynges  and  fuche other, 
the  duke  of  Gloucefter  lone  fet  a  fyre,  them  that 
were  of  thcmfclf  cihe  to  kindle,  and  in  efpeciall 
twayne,  Edwardc  duke  of  Buckingham,  and  Rich- 
arde  lordc  Haftinges  and  chaumbcrlayn,  both  men 
of  honour  and  of  great  power.  The  cone  by  longe 
fucceflion  from  his  anceftrie,  the  tother  by  his  office 
and  the  kinges  fauor.  Thefe  two  n^Jyearing  cche 
to  other  fo  muchc  loue,  as  hatred  bothe  vnto  the 
quenes  parte :  in  this  poynte  accorded  together 
wyth  the  duke  of  Gloacefter,  that  they  wolde 
vtterlye  amoue  fro  the  kinges  companye,  all  his 
mothers  frendes,  vnde'rthe  name  of  their  enemycs. 
Vpon  this  concluded,  the  duke  of  Gloucefter  vnder- 
ftandyng,  that  the  lordes  whiche  at  that  tyme  were 
aboute  the  kyng,  entended  to  bryng  him  vppe  to 
his  coronacion,  accoumpanied  with  fuchc  power  of 
theyr  frendes,  that  ic  fhoulde  bee  harde  for  hym  to 
brynge  his  purpofe  to  paflc,  without  the  gathering 
and  great  aflemble  of  people  and  in  maner  of  open 
■warre,  whereof  the  ende  he  wide  was  doubtous, 
and  in  which  the  kyng  being  on  their  fide,  his  part 
fhould  haue  the  face  and  name  of  a  rebellion:  he 
fecretly  therefore  by  diuers  meanes,  caufed  the 
quene  to  be  perfwaded  and  brought  in  the  mynd, 
that  it  neither  wcr  nede,  and  alfo  fhold  be  ieopard- 
ous,  the  king  to  come  vp  ftrong.  For  where  as 
nowe  euery  lorde  loued  other,  and  none  other  thing 
ftudyed  vppon,  but  aboute  the  coronacion  and  ho- 
noure  of  the  king :  if  the  lordes  of  her  kinred 
(hold  aflemble  in  the  kinges  name  muche  people, 
thei  Ihould  geue  the  lordes  atwixte  whome  and 
them  haddc  bene  fommetyme  debate,  to  fcare  and 
fufpedle,  Icfte  they  fhoulde  gather  thys  people,  not 
for  the  kynges  faucgarde  whome  no  manne  em- 
pugned,  but  for  theyr  dcftruccion,  hauying  more 
rcgarde  to  their  old  variaunce,  then  their  newe  at- 
tonement.  For  whiche  caufe  thei  fhoulde  aflemble 
on  the  other  partie  muche  people  agayne  for  their 
defence,  whofe  power  (he  wyfte  wel  farre  ftretched. 
And  thus  (hould  all  the  realme  fall  on  a  rore.  And 
of  al  the  hurte  that  therof  fhould  enfue,  which  was 
likely  not  to  be  litle,  and  the  moft  harme  there  like 
to  fal  wher  (he  left  would,  al  the  worlde  woulde 
put  her  and  her  kinred  in  the  wyght,  and  fay  that 
thei  had  vnwyfelye  and  vntrewlye  alfo,  broken  the 
amitie  and  peace  that  the  kyng  her  hufband  fo  pru- 
denttlye  made,  betwene  hyskinne  and  hers  in  his 
death  bed,  and  whiche  the  other  party  faithfully 

The  quene  being  in  this  wife  perfwaded,  fuche 
woorde  lent  vnto  her  fonne,  and  vnto  her  brother 
being  aboute  the  kynge,  and  ouer  that  the  duke  of 
Gloucefter  hymltlfe  and  other  lordes  the  chiefe  of 
hys  bende,  wrote  vnto  the  kyhge  foo  rcuercntlye. 

and  to  the  queenes  frendes  there  foo  louyngelye, 
that  they  nothyngeearthelye  my  ftruftynge,  broughtc 
the  kynge  vppe  in  greate  hafte,  not  in  good  fpede, 
with  a  fober  coumpanye.  Nowe  was  the  king  in 
his  waye  to  London  gone,  from  Northampton, 
when  thefe  dukes  of  Gloucefter  and  Buckynghann 
came  thither.  Where  remained  behynd,  the  lordc 
Riuers  the  kynges  vncle,  entendyng  on  the  mo- 
rowe  to  folow  the  kynge,  and  bee  with  hym  at 
Stonye  Stratford  miles  thence,  earcly  or 

hee  departed.  So  was  there  made  that  nyghte 
muche  frendely  chere  betwene  thefe  dukes  and  the 
lorde  Riuers  a  greate  while.  But  incontinente  after 
that  they  wereoppenlye  with  greate  courtelye  de- 
parted, and  the  lorde  Riuers  lodged,  the  dukes 
fecretelye  with  a  fewe  of  their  mode  priuye  frendes, 
fette  them  downe  in  counfayle,  wherin  they  fpent  a 
great  parte  of  the  nyght.  And  at  their  rifinge  in  the 
dawnyng  of  the  day,  thei  fent  about  priuily  to  their 
feruantes  in  the  innesand  lodgynges  about,  geuinge 
them  commaundemente  to  make  them  felfe  fhortely 
readye,  for  their  lordes  wer  to  horfebackward. 
Vppon  whiche  melTages,  manyeof  their  folke  were 
aitendaunt,  when  manye  of  the  lorde  Riuers  fer- 
uantes were  vnreadye.  Nowe  hadde  thefe  dukes 
taken  alfo  into  their  cuftodye  the  kayesof  the  inne, 
that  none  flioulde  pafTe  foorth  without  theyr  li- 

And  ouer  this  in  the  hyghe  waye  toward  Stonye 
Stratforde  where  the  kynge  laye,  they  hadde  bee- 
ftowed  certayne  of  theyr  folke,  that  fhoulde  fcnde 
backe  agayne,  and  compell  to  retourne,  anye  manne 
that  were  gotten  oute  of  Northampton  toward 
Stonye  Stratforde,  tyll  they  fhould  geue  other 
lycence.  For  as  muche  as  the  dukes  themfelfe  en- 
tended  for  the  (hewe  of  theire  dylygence,  to  bee  the 
fyrfte  that  (houldc  that  daye  attende  vppon  the 
kynges  highnelTe  oute  of  that  towne  :  thus  bare 
they  folke  in  hande.  But  when  the  lorde  Ryuers 
vnderflrode  the  gates  clofed,  and  the  wayes  on  cueryc 
fide  befette,  neyther  hys  fcruauntes  nor  hymfelf  fuf- 
fcred  to.gooute,  parceiuyng  well  fo  greaie  a  thyng 
without  his  knowledge  not  begun  for  noughte, 
comparyng  this  maner  prefent  with  this  laft  nightcs 
chere,  in  lb  few  houres  fo  gret  a  chaunge  maruel- 
ouflye  mifliked.  How  be  it  fithe  hee  coulde  not 
geat  awaye,  and  keepe  himfelfe  clofe,  hee  woulde 
not,  lefte  he  fhoulde  feeme  to  hyde  himfelfe  for 
fbme  fecret  feare  of  hys  owne  faulte,  whereof  he 
faw  no  luch  caufe  in  hym  felf :  he  determined  vppon 
the  furetie  of  his  own  confcience,  to  goe  boldelye 
to  them,  and  inquire  what  this  matter  myghte 
mcane.  Whome  as  foone  as  they  fa  we,  they  be- 
ganne  to  quarrell  with  hym,  and  faye,  that  hee  in- 
tended to  fette  diftaunce  beetweenc  the  kynge  and 
them,  and  to  brynge  them  to  confulion,  but  it 
fhoulde  not  lye  in  hys  power.  And  when  hee  be- 
6  ganne 


ganne  (as  hee  was  a  very  well  fpoken  manne)  in 
goodly  wife  to  excufe  himfclf,  they  taryed  not  the 
cndc  of  his  aunfwere,  but  fhortely  tooke  him  and 
putte  him  in  warde,  and  that  done,  foorthwyth 
•wente  to  horfebacke,  and  tooke  the  waye  to  Stonye 
Stratforde.  Where  they  founde  the  kingc  with  his 
companie  readye  to  leape  on  horfebacke,  and  departe 
forwarde,  to  leaue  that  lodging  for  them,  becaufe  it 
was  to  ftreighte  for  bothe  coumpanies.  And  as 
fone  as  they  came  in  his  prefence,  they  lighte 
adowne  with  all  their  rompanie  aboute  them.  To 
whome  the  duke  of  Buckingham  faide,  goe  afore 
gentlemenne  and  yeomen,  kepe  youre  rowmes. 
And  thus  in  goodly  arraye>  thei  came  to  the  kinge, 
and  on  theire  knees  in  very  humble  wife,  faiued  his 
grace;  whiche  receyued  them  in  very  ioyous  and 
amiable  maner,  nothinge  eirthlye  knowing  nor 
miftrullinge  as  yet.  But  euen  by  and  by  in  his 
prefence,  they  piked  aquarell  to  the  lorde  Richarde 
Graye,  the  kynges  other  brother  by  his  mother, 
fayinge  that  hee  with  the  lorde  marqu.s  his  brother 
and  the  lorde  Riuers  his  vncle,  hadde  coumpafled 
to  rule  the  kinge  and  the  realme,  and  to  fette  vari- 
aunce  among  the  ftates,  and  to  fubdcwe  and  de- 
ftroye  the  noble  blood  of  the  realm.  Toward  the 
accoumplifhinge  whereof,  they  fayde  that  the  lorde 
Marques  haddt-  entered  ioto  the  Tower  of  London, 
and  thence  taken  out  the  kinges  treafor,  and  fent 
menne  to  the  fea.  All  whiche  thinge  thcfc  duke* 
wille  well  were  done  for  good  purpoles  and  neceflari 
by  the  whole  counfaile  at  London,  fauing  that 
fommewhat  thei  muft  fai.  Vnto  whiche  woordes, 
the  king  aunfwcred,  what  my  brother  Marques  hath 
done  I  cannot  faie.  But  in  good  faith  I  dare  well 
aunfwere  for  myne  vncle  Riuers  and  my  brother 
here,  that  thei  be  innocent  of  any  fuch  matters. 
Ye  my  liege  quod  the  duke  of  Buckingham  thei 
haue  kepte  theire  dealing  in  thefe  matters  farre  fro 
the  knowledge  of  your  good  grace.  And  foorth- 
with  thei  arretted  the  lord  Richarde  and  Sir  Thomas 
Waughan  knighte,  in  the  kinges  prefence,  and 
broughte  the  king  and  all  backe  vnto  Northampton, 
where  they  tooke  againe  further  counfaile.  And 
there  they  fent  awaie  froni  the  kinge  whom  itpleafed 
them,  and  fette  newe  feruantes  aboute  him,  fuche  as 
lyked  better  them  than  him.  At  whiche  dealinge 
hee  wepte  and  was  nothing  contente,  but  it  booted 
nor.  And  at  dyner  the  duke  of  Gioucefler  fente  a 
dilhefrom  hisowne  table  to  the  lord  Riuers,  prayinge 
him  to  bee  of  goodchere,  all  fhould  be  well  inough. 
And  he  thanked  the  duke,  and  prayed  the  meflenger 
to  bcare  it  to  his  nephewe  the  lorde  Richarde  with 
tlie  fame  meffage  for  his  comfort,  who  he  thought 
had  more  nede  of  coumfort,  as  one  to  whom  fuch 
aducrfitie  was  ftraunge.     But  himfclf  had  been  al 

his  dayes  in  vre  therewith,  and  therfore  coulde 
beare  it  the  better.  But  for  al  this  coumfortable 
courtefye  of  the  duke  of  Gloucefter  he  fent  the 
lord  Riuers  and  the  lorde  Richarde  with  Sir  Tho- 
mas Vaughan  into  the  Norrhe  countrey  into.diuers 
places  to  prifon,  and  afterward  al  to  Pomfrait, 
where  they  were  in  conclufion  beheaded. 

A  letter  written  with  a  cole  by  Sir  Thomas  More 
to  hysdougnxermaiftresMAR  GAR  etRoper,  with- 
in a  whyle  after  he  was  prifoner  in  the  Towre. 

■jVyiYNE  own  good  doughter,  our  lorde  be 
■^^^  thanked  I  am  in  good  helthe  of  bodye,  and 
in  good  quiet  of  minde  :  and  of  worldly  thynges  I 
no  more  defyer  then  I  haue.  I  bcfeche  hym  make 
you  all  mery  in  the  hope  of  heauen.  And  fuch 
thynges  as  I  fomewhat  longed  to  talke  with  you  all, 
concerning  the  worlde  to  come,  our  Lorde  put  theim 
into  your  myndes,  as  I  trufte  he  dothe  and  better  to 
by  hys  holy  fpirite :  who  blefie  you  and  preferue 
you  all.  Wrnicn  wyth  a  cole  by  your  tender  louing 
father,  who  in  hys  pore  prayers  forgetteth  none  of 
you  all  nor  your  babes,  nor  your  nurfes,  nor  your 
good  hufbandes,  nor  your  good  hufbandes  Ihrewde 
wyues,  nor  your  fathers  flirewde  wyfe  neither,  nor 
our  other  frendes.  And  thus  fare  ye  hartely  well 
for  lacke  of  paper. 

Thomas  More,  knight. 

Two  fliort  ballettes  which  Sir  Thomas  More  made 
for  hys  paftyme  while  he  was  prifoner  in  the 
Tower  of  London. 

Lewys  the  loft  louer. 


Y  flatering  fortune,  loke  thou  neuer  fo  fayre. 
Or  neuer  fo  plefantly  begin  to  fmile. 
As  though  thou  wouldft  my  ruine  all  repayre, 
During  my  life  thou  fhalt  not  me  begile. 
Truft  (hall  1  God,  to  entre  in  a  while. 
Hys  hauen  or  heauen  fure  and  vniforme. 
Euer  attcr  thy  calme,  loke  I  for  a  (lorme. 

Dauy  the  dycer. 

1"    O  N  G  was  1  lady  Luke  your  feruing  man, 

And  now  haue  loft  agayne  all  that  1  gat, 
Wherfore  whan  I  thinke  on  you  nowe  and  than, 
And  in  my  mynde  refiicmber  this  and  that. 
Ye  may  not  blame  me  though  1  beftirew  your  cat. 
But  in  fayth  I  bleflc  you  agayne  a  ihoufand  times. 
For  lending  me  now  fome  laylurc  to  make  rymes. 

At  the  fame  time  with  Sir  Thomas  Mere  lived 

Skelten,  the  poet  laureate  oi Henry  Vlll.  from  whofc 

L^]  2  works. 

THE      HISTORY      OF      THE 

works  it  fcems  proper  to  infcrt  a  few  ftanzas,  though 
he  cannot  be  faid  lo  have  attained  great  elegance  of 

The  prologue  to  the  Bougc  of  Courte. 

TN  Auturnpne  whan  the  fonne  in  vjrrgyne 

■*■  By  radyante  hete  enryped  hath  our  corne 

When  Luna  full  of  mutabylytc 

As  Emperes  the  dyndcme  hath  worof 

Of  our  pole  artyke,  fmylynge  halfe  in  fcorne 

At  our  foly  and  our  v:  Itedfaftnefle 

The  tinnc  whan  Mars  to  warre  hym  dyd  dres, 

I  callynge  to  mynde  the  grcate  auftorytc 
Of  poeces  olde,  whiche  full  craftely 
Vnder  as  couerte  termes  as  coulde  be 
Can  touche  a  trouth,  and  cloke  fubtylly 
With  fresfhe  vtteraunce  full  fentcncyoully 
Dyuerfe  in  ftyle  feme  fpared  not  vycc  to  wryte 
Some  of  mortalitie  nobly  dyd  cndyte 

Whereby  I  rede,  thcyr  renome  and  theyr  fame 
May  neuer  dye,  but  eucrmore  endure 
I  was  fore  moued  to  a  forfe  the  fame 
But  ignoraunce  full  foone  dyd  me  dyfcure 
And  (hewed  that  in  this  al^c  I  was  not  fure 
For  to  illumine  (he  fayd  I  wjs  to  duUe 
Aduyfynge  me  my  penne  awaye  to  pulle 

And  not  to  wryte,  for  he  fo  wyll  atteync 
Excedyng  ferther  than  his  connynge  is 
His  heed  maye  be  harde,  but  feble  is  brayne 
Yet  haue  I  knowen  fuche  er  this 
But  of  rcproche  furely  he  maye  not  mys 
That  clymmeth  hycr  than  he  may  fotinge  haue 
What  and  he  flyde  downe,  who  (hall  him  faue  ? 

Thus  vp  and  downe  my  mynde  was  drawen  and 
That  I  ne  wyfte  what  to  do  was  befte 
So  fore  enwered  that  I  was  at  the  lafte 
Enforfed  to  flepe,  and  for  to  take  fome  refte 
And  to  lye  downe  as  foone  as  I  my  drefte 
At  Harwyche  porte  flumbrynge  as  I  hye 
In  myne  hoftes  houfe  called  powers  keye. 

Of  the  wits  that  flourilhed  in  the  reign  of 
Henry  VIII.  none  has  been  more  frequently  cele- 
brated than  the  earl  of  Surry ;  and  this  hiftory  would 
therefore  have  been  imperfed  without  fome  fpeci- 
mens  of  his  works,  which  yet  it  is  not  eafy  to  diftin- 
gui(h  from  thofe  of  Sir  Thomas  li^yat  and  others, 
with  which  they  are  confounded  in  the  edition  that 
has  fallen  into  my  hands.  The  three  firft  are,  I 
believe,  i'wrr/s  \  the  re(l,  being  of  the  fame  age, 
are  fcxfted,  (bme  as  examples  of  different  meafurcs, 
and  one  as  the  oldett  Compofition  whi.h  I  have 
found  in  blank  verfe. 

Defcription  of  Spring,  wherein  echc  thing  rcnewcs, 
fave  only  the  lover. 

'T'  H  E  foote  feafon  that  bud,  and  bloome  fourth 
"'■         bringes, 

With  grcne  hath  cladde  the  hyll,  and  eke  the  vale. 
The  Nighringall  with  fethcrs  new  flie  finges  j 
The  turtle  to  her  mate  hath  told  the  talc  : 
Somer  is  come,  for  every  fpray  now  fpringes. 
The  hart  hath  hunge  hys  olde  head  on  the  pair. 
The  bucke  in  brake  his  winter  coate  he  flyngcs  ; 
The  (ifhes  flete  with  newc  repayred  fcale : 
The  adder  all  her  Hough  away  (lie  flynge?. 
The  fwift  fwallow  purfueth  the  flyes  fmalle. 
The  bufy  bee  her  honey  how  (he  mynges  i 
Winter  is  worne  that  was  the  flourcs  bale. 
And  thus  I  fee  among  thefc  pleafant  thynges 
Eche  care  decayes,  and  yet  my  forrow  fpryiifres. 

Defcripcion  of  the  reftlefs  eftate  of  a  lover. 


HEN  youth  had  led  me  half  the  race. 
That  Cupides  fcourge  had  made  me  runnej 
I  looked  back  to  meet  the  place. 
From  whence  my  weary  courfe  begunne : 

And  then  I  faw  howe  my  delyre 
Mifguiding  me  had  led  the  waye, 
Myne  eyne  to  greedy  of  theyre  hyre, 
Had  made  me  lofe  a  better  prey. 

For  when  in  fighes  I  fpcnt  the  day, 
And  could  not  cloake  my  grief  with  game ; 
The  boyling  fmokedyd  ftill  bewray. 
The  prelent  heat  of  fecret  flame : 

And  when  fait  teares  do  bayne  my  breaft. 
Where  love  his  plealent  traynes  hath  fown. 
Her  beauty  hath  the  fruytcs  oppreft. 
Ere  that  the  buddes  were  fpron gc  and  blowne. 

And  when  myne  eyen  dyd  Hill  purfue. 
The  flying  chafe  of  theyre  requefl: ; 
Theyre  greedy  looks  dyd  oft  renew. 
The  hydden  wounde  within  my  brefte. 

When  every  loke  thefe  cheekes  might  ftayne. 
From  dcdly  pale  to  glowing  red  ; 
By  outward  fignes  appeared  playne. 
To  her  for  heipe  my  harte  was  fled. 

But  all  to  late  Love  learneth  me. 
To  paynt  all  kynd  of  Colours  new ; 
To  blynd  theyre  eyes  that  elfe  fliould  fee 
My  fpeckled  chekes  with  Cupids  hew. 

And  now  the  covert  brc(t  I  clame. 
That  worfhipt  Cupide  fecretely  j 
And  nourifhed  hys  facred  flame. 
From  whence  no  blairing  fparks  do  flye. 



Defcripcion  of  the  fickle  AfFedions,  Pangs,  and 
Sleightes  of  Love. 

CUCH  wayward  wayes  hath  Love,  that  moft  part 

•^  in  dilcord 

Our  willes  <io  (land,  whereby  our  hartes  but  fel- 

dom  do  accord : 
Decyte  is  hysdelighte,  and  to  begyle  and  mocke 
The  fimple  hartes  which  he  doth  ftrike  with  fro- 

ward  divers  ftroke. 
He  caufeth  th'  one  to  rage  with  golden  burning 

And  doth  alay  with  Leaden  cold,  again  the  others 

Whofe  gleames  of  burning  fyre  and  eafy  fparkes  of 

In  balance  of  unequal  weyght  he  pondereth  by  ame 
From  eafye  ford  where  1  tnyghte  wade  and  pafs  full 

Heme  withdrawes  and  doth  me  drive,  into  a  depe 

dark  hell: 
And  me  witholdes  where  I  am  calde  and  offred  place. 
And  willes  me  that  my  mortal  foe  1  do  befcke  of 

Grace  j 
He  lettes  me  to  purfue  a  conqueft  welnere  wonne 
To  follow  where  my  paynes  were  loft,  ere  that  my 

fute  begunne. 
So  by  this  means  i  know  how  foon  a  hart  may  turne 
From  warre  to  peace,  from  truce  to  ftryfe,  and  fo 

agayne  returne. 
I  know  how  to  content  my  fclf  in  others  luft. 
Of  little  Ituffe  unio  my  Iclf  to  weave  a  webbe  of 

truft : 
And  how  to  hyde  my  harmes  with  fole  dyflembling 

Whan  in  my  face  the  painted  thoughtes  would  out- 
wardly appeare. 
I  knot*  how  that  the  bloud  forfakes  the  face  for 

And  how  by  fliime  it  ftaynes  agayne  the  Chckes 

with  flaming  red  : 
I  know  under  the  Grene,  the  Serpent  howhelurkes  : 
The  hammer  of  the  reftlefs  forge  1  wote  eke  how  it 

I  know  and  con  by  roate  the  tale  that  I  woulde  tell 
But  oftc  the  woordes  come  fourth  awrye  of  him  that 

loveth  well. 
I  know  in  hcate  and  colde  the  Lover  how  he  (hakes. 
In  fynging  how  he  doth  complayne,  in  flecping  how 

he  v..  kes 
To  languifli  without  ache,  fickelelTe  for  to  confume, 
A  thoufand  thynges  for  to  devyfc,  rclblvyngeof  his 

fume ; 
And  though  he  lyfte  to  fee  his  Ladyes  Grace  full 

Such  pleafurcs  as  delyght  hys  Eye,  do  not  his  heiihc 


I  know  to  fcke  the  trafte  of  my  defyred  foe. 
And  fere  to  fynde  that  1  do  feek,  but  chiefly  this  I 

That  Lovers  muft  transfourme  into  the  thynge  be- 
And  live  (alas !  who  would  believe  ?)  with  fprite 

from  Lyfe  removed. 
I  knowe  in  harty  (ighesand  laughters  of  the  fpleene, 
At  once  to  chaunge  my  ftate,  my  will,  and  eke  my 

colotfl-  clene. 
I  know  how  to  deceyve  my  felf  wythe  others  helpe. 
And  how  the  Lyon  chaftiled  is,  by  beatynge  of  the 

In  ftandyngc  nere  the  fyre,  I  know  how  that  I  freafe ; 
Farre  of  I  burne,  in  bothe  I  wafte,  and  fo  my  Lyfe 

I  leefe. 
I  know  how  Love  doth  rage  upon  a  yeyldingmynde. 
How  fmalle  a  nete  may  take  and  male  a  harte  of 

gentle  kyndc : 
Or  elfe  with  feldom  fwete  to  feafon  hepes  of  gall. 
Revived  with  a  glympfe  of  Grace  old  lorrowes  to 

let  fall. 
The  hydden  traynes  I  know,  and  fecret  fnares  of 

How  foone  a  loke  will  prynte  a  thoughte  that  never 

may  remove. 
The  flypper  ftate  I  know,  the  fodein  turnes  from 

The  doubtfuU  hope,  the  certaine  wooe,  and  fure 

defpaired  helthe. 

A  praife  of  his  ladie. 

/^EVE  place  you  ladies  and  be  gone, 
^-^  Boaft  not  your  felves  at  all. 
For  here  at  hande  approcheth  one, 
Whofe  face  will  ftayne  you  all. 

The  vertue  of  her  lively  lookes 
Excels  the  precious  ftone, 
I  wifhe  to  have  none  other  bookes 
To  reade  or  look  upon. 

In  eche  of  her  two  chriftall  eyes, 
Smyleth  a  naked  boy  -, 
It  would  you  all  in  heart  fuffife 
To  fee  that  lampe  of  joye. 

I  think  nature  hath  loft  the  moulde. 
Where  (he  her  ftiape  did  take; 
Or  elfe  1  doubte  if  nature  coulde 
So  fayre  a  creature  make. 

She  may  be  well  comparde 
Unto  the  Phenix  kinde, 
Whofe  like  was  never  feene  nor  heard, 
That  any  man  can  fynde. 

In  lyfe  (he  is  Diana  chalt 
In  trouth  Penelopey, 
In  woord  and  eke  in  dede  ftedfaft  j 
What  will  you  more  we  fay ; 


THE      HISTORY      OF      THE 

If  all  the  world  were  fought  fo  farre. 
Who  coulJ  findc  fuche  a  wight, 
Hier  beaury  twinkleth  lykc  a  ftarre 
"Within  the  frofty  night. 

The  Lover  rcfufed  of  his  love,  embraccth  vertue. 

TVyTY  youthfull  yeres  are  paiT, 
"^^■^  My  joyfuil  dayes  are  gone. 
My  lyfe  it  may  not  laft. 
My  grave  and  I  am  one. 

My  myrth  and  joyes  are  fled. 
And  I  a  Man  in  wo, 
Defirous  to  be  ded. 
My  mifciefe  to  forego. 

I  burne  and  am  a  colde, 

1  freefe  amyddes  the  fycr, 

2  fee  fhe  doth  witholde 
That  is  my  honeft  defyre. 

I  ice  my  helpe  at  hande, 
I  fee  my  lyfe  alfo, 
I  fee  where  file  doth  (Vande 
That  is  my  deadly  fo. 

I  fee  how  Ihe  dorh  fee. 
And  yet  flie  wil  be  blynde, 
1  fee  in  helpyng  me,  ^ 

She  fekes  and  wil  not  fynde. 

I  fee  how  fhe  doth  wrye, 
"When  I  begynne  to  mone, 
I  fee  when  1  come  nye. 
How  fayne  (he  would  be  gone. 

I  fee  what  wil  ye  more, 
She  will  me  gladly  kill. 
And  you  fhall  fee  therfore 
That  fhe  fhall  have  her  vyill. 

I  cannot  live  with  (tones, 
It  is  too  hard  a  foode, 
I  wil  be  dead  at  ones 
To  do  my  Lady  good. 

The  Death  of  ZOROAS,  an  Egiptian  aftronomer, 
in  the  firft  fight  that  Alexander  had  with  the 

^^OW clattring  armes,  now  raging  broyjs  of  warre, 
•*'  Gan  palTc  the  noys  of  dredfuU  trumpctts  clang, 
Shrowdcd  with  fhaftsi  the  heaven  with  cloude  of 

Covered  the  ayre.     Againft  full  fatted  bulles, 
As  forccth  kyndled  yrc  the  lyons  kecne, 
Whofe  greedy  gutts  the  gnawing  hunger  prickes; 
So  Macedons  againft  the  Perfians  fare. 
Now  corpfes  hyde  the  purpurdc  foyle  with  blood ; 
Large  (laughter  on  eche  fide,  but  Perfcs  more, 
Moyft  ficldes  bebled,  theyr  heartes  and  numbers 

Fainted  while  ihey  gave  backe,  and  fall  to  flighte. 

The  litening  Macedon  by  fwordes,  by  gleaves. 
By  bandcs  and  troupes  of  footennn,  with  his  garde, 
Specdcs  to  Dary,  but  hym  hii  mereft  kyn, 
Oxate  prefcrves  with  horfeiren  on  a  plumpe 
Before  his  carr,  that  none  his  charge  fhould  give. 
Here  grunts,  here  groans,  eche  where  ftrong  youth 

is  fpent: 
Shaking  her  bloudy  hands,  Bellone  among 
The  Perles  foweth  all  kind  of  cruel  death: 
With  throte  yrent  he  roares,  he  lyeth  along 
His  cntrailes  with  a  launcc  through  gryded  quyte, 
Hym  fmytes  the  club,  hym  woundes  farre  ftryking 

And  him  the  fling,  and  him  the  (hining  fwordj 
He  dyeth,  he  is  all  dead,  he  pantes,  he  reftcs. 
Right  over  ftoode  in  fnowwhite  armour  brave. 
The  Memphite  Zoroas,  a  cunnyng  clarke. 
To  whom  the  heaven  lay  open  as  his  booke; 
And  in  celeftiall  bodies  he  could  tell 
The  moving  meeting  light,  afpedt,  eclips, 
And  influence,  and  conftellations  all; 
What  earthly  chaunces  would  betyde,  what  yere. 
Of  plenty  (torde,  what  figne  forewarned  death. 
How  winter  gendreth  fnow,  what  temperature 
In  the  prime  tyde  doih  feafon  well  the  foyle. 
Why  fummer  burncs,  why  autumnehath  ripe  grapes, 
.  Whither  the  circle  quadrate  may  become, 
Whether  our  tunes  heavens  harmony  can  yelde 
Of  four  begyns  among  themlelves  how  great 
Proportion  is-,  what  (way  the  erryng  lightes 
Doth  fend  in  courfe  gayne  that  fy rfl  movy ng  heaven ; 
What  grees  one  from  another  diftancc  be. 
What  (tarr  doth  let  the  hurtfull  fyre  to  rage. 
Or  him  more  mylde  what  oppoficion  makes. 
What  fyre  doth  qualifye  Mavorfes  fyre. 
What  houfe  eche  one  doth  fecke,  what  plannett 

Within  this  heaven  fphere,  nor  thatfmall  thynges 
I  fpeake,  whole  heaven  he  clofeth  in  his  breit. 
This  fage  then  in  the  ftarres  hath  fpyed  the  fates 
Threatncd  him  death  without  delay,  and,  flth, 
He  faw  he  could  not  fatal!  order  chaunge, 
Foreward  he  prefl:  in  battayle,  that  he  migiit 
Mete  with  the  rulers  of  the  Macedons, 
Of  his  right  hand  defirous  to  be  flain. 
The  bouldeft  borne,  and  worthieft  in  the  feilde; 
And  as  a  wight,  now  wery  of  his  lyfe. 
And  feking  death,  in  fyrll  front  of  his  rage. 
Comes  defperately  to  Alexanders  face. 
At  him  with  dartes  one  after  other  throwes. 
With  recklefle  wordes  and  clamour  him  provokes, 
And  I'ayth,  Nedanaks  bartard  (hamefull  ilayne 
Of  mothers  bed,  why  lofeft  thou  thy  ftrokes, 
Cowardes  among.  Turn  thee  to  me,  in  cafe 
Manhood  there  be  fo  much  left  in  thy  heart. 
Come  fight  with  mc,  that  on  my  helmet  weare 



Apollo's  laurell  both  for  learnings  laude. 
And  eke  for  martiall  praife,  that  in  my  fhieldc 
The  feven  fold  Sophi  of  Minerve  contein, 
A  match  more  mete,  Syr  King,  then  any  here. 
The  noble  prince  amoved  takes  ruth  upon 
The  wilful)  wight,  and  with  foft  words  ayen, 

0  monflrous  man  (quoth  he)  what  fo  thou  art, 

1  pray  thee  live,  ne  do  not  with  thy  death 
This  lodge  of  Lore,  the  Mufes  manfion  marre; 
That  treafure  houfe  this  hand  ihall  never  fpoyle, 
My  fword  fliall  never  bruife  that  (killful  brayne. 
Long  gather'd  heapes  of  fcience  fone  to  fpill ; 

O  howe  fayre  fruites  may  you  to  mortall  men 
From  Wifdoms  garden  give;  how  many  may 
By  you  the  wifcr  and  the  better  prove; 
'What  error,  what  mad  moode,  what  frenzy  thee 
Perfwades  to  be  downe,  fent  to  depe  Avernc, 
"Where  no  artes  flourifb,  nor  no  knowledge  vailes 
For  all  thefe  fawes.       When  thus  the  fovereign 

Alighted  Zoroas  with  fword  unfheathed. 
The  carelefs  king  there  fmoate  above  the  greve, 
At  th'  opening  of  his  quifhes  wounded  him. 
So  that  the  blood  down  trailed  on  the  ground : 
The  Macedon  perceiving  hurt,  gan  gnafhe. 
But  yet  his  mynde  he  bent  in  any  wife 
Hym  to  f  rbeare,  fett  fpurrs  unto  his  ftede. 
And  turnde  away,  left  anger  of  his  fmarte 
Should  caufe  revenger  hand  deale  baleful!  blowes. 
But  of  the  Macedonian  chicftaines  knights. 
One  Meleager  could  not  bear  this  fight. 
But  ran  upon  the  faid  Egyptian  rude. 
And  cut  him  in  both  knees:  he  fell  to  ground. 
Wherewith  a   whole    rout    came    of   fouldiours 

And  all  in  pieces  hewed  the  fely  feg, 
But  happely  the  foule  fled  to  the  ftarres, 
Where,  under  him,  he  hath  full  fight  of  all. 
Whereat  he  gazed  here  with  rcachmg  looke. 
The  Perfians  waild  fuch  fapience  to  forgoe. 
The  very  fone  the  Macedonians  wifht 
Me  would  have  lived,  king  Alexander  felfe 
Demde  him  a  man  unmete  to  dye  at  all; 
Who  wonne  like  praife  for  conqucft  of  his  Yre, 
As  for  ftoute  men  in  field  that  day  fubdued. 
Who  princes  taught  how  to  difcerne  a  man. 
That  in  his  head  fo  rare  a  jewel  beares, 
But  over  all  thofe  fame  Camenes,  thofe  fame. 
Divine  Camenes,  whofe  honour  he  procurde, 
As  tender  parent  doth  his  daughters  wcale. 
Lamented,  and  for  thankes,  all  that  they  can. 
Do  cherirti  hym  deceaft,  and  fett  him  free. 
From  dark  oblivion  of  devouring  death. 

Barclay  wrote  about  1550 ;  his  chief  work  is  the 
Ship  of  Fooks,  of  which  the  following  extradl  ^ill 
ihew  his  ftyle. 

Of  Mockers  and  Scorners,  and  falfe  Accufers. 
r\  Heartless  fooks,  hafte  here  to  our  dodrine, 

Leaue  off  the  wayes  of  your  enormitie, 
Enforce  you  to  my  preceptes  to  encline. 
For  here  Iball  I  (hcwe  you  good  and  veritie : 
Encline,  and  ye  finde  fhall  great  profperitie, 
Enfuing  the  dodrine  of  our  fathers  olde. 
And  godly  lawes  in  valour  worth  great  golde. 

Who  that  will  followe  the  graces  manyfolde 
Which  are  in  vertue,  (hall  finde  auauncement: 
Wherfore  ^e  fooles  that  in  your  finne  are  bolde, 
Enfue  ye  wifdome,  and  leaue  your  lewde  intent, 
Wifdome  is  the  way  of  men  molt  excellent: 
Therfore  haue  done,  and  fliortly  fpede  your  pace. 
To  quaynt  your  felf  and  company  with  grace. 

Learne  what  is  vertue,  therin  is  great  iblace, 
Learne  what  is  truth,  fadnes  and  prudence. 
Let  grutche  be  gone,  and  grauitie  purchafe, 
Forfake  your  folly  and  inconueniencc, 
Ceafe  to  be  fooles,  and  ay  to  fue  offence, 
Followe  ye  vertue,  chiefe  roote  of  godlynes. 
For  it  and  wifedome  is  ground  of  clenlynes. 

Wifedome  and  vertue  two  thinges  are  doubtles, 
Whiche  man  cndueth  with  honour  fpeciall, 
But  fuche  heartes  as  flepe  in  foolithnes 
Knoweth  nothing,  and  will  nought  know  at  all: 
But  in  this  little  barge  in  principall 
All  foolifli  mockers  1  purpofe  to  repreue, 
Clawe  he  his  backe  that  fecleth  itch  or  greue. 

Mockers  and  fcorners  that  are  harde  of  beleue. 
With  a  rough  comb  here  will  I  clawe  and  grate, 
Toproue  if  they  will  from  their  vice  remeue. 
And  leaue  their  folly,  which  caufeth  great  debate: 
Suche  caytiues  fpare  neyther  poore  man  nor  eftate. 
And  where  their  felfe  are  moft  worthy  derifion. 
Other  men  to  fcorne  is  all  their  moft  condition. 

Yet  are  mo  fooles  of  this  abufion, 
Whiche  of  wife  men  dcfpifeth  the  doftrine. 
With  mowes,  mockes,  fcorne,  and  coUufion, 
Rewarding  rebukes  for  their  good  difcipline: 
Shewc  to  fuche  wifdome,  yet  (hall  they  not  encline 
Unto  the  fame,  but  fet  nothing  therby, 
But  mocke  thy  doftrine,  ftiil  or  openly. 

So  in  the  worlde  it  appeareth  commonly. 
That  who  that  will  a  foole  rebuke  or  blame, 
A  mocke  or  mowe  (hall  he  haue  by  and  by: 
Thus  in  derifion  haue  fooles  their  fpeciall  game. 
Correct  a  wife  man  that  woulde  cfchue  ill  name. 
And  fayne  would  learne,  and  his  lewde  life  amende. 
And  to  thy  wordes  he  gladly  (hall  intende. 


THE      HISTORY      OF    THE 

If  by  misfortune  a  rightwife  man  offende, 
He  gUdly  fuffercth  a  iuftc  corredion, 
And  him  that  him  teacheth  laketh  for  his  frende, 
Him  fclfe  putting  mekely  unto  fubiedtion, 
Folowing  his  preceptes  and  good  diredion: 
But  yf  that  one  a  foole  rebuke  or  blame. 
He  fliall  his  teacher  hate,  Qaunder  and  diffame. 

Howbeit  his  wordes  oft  turne  to  his  own  fliame, 
And  his  owne  dartes  rttourne  to  him  agayne. 
And  fo  is  he  fore  wounded  with  the  fame. 
And  in  wo  endeth,  great  mifery  and  payne. 
It  alfo  proued  full  often  is  certayne. 
That  they  that  on  mockers  alway  their  mindes  caft, 
Shall  of  all  other  be  mocked  at  the  laft. 

He  that  goeth  right,  ftedfaflr,  fure,  and  faft. 
May  him  well  mocke  that  goeth  halting  and  lame, 
And  he  that  is  white  may  well  his  fcornes  caft, 
Agaynft  a  man  of  Inde :  but  no  man  ought  to  blame 
Anothers  vice,  while  he  vfeth  the  fame. 
Butwhothatof  finne  is  cleaneindeedeand  thought. 
May  him  well  fcorne  whofe  liuing  is  ftarke  nought. 
The  fcornes  of  Naball  full  dere  fliould  haue  been 

If  Abigayl  his  wife  difcrete  and  fage. 
Had  not  by  kindnes  right  crafty  meanes  fought, 
The  wrath  of  Dauid  to  temper  and  affwage. 
Hath  not  two  beares  in  their  fury  and  rage 
Two  and  furtie  children  rent  and  tome. 
For  they  the  prophete  Helyfeus  did  fcorne. 

So  might  they  curfe  the  time  that  they  were  borne, 
For  their  mockmg  of  this  prophete  diuine: 
So  many  other  of  this  fort  often  mourne 
For  their  lewde  mockes,  and  fall  into  ruine. 
Thus  is  it  foly  for  wife  men  to  encline. 
To  this  lewde  flockc  of  fooles,  for  fee  thou  fliall 
Them  mofte  fcorning  that  are  moft  bad  of  all. 

The  Lenuoy  of  Barclay  to  the  fooles. 

Ye  mocking  fooles  that  in  fcorne  fet  your  ioy. 
Proudly  defpifing  Gods  punition: 
Take  ye  example  bv  Cham  the  fonne  of  Noy, 
"Which  laughed  his  father  vnto  derifion, 
Which  him  after  curfed  for  his  tranfgrefTion, 
And  made  him  feruaunt  to  all  his  lyne  and  ftocke. 
So  fliall  ye  caytifs  at  the  conclufion, 
Since  ye  are  nought,  and  other  fcorne  and  mocke. 

About  the  year  1553  wrote  Dr.  Wtlfon,  a  man 
celebrated  for  the  policcnefs  of  his  ftyle,  and  the 
extent  of  his  knowledge:  what  the  ftate  of  our 
language  in  his  time,  the  following  may  be  of  ufe 
to  fliow. 

■pRonunciation  is  an  apte  orderinge  bothe  of  the 
■*•  voyce,  countenaunce,  and  all  the  whole  bodye, 
accor  lynge  to  the  worthines  of  fuche  woordes  and 
mater  as  by  fpeache  are  declared.  The  vfc 
hereof  is  fuche  for  anye  one  that  liketh  to  haue 
prayfe  for  tellynge  his  talc  in  open  aflc;mblie,  that 
hauing  a  good  tongue,  and  a  comelye  countenaunce, 
he  flial  be  thought  to  paflTe  all  other  that  haue  the 
like  vtteraunce :  thoughe  they  haue  much  better 
learning..  The  tongue  geueth  a  certayne  grace  to 
euerye  matter,  and  beautifieth  the  caufe  in  like 
maner,  as  a  fwete  foundynge  lute  muche  fetteth 
forthe  a  meane  deuifed  ballade.  Or  as  the  founde 
of  a  good  inftrumente  ftyrreth  the  hearers,  and 
moueth  muche  delite,  fo  a  cleare  foundyng  voice 
comforteth  muche  our  deintie  cares,  with  muche 
fwete  melodic,  and  caufeth  vs  to  allowe  the  matter 
rather  for  the  reporters  fake,  then  the  reporter  for 
the  matters  fake.  Demofthenes  therforc,  that  fa- 
moufe  oratour,  beyng  aflced  what  was  the  chiefeft 
point  in  al  oratorie,  gaue  the  chiefe  and  oncly 
praife  to  Pronunciation  ;  being  demaunded,  what 
was  the  feconde,  and  the  thirde,  he  ftill  made 
aunfwere.  Pronunciation,  and  would  make  none 
other  aunfwere,  till  they  lefie  afliyng,  declaryng 
hereby  that  arte  without  vtteraunce  can  dooe  no- 
thyng,  vtteraunce  without  arte  can  dooe  right 
muche.  And  no  doubte  that  man  is  in  outwarde 
apparaunce  halfe  a  good  clarke,  that  hath  a  cleane 
tongue,  and  a  comely  gefture  of  his  body,  ^fchines 
lykwyfe  L'eyng  banniflied  his  countrie  through  De- 
mofthenes, when  he  had  redde  to  the  Rhodians  his 
own  oration,  and  Demofthenes  aunfwere  thereunto, 
by  force  whereof  he  was  banniflied,  and  all  they 
marueiled  muche  at  the  excellencie  of  the  fame : 
then  (q  d  ^fchines)  you  would  have  marueiled 
muche  more  if  you  had  heard  hymfelfe  fpeak  it. 
Thus  beyng  caft  in  miferie  and  banniflied  foreuer, 
he  could  not  but  geue  fuch  greate  reporte  of  his 
deadly  and  mortal  ennemy. 

Thus  have  I  deduced  the  Englijh  language  from  eafily  traced,  and  the  gradations  obferved,  by  which 

the  age  of /f//r(f^  to  ihzioi  Elizabeth;  in  fome  parts  it  advanced  from  its  firll  rudenefs  to  its  prefeat 

imperfedty  for  want  of  materials;  but  1  hope,  at  elegance, 
Icaft,  in  fuch  a  manner  that  its  progrefs  may  be 

A   GRAM^ 


M       M      A      R 

OF      THE 



RAMM  AR,  whlchisyhart  of  ufing'wards  properly ,  com- 
prifes  four  parts;  Orthography,  Etymology,  Syntax, 
and  Profody. 

In  this  divirton  and  order  of  the  parts  of  grammir  I  follow  the  common  gr»m- 
mwians,  without  enquiring  whether  t  fitter  diftributiim  might  not  be  tound. 
Experience  ha;  long  Ikown  this  method  to  be  fo  diftinft  a»  to  obviate  confulion, 
and  fo  comprchcnfive  as  to  prevent  any  inconvenient  omiflions.  I  likcwife  ufe 
•the  terms  already  received,  and  ah-cady  (nderftood,  though  perhaps  others  more 
proper  might  fometimes  be  invented.  Sylbnrgius,  and  other  innovators,  whofe 
new  terms  have  fanlc  their  learning  into  negled,  have  left  fufficieot  warning 
againft  the  trifling  ambition  of  teaching  arts  in  a  new  language. 

ORTHOCRAPHy  is  the  art  of  combining  Utters  itito  fyllahhs, 
4mdfyllabhs  into  nuords.  It  therefore  teaches  previoufly  the  form 
and  found  of  letters. 

The  letter*  of  the  Eagliih  language  are. 






















































































i         (.wja 







J  confonant. 
































































































u         (or  'Va 









•V  confonant. 









doable  « 


























xed,  more 

commonly  izz^rd 


uxxard,  that  is 


-  _      » 


Vol.  I 

To  thefe  may  be  added  certain  combinations  of  letters  univer- 
fally  ufed  in  printing  ;  as  ft.  ft,  fl,  fl,  (b,  flc,  fF,  ff,  fi,  fli,  fi,  ffi,  ffl, 
and  &,  or  and  per  ft,  and.  a,ft,fl,f,fi,fi,ff,j;f,ffi,f,ffi.ff.  H. 

(t,  a,  a,  a,  ff,  tr,  a,  s,  ffi,  ffi,  i» 

Our  letters  are  commonly  reckoned  twenty-four,  bccaufe  anciently  i  and/, 
■s  well  as  u  and  v,  were  exprefled  by  the  fame  charafler  ;  but  as  thofc  letters, 
which  had  always  different  powers,  have  now  diflFcrent  forms,  our  alphabet  may 
be  properly  faid  to  coniill  of  twenty-fix  letters. 

None  of  the  fraall  confunants  have  a  double  form,  excepty^  ij  of  whichyit 
ufed  in  the  beginning  and  middle,  and  <  at  the  end. 

Vowels  are  five,  a,  e,  i,  o>  u. 

Such  is  the  number  generally  received  ;  but  for  i  it  is  the 
praftice  to  write  y  in  the  end  of  words,  as  thy,  holy  ;  before  /, 
as  from  die,  dying  ;  from  beautify,  beautifying  ;  in  the  words y5yi/, 
■days,  eyes  ;  and  in  words  derived  from  the  Greek,  and  written 
originally  with  v,  Zifiijiem,  avmft»  5  fympathy,  av^iti^uct. 

For  u  we  often  write  w  after  a  vowel,  to  make  a  diphthong  j 
as  rarw,  grew,  n/itvj,  •vovi,floTMing,  loivnefs. 

The  founds  of  all  the  letters  are  various. 

In  treating  on  the  letters,  1  fliall  not,  like  fome  other  grimmarUni,  enquire 
into  the  original  of  their  form,  as  an  antiquarian  j  nor  into  their  formation  and 
prolation  by  the  organs  of  fpccch,  as  a  mechanick,  anatomiH,  or  phyfiologift : 
nor  into  the  properties  and  gradation  of  founds,  or  the  elegance  or  harlhnefs  of 
particular  combinations,  as  a  writer  of  univerfal  and  tranfcendental  grammar.  I 
confider  the  Englilh  alphabet  only  as  it  is  Englilh  ;  and  even  in  this  narrow  dif.. 
quifition,  I  follow  the  example  of  former  grammarians,  perhaps  with  more  reve- 
rence than  judgment,  bccaufe  by  writing  in  Englilh  i  fuppofc  my  reader  already 
acquainted  with  the  EngliOi  language,  and  confequenilv  able  to  pronounce  the 
letters,  of  which  I  teach  the  pronunciation;  and  becaufc  of  founds  in  it 
may  be  obfcrved,  that  words  are  unable  to  defcribe  them.  An  account  therefore 
of  the  primitive  and  fimple  ietttrs  is  ufclefs  almoft  alike  to  thofe  who  know  their 
found,  and  thofe  who  know  it  not. 

Of    VOWELS. 


J  has  three  founds,  the  flender,  open,  and  broad. 

A  flender  is  found  in  moft  words,  zaface,  mane ;  and  in  word* 
ending  in  atiotr,  as  creation,  fal'vation,  generation. 

The  a  flender  is  the  proper  Englilh  a,  called  very  juftly  by  Erpenius,  in  hii 
Arabick  Grammar,  a  Anglicum  turn  c  miftum,  as  having  a  middle  found  between 
the  open  a  and  the  t.  The  French  have  a  fimilar  found  in  the  woid  /a/i,  and  in 
their  e  mafculiuc.  ^ 

A  open  is  the  a  of  the  Italian,  or  nearly  refembles  it  j  as 
father,  rather,  congratulate,  fancy,  glafs. 

A  broad  refembles  the  a  of  the  German  ;  as  all,  'wall,  call. 

Many  words  pronounced  with  a  broad  were  anciently  written  with  au,  at 

ftnlt,  mauli ;  and  we  fliU  tty  fault,  vault.   This  was  probably  the  Siaon  found, 

S  /or 

A      GRAMMAR      OF       THE 

for  it  II  yet  retained  in  the  northern  dialeAst  aod  in  the  ruftick  pronunciation ; 
u  naan  for  au«,  taunj  lor  bard. 


The  fliort  a  approaches  to  the  a  open,  as  griz/i. 

The  long  «,  it  prolonged  by  e  at  the  end  of  the  word,  is  al- 
ways (lender,  is  graze,  fame. 

A  forms  a  diphthong  only  with  ;'  or  j,  and  u  or  w.  Ai  or  4)'> 
as  in  plain,  ivain,  gey,  clay,  has  only  the  found  of  the  long  and" 
flender  a,  and  differs  not  in  the  pronunciation  froin  flane,  -wane. 

Au  or  o'w  has  the  found  of  the  German  a,  as  reew,  naughty. 

^e  is  fometimcs  found  in  Latin  words  not  completely  naturalifcd  or  aflimi- 
lattd,  but  is  no  EngUfli  diphthong  ;  and  is  more  properly  exprclled  by  fing'.e  t, 
as  C'jir,  £mas.  -    ■  .    ■ 


£  I]  the  letter  which  occurs  rood  frequently  in  the  Englifli  language. 
.    E  is  long,  as  m  feint ;  or  fliort,  as  in  cellar,  feparate,  celebrate. 



fFomttt  is  pronounced  nuimen. 

The  ihort  e  has  fometimes  the  found  of  a  clofe  u,  tsfon,  ttme. 

It  is  always  Ihort  befor©  a  double  confonahti'  or  tw(i.confo- 
nants,  as  in  ft.v,  perplexity,  relent,  medlar,  reptile,  fer pent,  cellar, 
cjfation,  bleJJ{ng,  fell,  felling,  debt. 

E  is  always  mute  at  the  end  of  a  word,  except  in  monofylla- 
bles  that  have  no  other  vowel,  as  the  ;  or  proper  names,  as  Pe- 
nelope, Phebe,  Derbe  ;  being  ufcd  to  modify  the  foregoing  con- 
fonant,  asyiWiT^,  tnce,  hedge,  oblige ;  or  to  lengthen  the  preceding 
vowelj  as  bun,  b^.ne ;  can,  cane;  pin,  p'tne  ;  tun,  tiene  ;  rob, 
rihe ;  popt  fopt ;  fir,  ftre  ;,  cur, .cure  i  tub,  tube. 

Almoft  all  words  which  now  canfonants  ended  anoicntly  in  «,  as 
year, yean;  -u/'ildnifs,  •wildvejji;  which  ir  probably 'had  the  force  of  the  French  e 
feminine,  and  ranftituted  a  lyllahle  with  its  adbtiat^  conionant ;  for,  in  old  edi- 
tions, words  are  fometimes  di\ided  thus,  clca-rt,  fcl-k,  icciuled-ge.  This  e 
was  perhaps  for  a  tiqie  vocal  or  filent  in  poetry,  as  convenience  requircJ  ;  but  it 
has  been  long  whi'Hy  mute.     Camden  in  his  Himains  calls  it  the  iilent  e. 

It  does  not  always  lengthen  the  foregoing  vowel,  as  ^/s-v?,  live, 

It  has  fometimes  in  the  en<J  pf  words  a  found  obfcure,  and 
fcarcely  perceptible,  as  open,  papen,  Jhotteut'thijile,  participle, 

iitc?e.  '■       ■  ■  , ■        ;  ';  '  :-'•  ■  '• 

.  This  faintnefe  of  found  is  found  when  «  feparates  a  muce  from  a  liquid,  at  in 
rotten;  or  follows  a  mute  and  liquid,  as  in  raff/e. 

E  forms  a  diphthong  with  a,  as  near  ;  with  /',  as  deign,  receive ; 
and  with  uotiu,  asne^VfJieiv. 

Ea  founds  like  e  long,  as  mean ;.  or  like^^,  as  dear,  cJefrxfuar..^ 

Ei  is  founded  like  e  lon^,  as/eize,  perceiving.  v  '\  -,i  •' 

£u  founds  as  u  long  and  foft. 

E,  a,  u,  are  combined  in  beauty  and  its  derivatives,  but  have 
only  the  found  of  u. 

E  m2Ly  be  faid  to  form  a  diphthong  by  reduplication,  as  agree, 

Ea  is  found  inyecmen,  where  It  is  founded  as  e  (hort;  and  'in  feifle,  where  it 
is  pronounced  like  et. 

/has  a  found,  long,  as  fine;  and  Ihort,  as  fin. 

That  is  eminently  obfervable  in  i,  which  may  be  lllcewife  remarked  in  other 
letters,  that  the  Ihort  found,  is  not  the  long  found  contrafled,  but  a  found  wholly 

The  long  fonnd  in  monofyllables  u  always  marked  by  the  e 
final,  as  thin,  thine. 

J  is  often  founded  before  r  as  a  fliort  a  ;  i.% flirt,  firft,  Jhiri. 

It  forms  a  diphthong  only  with  e,  a&  field,  Jhield,  which  is 
founded  as  the  double  ee ;  except  friend,  which  is  founded  as 

I  is  joined  with  ai  in  lieu,  and  rui  in  •uie^ii ;  which  triphthong)  ate  founded  as 
tbe  oprn  *. 


O  is  long,  as  bZiu,  aiidiint,  corriding  ;  or  fliort,  hillock,  knock, 
iili^ue,  /«//. 

O  coalefces  into  a  diphthong  with  a,  as  moan,  groan,  approach  { 
oa  has  the  found  oio  long. 

(n%  united  to  f  in  fome  words  derived  from  Greek,  as  cecontmy ;  but  ne  being 
not  an  Englilh  diphthong,  they  are  better  written  a^  they  are  luusdcd,  with  only  t, 
'ecoixiriy.  * 

With  I,  as  oil,  foil,  moil,  neifome, 

,  This  ^oalition  of  letters  fcems  to  unite  the  founds  of  the  two  letters  as  bet  as- 
two  f»un>&  can  be  united  without  being  dcftroyed,  atid  therefore  approaches  more 
nearly  than  any  combination  in  our  tongue  to  the  notion  of  a  diphthong. 

With  0,  as  boot,  hoot,  cooler  ;  eo  has  the  found  of  the  Italian  u. 

With  K  or  iv,  as  our,  poiver,  flo'wer  ;  but  in  fome  words  has- 
only  the  found'cf  o  long,  as  in. foul,  bmul,  fovj ,  grtnu.  Tiiefe  dif- 
ferent founds  are  ufed  to  dittinguifli  difPercnt  iigoificatipns  ;  as 
bo^u,  an  inllrument  for  (hooting  ;  boiv,  a  depreiiion  of  the  head  : 
fan.!},  the  (he  of  a  boar  ;  foi>j,  to  fcatter  feed  :  bowl,  an  orbicular 
body  ;  botxl,  a  wooden  veflel. 

Ou  is  fometimes  pronounced  like  o  foft,  as  court  ;  fometimes 
like  0  (hort,  as  cough  ;  fometimes  like  u  clofe,  as  could ;  or  ;/  open, 
as  rough,  tough ;  which  ufe  only  can  teach. 

'    Ou  is  frequently  ufed  in  the  laft  fyllable  of  words  which  in  Latin  end  in  cr,  and 
arc  made  Engliih,  as  hcncur,  labour,  favour,  from  bcno/j  tabor ^  fat' or. 

Some  late  innovators  havtejefted  the  u,  without  coiirtJtring  that  the  lad  fyl- 
lable gives  the  found  neither  of  er  nor  ur,  but  a  found  between  them,  if  not  com- 
pounded of  both;  befidrt  that  they  are  probably  dL-rJv.ed  to  us  from  the  French, 
f\ontta  in  err,  as  bnnieur,  Jivcur. 


U  is  long  in  /fe,  confuflon  ;  or  (hort,  as  us,  concujjion. 

It  coalefces  with  a,  e,  i,  o  ;  but  has  rather  in  theie  combina- 
tions the  force  of  the  ou,  as  quaff,  qnefl,  quit,  quite,  languijh  ; 
fometimes  in  ui  the  /  lofes  its  found,  as  in  juice.  It  is  fometimes 
mute  before  a,  e,  i,y,  as  guard,  guefl,  guije,  buy. 

U  is  followed  by  e  in  virtue,  but  jhe  e  has  no  fojjnd. 

Ue  is  fometimes  mute  at  the  end  of  a  word,  in  imitation  of  the  French,  ispro" 

rogue,  fynagogue,  fitgue,  vague,  harangue. 

7"  is  a  vowel,  whichi  as  Quintilian  obferves  of  one  of  the  Ro- 
man letters,  we  might  want  without  inconvenience,  but  that  we 
have  it.  It  fupplies  the  place  of;  at  the  end  of  words,  as  thy  ; , 
before  an  f,  as  dying ;  and  is  commonly  retained  in  derivative 
words  where  it  was  part  of  a  diphthong  in  the  primitive  j  as  de- 
Jlroy,  dejlroyer ;  betray,  betrayed,  bttrayer ;  pray,  prayer  j  fay, 
fayer ;  day,  days. 

J'b^ng  the^aton  vowel  y,  which  was  commonly  ufcd  wher?  /  is  now  put,  , 
occuts  very  frequently  in  all  old  boolc£> 

General    Rules. 

A  vowel  inthe  beginning  or  middle  fyllable,  before  two  con-, 
fonants,  is  commonly  (hort,  as  opportunity. 

In  monofyllables  a  fingle  vowel  before  a  fingle  confonant  is- 
ftiort,  as  flag,. frog. 

Many  is  pronounced  as  if  it  were  wrote  mermy. 

Of    C  O  N  S  O  N  AN  T  S.. 

3  has  one  unvaried  found,  fuch  as  it  obtains  in  other  Ian- 

guages.  ,     t     I     L    J     / 

It  is  mute  in  debt,  debtor,  fubtk,  doubt,  lamb,  limb,  dumb, 

thumb,  climb,  comb,  ivomb. 
It  is  vifed  before  I  and  r,  »j  */«*,  hrvaa. 

E  :N  ,G    L   I    S  -H  ./TON    G;.U  ]E. 


C  has  before  e  and  /  the  found  of/;  a.s^)itere!j,  centrLi,  cen- 
tury, circular,  cijiern,  city ,  Jicc'.ty  :  before  a,  o,  and  »,  it  founds 
like  k,  as  calm,  concavity,  copper,  incorporate,  curiojity,  concupij- 
cence.  ......    ^       .    .         -       _ 

C  might  be  omitted  in  the  language  without  lofs,,(ince  o«e  of  its  founds  might 
be  fupplicd  by/,  and  the  oth*  by  k,  but  that  it  prefervcs  to  the  eye  the  etymology 
0/  words,  as  fact  from  fades,  captive  from  captfvus, 

Cb  has  a  found  which  is  analyfed  into  tjh,  as  church,  chin, 
crutch,  ft  is  the  fame  found  which  the  Italians  give  to  the  c 
fimple  before  ;  and  e,  as  citta,  cerro.        ,  1, 

Ch  is  founded  like  k  in  words  derived  from  the  Greek,  as 
chymiji,  /cheme,  chohr.  Arch  is  commonly  founded  ark  befor*  a 
vowel,  as  archangel;  and  with  the  Englifti  found  of  ch  before  a 
confonant,  as  arf^^y^^o/. 

Cb,  in  fame  Freoch  words  not  yet  affimilatcd,  founds  lilce  fi,  as  mach'au, 

C,  having  no  determinate  found,  according  to  Engliih  ortliography,  never  ends 
a  word  ;  therefore  wc  write y?iV*»  i/s.-,4,  which  wcc  vr'^'mi^l-,  fluke,  ixcke,  in 
fjch  words,     C  is  now  mute.  , 

It  is  ufed  before  /  ajid  r,  as  clxk,  crofst 


Is  uniform  in  its  found,  as  death,  diligent. 

It  is  ufed  before  r,  as  drtv),  draft ;  and  vi,  as  divelK 

/",  though  having  a  name  beginning  with  a  vowel,  is  num- 
bered by  die  grammarians  among  the  ienii-vowels  ;  yet  has  tliis 
quality  of  a  mute,  that  it  is  commodioudy  founded  before  a 
liquid,  z%jiajk,jly,  freckle.  It  has  an  unvariable  found,  except 
that  of  is  fometimes  fpokcn  nearly  as  ov. 


G  has  two  found?,  one  hard,  as  in  gay,  go,  gun ;  tlie  other 
foft,  as  in  gem,  giant. 

At  the  end  of  a  word  it  is  always  hard,  ring,  fnug,  fong,  frog. 

Before  e  and  /  the  found  is  uncertain. 

G  before  e  is  foft,  as  gem,  gcicralion,  except  in  gear,  geld, 
geej'e,  get,  genvgaiu,  and  derivatives  from  words  ending  in  g,  as 
finging,  ftrtnger,  and  generally  before  er  at  the  end  of  words,  as 

G  is  mute  before  n,  as  gnafh,ftgn,  foreign. 

G  before  i  is  hard,  as  gi've,  except  in  giant,  gigantic,  gibhtt, 
gibe,  giblets,  Giles,  gill,  gdlifiimier ,  gin,  ginger,  gingle,  to  which 
may  be  added  Egypt  zxiL  gypfey . 

Gh,  in  the  beginning  of  a  word,  has  the  found  of  the  hard  g, 
as  ghoflly  ;  in  the  middle,  and  fometimes  at  the  end,  it  is  quite 
filent,  as  though,  right,  fought,  fpoken  tho',  rite,  foute. 

It  has  often  at  the  end  the  found  of/,  as  laugh,  whence  laugh- 
ter retains  the  fame  found  in  the  middle  ;  cough,  trough,  fough; 
ttugh,  enough,  Jlough. 

It  is  not  to  be  daobted,  but  that  in  the  original  pronunciation  gh  hid 
the  force  of  a  confonant,  deeply  guttural,  which  is  ftill  continued  unung  the 

G  is  ufed  before  i,  1,  and  r. 


W  is  a  note  of  afpiraiion,  and  (hows  that  the  following  vowel 
muft  be  pronounced  with  a  ftrong  emiffion  of  breath,  as  hat, 

It  feldom  begins  any  but  the  firll  fyllable,  in  which  it  is 
always  founded  with  a  full  breath,  except  in  heir,  herb,  hofller, 
honour,  humble,  honefl,  humour,  and  their  derivatives. 

It  fometimei  begins  middle  or  final  fyllablesln  words  compouadcdi  as  hliik- 
It^J;  ot  derived  lium  the  Lacin,,as  ctmprtbetuUd. 

J  confonant  founds  uniformly  like  the  foft  g,  and  is  therefore 
a  letter  efelefs,  except  in  ctynwlog)',  as  ejaculation,  jcftir,  jocund, 


•  •     K.      ■  ,..'''■ 

K  has  the  found  of  hard  c,  and  \i  ufed  before  e  and  C  wKctc, 

according  to   Englirti  analogy,    c  would  be  foft,  'as  kept,  king, 

Jl-!rt,Jieptick,  for  fo  it  Ihould  be  written,  not  fceptick,  becaufey^ 

is  founded  like/,  ag  in  fane.  ■ 

It  is  ufed  before  «,  as  knell,  knot,  but  totally  lofes  its  found  in  modem  pro- 
nunciation. .      .    ! 

K  is  never  doubled;  but  c  is  ufed  before  it  to  Ihorten'tha 
vowel  by  a  double  confonant,  as  cockle,  flc,iU, 

L  has  in  Englifh  the  fame  liquid  found  as  in  other  languages. ' 

Thecuftom  is  to  double  the  /  at  the  end  of  monofyllablcs,  as  HI!,  iv'ill,Ju/f. 
Thefe  words  were  originaHy  writteiT  H/le,  tville,  fuUc ;  and  when  the  e  firft 
grew  filcnt,  and  was  afterwards  omitted,  tiic  //was  retained,  to  give  force,  ac- 
cording to  the  analogy  of  our  language,  to  the  foregoing  vowel. 

L  is  fometimes  mute,  as  in  calf,  half,  halves,  calites,  could, 
•would,  fhould,  pjalm,  talk,  faltnon,  falcon. 

The,  who  delighted  in  guttural  founds,  fometimes  afpirated  the  /  af 
the  beginning  of  words,  as  hbj:,  a  loaf,  or  bread;  hlapolift,  a  lord;  but  this 
pronunciation  is  now  difufed. 

Le  at  the  end  of  words  is  pronounced  like  a  weak  el,  in  which 
the  e  is  almofl  mute,  as  table,  puttie. 

Mhas  always  the  fame  found,  as  murmur,  monumental. 


A'^  has  always  the  fame  (bund,  as  noble,  manners. 

N  is  fometimes  mute  after  m,  as  damn,  condemn,  hymn. 

P  has  alv/ays  the  fame  found,  which  the  Welfli  and  Germans 
confound  with  B. 

P  is  fometimes  mute,  as  in  pfalm,  and  between  m  and  /,  as 

Pb  is  ufed  for/  in  words  derived  from  the  Greek,  as  philofo- 
pher,  philanthropy ,  Philip, 

^,  as  in  other  languages,  is  alw.iys  followed  by  «,  and  has  a. 
found  which  our  Saxon  anceftors  well  exprefled  by  cp,  ciu,  as 
quadrant,  queen,  equeflrian,  quilt,  enquiry,  quire,  quotidian.  ^  is 
never  followed  by  u. 

S^u  is  fometimes  founded,  in  words  derived  from  the  French, 
like  k,  as  conquer,  liquor,  rifque,  chequer. 

R  has  the  fame  rough  fnarling  found  as  in  other  tongues. 

The  Saxons  nfed  often  to  put  h  before  it,  as  before  /  at  the  beginning  of 
words.  . . 

Rh  is  ufed  in  words  derived  from  .the  Gteck,  as  myrrb,  mjrrbiiu,  catarrhous, 
rheum,  rbeumdiuk,  rhjmt.  , 

Re,  .It  the  end  of  fome  words  derived  from  the  Latin  or 
French,  is  pronounced  like  a  weak  er,  as  theatre,  fepulcbre. 

£  has  a  hifling  found,  9a  fibilation,  fiftet. 

A  Angle  >  feldom  ends  any  word,  except  in  the  third  perfon  of  verbs,  as 
'Imci,  frovii ;  and  the  pkitall  of  nouns,  M  (rets,  hufits,  diftrejfei  j  th«  prontuns 
'  B  »  V  this, 

A 'Grammar    of    the 

tth,  th,  tan,  ynn,  u) ;  tfie  lirerb  tbui ;  and  worJs  derived  from  Latin,  as 
niat,  jufflui ;  Che  f IcWe  being  always  either  in  Jt,  at  himjt,  berjc,  or  inyt)  as 
grsji,  drejt,  i/ijs,  lifs,  anciently  gmji,  ttrrji. 

S  fingle,  at  the  end  of  words,  has  a  wofler  found,  like  that  of 
»,  as  trees,  eyes,  except  this,  thus,  us,  rebus,  furplus. 

It  fpundj  like  %  before  ion,  if  a  vowel  goes  before,  as  intrufion  ; 
and  like^  if  it  follows  a  confonant,  as  con'verjton. 

It  founds  like  z.  before  e  mute,  as  refu/e,  and  before _)i  final,  as 
rejy;  and  in  thofe  words  ho/om,  dejire,  •u.-ifjom,  prifon,  prifoner, 
frejint,  prefent.  Jam/el,  ca/ement. 

It  it  the  peculiar  quality  o(  f,  that  it  may  be  founded  before  all  confonants, 
except  *  and  as,  in  which  /  \%  comprifcd,  x  being  only  ij,  and  K  a  hard  or 
gftifsf,  Tbb  /  is  therefore  termed  by  grammarians  fi»te  pitifiat'u  Ultra  ;  the 
reafon  of  which  the  learned  Dr.  Clarke  erroneoully  fuppoled  to  be,  that  in 
fome  words  it  might  be  #jublcd  at  plealure.  Thus  wc  find  in  feveral  lan- 
guages : 

iZ'invfxt,  fcatter,  Jdcgno,  fdrucdolo,  ffavetlari,  ff"*jH>^,  Jgamhrart,  jgranare-, 
Jhake,  Jiumber,  fmtli,  jnipe,  fpace,^iendiiur,  fpring,  fquax^e,  Jbrnv,  fi^p,  firt^gtb, 
^ramen,  Jh'ipe,  J'vnttura,  ftvell, 

S  is  iDUtC  in  ij!e,  ijland,  demefnt,  vi/cqunl. 

7*  has  its  cuHonary  found,  as  take,  temptation, 

Ti  before  a  vowel  has  the  found  of  _/f,  as/ai'vatioH,  except  an 
/  goes  before,  as  quejiion  ;  excepting  likewife  derivatives  from 
words  ending  in  ty,  as  mighty,  mightier. 

Th  has  two  founds ;  the  one  foft,  as  thus,  <whcther  ;  the  other 
hard,  as  thing,  think.  Thie  found  is  foft  in  thcfe  words,  then, 
thenct,  and  there,  with  their  derivatives  and  compounds ;  and  in 
that,  thefe,  thou,  thee,  thy,  thine,  their,  they,  this,  thofe,  them, 
though,  thus,  and  in  all  words  between  two  vowels,  as  father, 
tvhether  ;   and  between  r  and  a  vowel,  as  burthen. 

In  other  words  it  is  hard,  as  tbici,  thunder,  faith,  faithful. 
Where  it  is  foftened  at  the  end  of  a  woid,  an  e  filent  mult  be 
added,  as  breath,  breathe;  cloth,  clothe. 


y  has  a  found  of  near  affinity  to  that  ofy*,  vain,  vanity. 

From  f,  in  the  Iflaadjck  alphabet,  1/  ir  ocly  diftinguiihcd  by  a  diacritical 
pel  IK. 


Of  Of,  which  in  diphthongs  is  oftea  an  undoubted  vowel, 
fome  grammarians  have  doubted  whether  it  ever  be  a  confonant ; 
and  not  rather,  as  it  is  called,  a  double  u  or  ou,  as  luater  may  be 
refolved  into  ouater ;  but  letters  of  the  fame  found  are  always 
reckoned  confoaants  in  other  alphabets :  and  it  may  be  ob- 
ferved,  that  lu  follows  a  vowel  without  any  hiatus  or  difficulty  of 
utterance,  a  frofiy  ^winter. 

Wh  has  a  found  accounted  peculiar  to  the  Engllfh,  which  the 
Saxons  better  cxpreffed  by  hp,  htu,  as  ivhat,  'whence,  -whiting  ; 
in  luhore  only,  and  fometimes  in  •wholefome,  'wh  is  founded  like 
a  fimple  h. 

JT  begins  no  Englilh  word ;  it  has  »he  found  of  is,  as  axle, 


y,  when  it  follows  a  confonant,  is  a  vowel ;  when  it  precedes 
•ither  a  vowel  or  dipththong,  is  a  confonant,  ye,  young.  It  is 
thought  by  fome  to  be  in  all  cafes  a  vowel,  But  it  may  be  ob- 
ferved  ofy  as  of 'iu,  that  it  foUoivs  a  vowel  without  any  hiatus, 
as  rofy youth. 

The  thief  argument  by  which  •»  and  y  appear  to  be  always  vowels  is,  that 
the  founds  which  they  arc  fuppofed  to  have  as  confonant^,  cannot  be  uttercJ 
ai^ter  •  vowel,  like  that  of  a'l  nther  confonants  :  thus  we  fay,  tu,  vt  ■■,  do,  odd ; 
tat  <A  wM,  Unu,  the  two  founds  »t'«r  ha?e  ao  ickialilaiicc  tu  ewih  «tlic[> 


Z  begins  no  word  originally  EnglLfli ;  it  has  the  fonnd,  a» 
its  name  ixxard,  or  f  hard  exprefles,  of  an  /  uttered  with  clofer 
compreffion  of  the  palate  by  the  tongue,  in  freeze,  froxe. 

In  orthography  I  have  fuppoltd  trtbetpj,  orjufl  utterance  tf  wurjt,  to  be  in- 
cluded ;  orthography  being  only  the  art  of  expreiring  certain  founds  by  proper 
characters.  1  have  therefore  obferved  in  what  words  any  of  the  letters  are 

Mod  of  the  writers  of  Englilh  gramtnar  have  given  long  tables  of  words  pro- 
nounced othcrwifc  than  they  arc  written,  and  feem  not  fufHclently  to  have 
confidcrcd,  that  of  £nglilh,  as  of  all  living  tongues,  there  is  a  double  pro- 
nunciation, one  curfory  and  colloquial,  the  other  regular  and  folemn.  The 
cjirlory  pronunciation  is  always  vague  and  uncertain,  being  made  diflferent  in 
diiiercnt  mouths  by  negligence,  unikilfulnefs,  or  an'eilation.  The  folemn  pro- 
nunciation, though  by  no  means  immutable  and  permanent,  is  yet  always 
Icfs  remote  from  the  orthography,  and  Icfs  liable  to  capricious  innovation. 
They  have  however  generally  formed  their  tablet  according  to  the  curfory 
fpccch  of  thofe  with  whom  they  happened  to  converfe  ;  and  concluding  that 
the  whole  nation  combines  to  vitiate  language  in  one  manner,  have  oftea 
eftabliflicd  the  jargon  of  the  lowed  of  the  people  as  the  model  of  fpeech. 

For  pronunciation  the  beft  general  rule  is,  to  confider  thofe  of  the  moft  ele- 
gant fpeakers  who  deviate  lead  from  the  written  words. 

There  have  been  many  fchcmcs  offered  for  the  emendation  and  fcttlement  of 
our  orthography,  which,  like  that  of  other  nations,  being  formed  by  chance, 
or  according  to  the  fancy  of  the  earlled  writers  in  rude  ages,  was  at  fird  very 
various  and  uncertain,  and  is  yet  fufficlently  irregular.  Of  thefe  reformers 
fome  have  endeavoured  to  accommodate  orthography  better  to  the  pronunci- 
ation, without  confiderlng  that  this  is  to  mcafure  by  a  ihadow,  to  take  that  for 
a  mod^l  or  ilandard  which  is  changing  while  they  apply  it.  Others,  lefs 
abfurdly  indeed,  but  with  equal  unlikelihood  of  fuccels,  have  endeatoured  to 
proportion  the  number  of  letters  to  that  of  founds,  that  every  found  may  have 
its  own  charaftcr,  and  every  character  a  lingle  found.  Such  would  be  the. 
ortliography  of  a  new  language  to  t%  formed  by  a  fynod  of  grammarians 
upon  principles  of  fcience.  But  who  can  hope  to  prevail  on  nations  to  change 
their  praftice,  and  make  all  their  old  books  ufelefs  ?  or  what  advantage  would 
a  new  orthography  procure  equivalent  to  the  confulion  and  perplexity  of  fuch 
an  alteration  f 

Some  of  thefe  fchemes  I  fliall  however  exhibit,  which  may  be  ufcd  according 
to  the  diverfitics  of  genius,  as  a  guide  to  reformers,  or  terrour  to  innovators. 

One  of  the  fird  who  propofed  a  fcheme  of  regular  orthography,  was  Sir 
Thomas  Smith,  fecretary  of  date  to  Queen  Elizabeth,  a  man  of  real  learning, 
and  much  pra£llfed  in  grammatical  difquiQtions.  Had  he  written  the  following 
lines  according  to  his  fcheme,  they  would  have  appeared  thus  1 

At  length  Erafmus,  that  great  injur'd  name, 
The  glory  of  the  ptiedhood,  and  the  fhame, 
Stemm'd  the  wild  torrent  of  a  barb'rous  age. 
And  drove  thofe  holy  Vandals  off  the  dage. 

Ac  IcngiS  Erafmus,  Sat  gret  Vngurd  nam. 
At  glorV  of  So  priidhtid,  and  Se  zam, 
Stcmmd  Se  TOild  torrent  of  a  barb'rous  aj. 
And  drijv  S'os  hiili  Vandals  off  Se  daj. 

After  him  another  mode  of  writing  was  offered  by  Dr.  Gill,  the  celebrated 
maftcr  of  St.  Paul's  fchool  in  London  ;  which  I  cannot  reprcfent  cxa^ly  for 
want  of  types,  but  will  approach  as  nearly  as  1  can  by  means  of  charattcr^ 
now  in  ufe,  fo  as  to  make  it  undcrftood,  exhibiting  two  ftanzas  of  Speofeiia  tlie 
reformed  orthography. 

Spenfer,  book  iii.  canto  5. 
tTnthankful  wretch,  faid  he,  is  this  the  meed. 
With  which  her  fovereign  mercy  thou  dod  quite  f 
Thy  life  fhe  faved  by  her  gracious  deed  j 
But  thou  dod  ween  with  viiianous  defpight. 
To  blot  her  honour,  and  her  beav'nly  light. 
Die,  rather  die,  than  fo  difloyally 
Deem  of  her  high  defert,  or  feem  fo  light. 
Fair  death  it  Is  tj  ihun  more  Ihame  ;  then  die* 
Die,  rather  die,  than  ever  love  difloyally. 

But  if  to  love  difloyalty  it  be, 
Shall  I  then  hate  her,  that  from  deathes  door 
Me  brought  ?  ah  !  far  be  fuch  reproach  fi  om  ms> 
What  can  1  lefs  do,  than  her  love  therefore, 
Sith  I  her  due  reward  cannot  redore  ? 
Die,  rather  die,  and  dying  do  her  fcrvc. 
Dying  her  ferve,  and  living  her  adore. 
Thy  life  (he  gave,  thy  life  fhe  doth  deferve  ; 
Die,  rather  die,  than  ever  from  her  (enice  fwtrvt. 

VrJlonkful  wrs:i,  faid  hj,  iz  Sis  Se  mjd, 
Wi|j  lob  hrr  fotcrdin  miifi  Sou  dud  qujt  ^ 
Dj  Ijf  rj  '"tt!''-  bj  htr  grafius  djd  ; 
Sue  Sou  duil  wca  wi|i  V'iinus  diipjt, 



Tu  blot  btr  honor,  and  her  hctlalj  lL6ti 
Pj,  ra^ir  dj,  iScn  Co  diflolalj 
Pjm  o(  hir  hii>  dizirt,  or  fjm  fo  liit. 
Fair  dt||  ic  iz  tu  fun  mwr  film  ;  ^in  dj* 
Pj,  nSer  dj,  Ssn  itlfr  lub  difloulj. 

But  it"  tu  lub  difloialtj  it  bj,  ~ 

Sal  1  ^in  hat  htr  ^at  iVom  diSez  dxr 
Mj  brouit  ?  oh  !  f#'  bj  fuo  nproj  from  mj. 
Wat  kan  I  iis  du  iStn  hir  iuti  Scrfvr, 
Siir  i  her  du  riw^rd  icanot  reitur  ? 
Dj,  rjiJSer  dj,  and  djij  du  htr  firto, 
DJ!5  hir  fiib,  and  lib.;  hsr  adir. 
Dj  Ijf  f  j  6«*'>  *j  Ijf  rj  <iuA  dizerVl ; 
Dj,  raiit  dj,  ita  (btr  r'rom  hir  I'tibii  fwirb. 

Dr.  Gill  was  followed  by  Charles  Butler,  a  man  who  did  not  want  an  un- 
derftanding  which  might  have  qualified  him  for  better  emp'.i'yiricnt.  He  ferns 
to  have  been  more  fanguine  than  his  predccefTors,  for  he  prjnted  his  book  ac- 
cording to  his  own  I'chenke ;  which  the  following  fpecimcn  will  make  eafily  un- 

But  whenfoerer  you  have  occaflon  to  trouble  their  patience,  or  to  come 
ireong  them  being  troubled,  it  is  better  to  ftanJ  upon  your  guard,  than  to 
truft  to  their  gentlenefs.  For  the  fafeguard  of  your  face,  which  they  have 
moft  mind  unto,  provide  a  purfttiood,  made  of  coarfc  bouUering,  to  be  drawn 
and  knit  about  your  collar,  which  fur  more  fafety  is  to  be  lined  againft  the 
eminent  parts  with  woollen  cloth.  Firfl  cut  a  piece  about  an  inch  and  a  half 
broad,  and  half  a  yard  l;ing,  to  reach  round  by  the  temples  and  forehead,  from 
one  ear  to  the  o^her;  which  being  fowcd  in  his  place,  join  unto  it  two  Ihort 
pieces  of  the  fame  breadth  under  the  eyes,  for  the  balls  of  the  cheeks,  and  then 
fet  another  piece  about  the  breadth  of  a  (hilling  againft  the  top  of  the  aofe. 
At  other  times,  when  they  are  not  angered,  a  little  piece  half  a  quarter  broad, 
to  cover  the  ejes  and  parts  about  them,  may  lerve,  though  it  be  in  the  heat  of 
the  day. 

Bet  penfocver  you  hay'  occafion  to  trubble  8eir  patlenc',  or  to  c«»m  among 
tern  hiring  trubled,  it  is  better  to  ftand  upon  your  gard,  San  to  truft  to  8eir 
gentlenes.  For  *e  faf  gard  of  your  fac',  pi?  8ey  hav'  moft  mind'  unto, 
provid'  a  purfehjod,  mad'  of  coorfe  boultering,  to  b«  drawn  and  knit  about 
your  collar,  pis  for  raor'  faf'ty  is  to  b«  lined  againft  S'  eminent  parts  wit 
wecUen  clot.  Firft  cut  a  free'  about  an  jna  and  a  half  broad,  and  half  a  \ard 
long,  to  ten  round  by  Se  temples  and  for'head,  from  one  ear  to  8e  o8er  j 
yia  bfcing  fowrd  in  his  plac',  join  unto  it  two  fort  paces  of  the  fam  breadT 
under  'Se  eys,  for  the  bails  of  ie  chirks,  and  then  fet  an  oSer  p«c'  about  8t 
breadr  of  a  filling  againft  the  top  o  8c  nofe.  At  o8er  tim's,  fen  8ey  at' 
not  angered,  a  little  pice'  half  a  quarter  broad,  to  cover  8e  eys  and  parts  about 
them,  may  fcrve,  8owj  it  be  in  the  heat  of  8e  day.  Buikr  m  Ihi  Nature  anj 
Frtfcrlits  cf  Beit,  1634. 

In  the  time  of  Charles  I.  tber«  was  a  very  prevalent  Inclination  to  change 
the  orthography;  as  appears,  among  other  books,  in  fuch  editions  of  the 
works  of  Miltun  as  were  publilhed  by  himlilf.  Of  thefe  reformers,  every 
man  bad  his  own  fchcme  ;  but  they  agreed  in  one  general  delign  of  accommo- 
dating the  letters  to  the  pronunciation,  by  ejcfting  fuch  as  they  thought  fu- 
perfluous.     Seme  of  them  would  have  writun  thefe  lines  thus : 

-All  the  erth 

Shall  then  be  paradis,  far  happier  place 
Than  this  of  Eden,  and  far  happier  dais. 

Birtiop  Wllklns  afterwards,  in  his  great  work  of  the  philofophital  Janjuage, 
f ropofed,  without  expeSing  to  be  followed,  a  regular  orthography ;  by  which 
(he  Lord't  prayer  i»  10  be  written  thus : 

y»r  Fadher  hnitfli  art  in  hcven  halloed  bi  dhyi  nam,  dhyi  cingdym  cym,  dhy 
•ni  bi  dyn  in  erth  as  it  is  in  heven,  ic. 

We  have  finee  had  no  general  reformers ;  but  fome  ingenious  men  have 
endeavoured  to  deferve  well  of  their  country,  by  writing  bcmr  and  iaior  for 
iimur  and  Uinur,  rtd  for  riad  in  the  preter-tenfe,  ja'is  (or  Jay t,  rtfett  for  rtfeai, 
txf'.am  for  ixflam,  or  dutamt  for  dicta'm.  Of  thefe  it  may  be  laid,  that  as  they 
have  done  no  good,  they  have  done  little  harm  ;  both  bccaufe  they  have  inno- 
vated little,  and  becaule  few  have  followed  them. 

The  Englilh  language  has  properly  no  dialefls ;  the  ftyle  of  writers  has  no 
profeffed  diverfity  in  the  ufe  of  words,  or  of  their  flexions,  and  terminations, 
■or  differs  but  by  diflferent  degrees  of  (kill  or  care.  The  oral  diiftion  is  uniform 
is  no  fpacious  country,  but  has  lefs  variation  in  England  than  in  moft  other 
nations  of  equal  extent.  The  language  of  the  northern  counties  retains  many 
word*  novv  out  of  ufe,  but  which  are  commonly  of  the  genuine  Teutonick 
lace,  and  is  uttered  with  a  pronunciation  which  now  fccms  harlh  and  rough, 
but  wai  probably  ufed  by  our  anceftors.  The  northern  fpcrch  is  therefore  not 
barbarous  but  obfoletc.  The  fpcech  in  tiic  wcftern  provinces  fecms  to  differ 
Xrom  the  general  diflion  rather  by  a  depraved  ptunwicistioD,  thao  by  any  real 
4iS<T<i)ce  which  JctKn  would  cxprcii. 


ETYMOLOGY  teaches  the  deduftion  of  one  word  from 
atiother,  and  the  various  modifications  by  which  the  fenfe 
of  the  fame  word  is  diverfified  ;  as  horj'e,  horfes  ;  I  love,  I  loved. 

0/  tie  A  R  T  I  c  V  t. 
The  Englilh  have  two  articles,  an  or  a,  and  t&e. 

An,  a. 

ji  Jias  an  indefinite  fignification,  and  means  one,  with  fome 
reference  to  more  ;  as  T/jis  ii  a  good  hook,  that  is,  one  among  the 
books  that  are  good.  He  tvas  killed  by  a  fvjord,  that  is,  yZfa# 
/•word.  This  is  a  better  book  for  a  man  than  a  boy,  that  is,  for 
one  ofthoje  that  are  men  than  one  of  thofe  that  are  boys.  An  army 
might  enter  ivithout  refiftance,  that  is,  any  army. 

In  the  fenfes  in  which  we  ufe  a  or  an  in  the  fingular,  we  fpeak 
in  the  plural  without  an  article  ;  as,  thefe  are  good  books. 

1  have  made  an  the  original  article,  becaufe  it  is  only  the  Saxon  an,  or  arn, 
on.',  applied  to  a  new  ufe,  as  the  German  tm,  and  the  French  un :  the  n  being 
cut  off  before  a  conibnant  in  the  fpeed  of  utterance.      ~ 

Grammarians  of  the  laft  age  direft,  that  an  fhould  be  ufed 
before  h  ;  whence  it  appears  that  the  Englilh  anciently  afpirated 
lefs.  Jn  is  ftill  ufed  before  the  filent  b,  as,  an  herb,  an  haneft 
man  :  but  otherwife  a  ;  as, 

A  horfe,  a  horfe,  my  kingdom  for  a  horfe.  Shakefpeatt. 

An  or  a  can  only  be  joined  with  a  ftngular,  the  correfpondent 
plural  is  the  noun  without  an  article,  as  Iivant  a  fen  ;  J  ivant 
fens  :  or  with  the  pronominal  adjt&'ivefome,  as  /  luant  fome  fens. 

The  has  a  particular  and  definite  fignification. 

The  fruit 
Of  that  forbidden  tree,  whofe  mortal  talle 
Brought  death  into  the  wor!d.  Milton. 

That  is,  that  f  articular  fruit,  and  this  tvorld  in  ivhich  iiiie  live. 
So,  He  giveth  fodder  for  the  cattle,  and  green  herbs  for  the  ufe  of 
man  ;  that  is,  for  thofe  beings  that  are  cattle,  and  his  ufe  that 
is  man. 

The  is  ufed  in  both  numbers. 

I  am  as  free  as  Nature  firft  made  man. 

Ere  the  bafe  laws  of  fervitude  began. 

When  wild  in  woods  the  noble  favage  ran.     D'ryden. 

Many  words  are  nfed  without  articles  ;  as, 

1.  Proper  names,  as  John,  Alexander,  Longinus,  Arijlarchus, 
ferufalem,  Athens,  Rome,  London.  GoD  is  ufed  as  a  proper  name. 

2.  AbftraA  names,  as  blacknefs,  nuitchcraft ,  virtue,  vice,  beauty, 
uglinefs,  love,  hatred,  anger,  good-nature,  kindnefs, 

3.  Words  in  which  nothing  but  the  mere  being  of  any  thing 
is  implied  :  This  is  not  beer,  but  water  :  this  is  not  brafs,  but 


Of  Nouns    Substantives, 

The  relations  of  Englilh  nouns  to  words  going  before  or  fol- 
lowing, are  not  exprelfed  by  cafes,  or  changes  of  termination, 
but  as  in  moft  of  the  other  European  languages  by  prepofitiont, 
unlefs  we  may  be  faid  to  have  a  genitive  cafe. 




Magifter,  a  Mailer,  the  Mailer. 

Magillri,         of  a  Mailer,  of  the  Mailer,  or  Mailers, 

the  Mallert. 
Magillro,         to  a  Mailer,  to  the  Mailer. 
Magillrum,         a  Mailer,  the  Mailer. 
Magifter,  Mafter,  O  Mafter. 

Magillro,  from  »  Mafter,  from  tbt  Mailer. 


A     GRAMMAR      OF      THE 


Nom.  Magillrl,  Madcrs,  the  Matters. 

Gen.  Magillrorum,      e/"Mailfrs,  of  the  yiiAex%. 

Dat.  Magiftris,  to  Mailers,  to  the  Matters. 

Ace.  Magiftros,  Matters,  the  Matters. 

Voc.  Magiftii,  Matters,  O  Matters. 

Abl.  Magiftris,      from  Matters,  from  the  Matters. 

Our  nouns  are  therefore  only  declined  thus  : 

Matter,       Gen.  Matters.  Plur.  Matters. 

Scholar,      Cen.  Scholars.  Tlur.  Scholars. 

Thcfe  genitives  are  always  written  with  i  mark  of  clifion,  majier't,  fcholar's, 
according  to  an  opinion  long  received,  tliat  the  '»  is  a  contraction  of  hit,  as  the 
foldier't  valour,  for  ihifild'ier  his  vaUur  i  but  this  cannot  be  the  true  original, 
bccaufe  's  is  put  to  femile  nouns,  ff^anan's  htauiy  ;  the  Virgin' t  delicacy ;  Haughty 
^/»'i  unrtltntmg  bate :  and  collcflivc  nouns,  as  fVomcn's  paffant,  the  rahik't 
mfilence,  the  multitude'' t  felly  ;  in  all  thefe  cafes  it  is  apparent  that  his  cannot  be 
underftood.  We  fay  liiccwifc,  thefouitdaiion'sjlrengih,  the  diamord's  lujire,  the 
lyinter's  ftvcrity  ;  but  in  thefe  cafes  bis  may  be  underftood,  he  and  bis  having 
tormirly  been  applied  to  neuters  in  the  place  now  fupplied  by  it  and  its. 

The  learned  and  fagacinus  Wilis,  to  whom  cveiy  Engliili  grammarian  owes  a 
tribute  of  reverence,  calls  this  modification  of  the  noun  an  adjeHiv:  Ix.JJiJJlvc  ; 
1  think  with  no  more  propriety  than  he  might  have  applied  the  fame  to  rhe  geni- 
tive in  iqultuin  decus,  Trjte  oris,  or  any  other  Latin  genitive.  Dr.Lowth,  on  the 
Other  part,  fuppofes  the  pofTelfive  pronouns  i«i«r  and  thir:t  to  be  genitive  cafes. 

This  termination  of  tnc  noun  feems  to  conftitute  a  leal  genitive  indicating 
pofleflion.  It  is  derived  to  us  from  thofe  who  declined  rmi8,  afmiih;  Gen. 
.r.TlScp,  ofafmith  ;  t'lur.  J-mxiScJ-,  or  rmi8aJ-,_/»H»i>j  ;  and  fo  in  two  other  of 
tlicir  fevcn  decletiHons. 

It  is  a  further  confirmation  of  this  opinion,  that  in  the  old  poets  both  the 
genitive  anj  plural  were  longer  by  a  fyliable  than  the  original  word  ;  kiitis,  for 
knight's,  in  Chaucer ;  Uavis,  for  haves,  in  Spenfcr. 

When  a  word  ends  in  s,  the  genitive  may  be  tile  fame  with  the  nominative,  as 
Vertis  Temple. 

The  plural  is  formed  by  adding  /,  as  table,  tables  ;  fly,  flies  ; 
fifler,fij}ers  ;  •vjood,  ivoods ;  or  es  where  s  could  not  other^vife  be 
founded,  as  after  ch,  s,  Jh,  x,  a  ;  after  c  founded  like  s,  and  g 
I'lkej  ;  the  mute  e  is  vocal  before  s,  as  lance,  lances  ;  outrage, 
tut  rages. 

The  formjtion  of  the  plural  and  genitive  fingular  is  the  fame. 

A  few  words  yet  mak.e  the  plural  in  a,  as  men,  nvotncn,  oxen,  fwine,  and  more 
anciently  eyin  -^ni  finon.  This  f  jrmation  is  that  which  generally  prevails  in  the 
Xeutonick  dialects. 

Words  that  end  in  /"commonly  form  their  plural  by  -ves,  as 
haf,  loaves  ;   calf,  calves. 

Except  a  few,  muff,  muffs ;  chitf,  chiefs.  So  bttf,  reof,  frtKf,  relief,  mifcbief, 
fuff,  cuff,  dwarf,  handkerchief,  grief. 

Irregular  plurals  are  teeth  from  tmib,  Hce  from  hufe,  mice  from  mcufe,  ge.fe 
{com  gotfe,  feel  from/of-r,  dice  from  die,  fence  Uom penny,  br^:hren  from  brother, 
children  from  child. 

Plurals  -ending  in  s  have  for  the  moft  part  no  genitives ;  but 
we  fay,  Womens  excellencies,  and  ff''ei^h  the  mens  ivits  again/l  the 
ladies  hairs.     Pope. 

Dr.  Wallis  thinks  the  Lords'  hmfe  may  be  faid  for  the  houjt  if  Lords ;  but  fuch 
phrafes  are  not  now  in  ufe ;  and  furcly  an  Englilh  ear  rebels  againll  them.  They 
would  commonly  produce  a  troublefome  ambiguity,  as  the  L'.rd's  buufe  may  be 
the  beuje  of  Lords,  or  the  houfe  of  -x  Lord.  Belidcs  that  the  mark  of  clifion  is 
in>proper,  for  in  the  Lords'  houfe  nothing  is  cut  off. 

Some  Englifli  fubftantives,  like  thofe  of  many  other  languages,  change  their 
tarr.iinatjon  as  they  exprefs  diftei  ent  fexcs,  as  prince,  princefs ;  alJor,  aSrcfs ;  Rm, 
Hone's ;  hero,  heroine.  To  thefe  mentioned  by  Dr.  Lowth  may  be  added  arb'iirefs, 
poetifs,  ehaunlrejs,  duchefs,  ligrefs,  governefs,  tuirefs,  pecrefs,  authorefs,  traytrefs, 
and  perhaps  others.  Of  thefe  variable  terminations  we  have  only  a  fufficient 
number  to  make  us  feel  our  want ;  for  when  we  fay  of  a  woman  that  flie  is  a 
ph'tUfpher,  an  ajlroncmer,  a  builder,  a  iveaver,  a  dancer,  we  perceive  an  impro- 
priety in  the  terminatii'n  which  we  cannot  avoid ;  but  we  can  fay  that  (he  is  an 
trehiliH,  a  hotaniJI,  ifudtni,  becaufe  thefe  terminations  have  not  annexed  to 
tinm  tlie  notion  of  (ex.  Jn  words  which  the  nece(rities  of  life  are  often  re- 
quiring, the  fex  is  dift.njuilhcd  not  by  different  terminations,  but  by  dift'ercnt 
names,  as,  a  bull,  a  conu  ;  a  hcrfe,  a  mare ;  eijuus,  ejua  ;  a  cock,  a  hen  j  and  fome- 
times  by  pronouns  prefixed,  as  a  he.goai,  u  (kc-goat. 

Of  Adjectives. 
Adjeflives  in  the  finglifti  language  are  wholly  indeclinable ; 
having  neither  cafe,  gender,  nor  number,  and  being  added  to 
fubftantives  in  all  relations  without  any  change  ;  as  a  good  wo- 
man, good  luomen,  of  a  good  nuoman  ;  a  good  man,  good  men,  of 
good  men. 

The  ComparifoH  of  AdjeSllves. 

The  comparative  degree  of  adjeftives  is  formed  by  adding  «•, 
the  fuperlative  by  adding  efl,  to  the  pofitive  ;  as  fair,  fairer, 
iwefl ;  lo--jely,\ost\\er,  loveli^y? ; /ivtv/,  fweet^r,  fweet^  ;  lotti, 
lower,  \cwfjl  ;  high,  liighrr,  high;-/?. 

Some  words  are  irregularly  compared  ;  as  good,  better,  hcjl ; 
bad,  eworfe,  tvorfi ;  little,  lifs,  leaft  ;  near,  nearer,  next ;  much, 
more,  moj}  ;  many  (or  mce),  more  (for  moer),  mofl  (for  moeji')  ;  late, 
later,  latefl  or  laj}. 

Some  comparatives  form  a  fuperlative  by  adding  tnofl,  as 
nether,  ncthcrmofl  ;  outer,  oiUermofi  ;  under,  undermofl  ;  up,  upper, 
upper mojf  ;  fore,  former,  for emoji. 

Moft  is  fometimes  added  to  a  fubftantive,  as  topmoft ,  fiuthmoft . 

Many  adjeftives  do  not  admit  of  comparifon  by  terminations,' 
and  are  only  compared  by  more  and  mojl,  as  benevolent,  mart 
bene'volent ,  moft  benevolent. 

All  adjeiSives  may  be  compared  by  more  and  m»ft,  even  when 
they  have  comparatives  and  fuperlatives  regularly  formed  ;  as 
fair  ;  fairer,  or  more  fair  ;  faireft,  or  moft  fair. 

In  adjectives  that  admit  a  regular  comparifon,  the  comparative  mive  !<  oftener 
ufed  than  the  fuperlative  rmfi,  as  more  fair  is  oftener  written  lot  fairer,  than  molt 
fair  for faircf. 

The  comparifon.  of  adjeftives  is  very  uncertain ;  and  being 
much  regulated  by  commodioufnefs  of  utterance,  or  agreeable- 
nefs  of  found,  is  not  eafily  reduced  to  rules. 

Monofyllables  are  commonly  compared. 

Polyfyllables,  or  words  of  more  than  two  fyllables,  are  feldom 
compared  otherwife  than  by  more  and  moft,  as  deplorable,  tnort 
deplorable,  moft  deplorable. 

Diflyllables  are  feldom  compared  if  they  terminate  in  feme, 
as  fiilfome,  toilfome  ;  in  ful,  as  careful,  ffleenfiil,  dreadful ;  in 
ing,  as  trifling,  charming ;  in  ous,  as  porous  ;  in  lefs,  as  carehfs, 
harmlefs  ;  in  ed,  as  luretched ;  in  id,  as  candid ;  in  al,  as  mortal ; 
in  enf,  as  recent ,  fer'vent ;  in  ain,  as  certain  ;  in  ive,  as  mijjive  ; 
XTsdy,  zs  luoody  ;  vn.  ff,  as  pttfly  ;  in  ^Vj  is.rociy,  except  IticHy  ; 
in  my,  as  roomy  ;  in  ny,  asjkinny  ;  in  py,  as  ropy,  except  happy  ; 
in  ry,  as  hoary. 

Some  comparatives  and  fuperlatives  are  yet  found  in  good  writers,  formed 
without  regard  to  the  foregoing  rules :  but  in  a  language  fubjeCted  fo  little  and  fo 
lately  to  grammar,  fuch  anomalies  mull  freijuently  occur. 

Sojtady  is  compared  by  Milton. 

She  '\t\padieji  covert  hid, 
Tun'd  her  ooCturnal  note.  Faradife  Lojt. 

And  virtuws. 

What  (he  wills  to  fay  or  do. 
Seems  wifefl,  virtutujeji,  difcreetcft,  bell.  Paradije Lefl. 

So  trifing,  by  Ray,  who  is  indeed  of  no  great  authority. 

it  is  not  fo  decorous,  in  refpeCl  of  God,  that  he  (hould  immediately 
do  all 'the  meaneft  and  trifingrj}  things  himfclf,  without  making  ufe  of 
any  inferior  or  fubordinate  minider.  Ray  on  the  Creation. 

Famous,  by  Milton. 

1  (hall  be  nam'd  among  the  famoufcjl 
Of  women,  fung  at  folemn  fellivals.  Milton's  Agtniftes. 

In-vent'nie,  by  jijcham. ' 

Thofe  have  the  invent'eveft  beads  for  all  purpofes,  and  roundell  tongues 
in  all  matters.  uijebam's  Schoolmafier. 

Mortal,  by  Bacon. 

The  martalefl  poifons  praClifed  by  the  Weft  Indians,  have  fomc  mixture 
of  the  blood,  fat,  or  flclh  of  man.  Bacon, 

Natural,  by  Wottos. 

I  will  now  deliver  a  few  of  the  properefl  and  naturolkfi  confiderations 
that  belong  to  this  piece.  Wotlon's  Arcbitcciure. 

IVretehed,  by  Jonfon. 

The  ivretcheder  are  the  contemners  of  all  helps  j  fuch  as  prefuming  on 
tiieir  own  naturals,  deride  diligence,  and  mock  at  terms  when  they  un- 
dcrdand  not  things.  Ben  fonfm. 

Vnverful,  by  Milton. 

We  have  fuftain'd  one  day  in  doubtful  fight, 
What  heav'n's  great  King  hath  f.w'rfifl.'eji  to  fend 
Againft  us  from  about  his  throne.  Paradije  Lcfi, 

■   The 


The  term!«»t!on  \n  !Jh  any  be  acceunteJ  In  fome  fort  9  degree  of  comparifon, 
by  which  the  fignlnca.ioa  is  diminiihed  below  the  poficive,  as  ilacky  black'ijhy  or 
tending  to  bbcknefs  ;  jah,Jahijk,  or  having  a  little  tafte  of  fait :  they  therefore 
admit  no  comparifon.  This  termination  is  fddom  added  bntto  words  expreiling 
fenfible  qualities,  nor  often  to  words  of  above  one  fy)Uble,  and  is  fcaredy  ufed 
io  the  foiemn  or  fubiimc  llyle.  '  ■ 


Pronouns,  in  the  EngHfti  language,  are,  /,  thtu,  be,  with  fHeir 
plurals,  ttie,  ye,  they  ;  it,  ivho,  luhich,  •what,  ivhether,  ivho/oe-ver , 
<vibalfoen:er ,  m/,  mine,  our,  ours,  thy,  thine,  your,  yours,  his,  hir, 
hers,  their,  theirs,  this,  that,  other,  another ,  ^x\\c  fame ,  fame. 

The  pronoans  perfonal  are  irregularly  inflefted. 
Singular.  Plural. 

Nom.                          I 


Accuf.  and  other  )      -^ 
oblique  caies.  ] 


AW.            Thou 


Oblique.       Thee 


Ysu  is  commonly  ufed  ia  modern  writers  foryr,  particularly  in  the  language  of 
cere:aonJr,  where  the  fccond  perfon  plural  is  ufed  for  the  fecond  perfon  fingular, 
Yi,u  art  my  fr':ei:tt' 

Singular.  Plural. 

Ouique.        Sfm  TheL  }  ^^^^"^  "  mafcuHnes. 

Nom.  She  Thev  1   ,      ,•    .       r     •  • 

Ohl,que.        Her  Them  }  '^PP^'^'^  '°  fem.nines. 

rpi    ^   {•  Applied  to  neuters  or  things. 




For  //  the  praflice  of  ancient  writers  was  to  ufe  he,  and  for 
;■//,  his. 

The  poffeflive  pronCuns,  like  other  adjeftives,  are  without 
cafes  or  change  of  termination. 

The  pofleflivk  of  the  fitH  perfoa  is  my,  mine,  our,  tun  ;  of  the 
fecond,  thy,  thine, your,  yours ;  of  the  third,  from  he,  his ;  hoxajhe, 
her,  and  hers  ;  and  in  the  plural  their^  theirs,  for  both  fexes. 

Ouri,  yeurt,  km,  tle-rt,  are  ufed  *hen  the  ftblantive  preceding  is  fcparatcd 
by  a  ve;b,  at  T^^jirr  our  Ae«>i.  Theft  kaki  art  van.  Your  ebiUm  tsKti  oars 
infijttirej  hut  ours  Jurpajx  yours  tn  /ei:rn'!Jig. 

Can,  yiuri,  ten,  ibtiri,  notwithllanding  their  feeming  plural  termination, 
are  applied  equally  to  Angular  and  plural  fubltaotives,  as,  Ti!>;i  hock  ii  ourt.  Theft 
betki  are  ours. 

Mitu  and  ih'mt  were  formerly  ufed  before  a  vowel,  as  mine  amUblthdy  ;  which, 
though  now  difufed  in  profe,  might  be  ftill  properly  continued  in  poetry  :  they  are 
ofed  as  tun  and  j'»r>,  and  are  referred  to  a  fubftantive  preceding,  as  thy  houfe  is 
larger  than  mine,  but  jny  garden  if  more  fpacioui  than  thim. 

Their  znd. theirs  are  the  pofleflives  likewife  o{  they,  when  they 
it  the  plural  of  ;>,  and  are  therefore  applied  to  things. 

Pronouns  relative  ZKriuh*,  -which,  ivhat,  tuhether, •who/oever, 

Sing  and  Plur. 
Nom.  Who 

Gen.  Whofe 

Other  oblique  cafes.  Whom 

Sing,  and  Plur. 
Nom.         Which 
Gen.    Of  which,  or  whofe 
Other  oblique  cafes.  Which. 

Wba  is  now  ufed  in  relation  to  perfons,  and  ivhkb  in  relation  to  things  ;  but 
they  were  anciently  confounded.  At  leatt  it  was  common  to  fay,  the  roan  Vfhlcb, 
though  1  remember  no  example  of  the  thing  lubo, 

Whaft  if  rather  th«  poetical  than  regular  genitive  of  vihkb  :. 
The  fruit 
Of  that  forbidden  tree,  ivbefe  nwrtal  tafie 
Brought  death  into  the  world.  Mitlon, 

H^tbtr  is  only  ufed  in  the  nominative  and  accufative  cafei ;  and  has  nc  plural, 
being  applied  only  to  on<  of  a  number,  commonly  to  one  of  two,  as  Whether  of 
Ihtfi  ij  lift  liitvtu  not.     Whether  flyall  I  tboofe  ?     It  Is  now  almod  obfolete. 

What,  whether  relative  or  interrogative,  is  without  variation. 
IVhofoe'ver,  nvhatfoever ,  being  compounded  of  who  01  "what, 
zadfoevcr,  follow  th«  rule  of  their  primitives, 


In  all  cafes,  < 



The  plural  ctbers  is  not  ufed  but  when  it  is  referred  to  a  fubllantive  preceding, 
as  /  huvcfent  other  korfes.     I  have  nctfint  the  fame  horfcs,  but  others. 

Another,  being  only  an  other,  has  no  plural. 

Here,  there,  and  'where,  joined  with  certain  particles,  have  a 
relative  and   pronominal  ule.     Hereof,  herein,   hereby,  hereafter, 
herei'jith,  thereof,  therein,  thereby,  thereupon,  there-tuith,  luhereof, 
•wherein,  •ivherehy,  luhereupon,  ivhereivtth,  which  lignify,  of  this,, 
in  this,  &c.  of  that,  in  that,  &C.  ofivhieh,  inivhich,  &C. 

Therefore  and  ivherefore,  which  are  properly,  there  for  and 
•where  for,  for  that,  for  •which,  are  now  reckoned  conjunflions, 
and  continued  in  ufe.  The  reft  feem  to  be  paffing  by  degrees 
into  negleft,  though  proper,  ufeful,  and  analogous.  They  are- 
referred  both  to  lingular  and  plural  antecedents. 
•  There  are  two  more  words  ufed  only  in  conjunftion  with  pro* 
nouns,  ciun  ^ndfelf. 

Oiun  is  added  to  polTeflives,  both  lingular  and  plural,  as  my 
own  hand,  our  own  hciife.  It  is  emphatical,  and  implies  a  filent 
contrariety  or  oppofition  ;  as  /  li^ve  in  my  oiun  houfe,  that  is,  not 
in  a  hired  houfe.  This  1  did  •with  my  OTvn  band,  that  is,  ivithotit 
help,  or  not  by  proxy. 

Selfh  added  to  pofleflives,  as  myfclf,yourf elves  ;  and  fometimes 
to  perfonal  pronouns,  as  himfelf,  itfelf,  themfel-ves.  It  then,  like 
own,  exprefles  emphafis  and  oppolition,  as  /  did  this  myfelf, 
tliat  is,  Mt  another  ^  or  it  forms  a  reciprocal  pronoun,-  as  We 
hurt  oiirfel'ves  by  •vain  ragi. 

IVimfdf,  itfelf,  ibimfelves,  are  fuppofed  by  Wallis  to  be  put,  hy  corruption,  for 
bit  felf,  it' JL-lf,.  their  fjvii  ;.  (a  ihii  felf  is  always  a  fubllantivc.  This  feema 
juilly  obf:rved,  for  we-  fay.  He  came  himfif;  Himftlffliall  do  this ;  where  himfelf 
cannot  be  an  accufatiTC* 

Of  the   V  Z  V^  ^. 

Englifh  verb*  are  afl.iv«,  as  /  lo^ve  ;.  or  neater,  z.t.Lliinguif>t 
The  neuters  are  formed  like  the  aftives. 

Mod  verbs  fignifying  aClhn  may  likewife  fignify  condition  or  hebit,  and  becoms 
neuters,  a^  /  love,  1  am  in  luvc  j     Iflrikc,  I  am  now  llrilcing. 

Verbs  have  only  two  tenfes  inflefted  in  their  terminations,  the 
prefent,  and  the  fimple  preterite  ;  the  other  tenfes  are  compounded 
of  the  auxiliary  verbs  ha've,  fhall,  •will,  let,  may,  can,  and  the  in* 
finitive  of  the  aftive  or  neuter  verb. 

The  pafiive  voice  is  formed  by  joining  the  participle  preterite 
to  the  fubftantive  verb,  as  /  am  loved. 

To  ha^ve.      Indicative  Moodi 

Prefent  Tenfe. 
Sing.  I  have  ;   thou  haft  ;  he  hath  or  has  ; 
Fltir.  ire  have  ;  ye  have  ;   they  have. 

Hal  is  a  termination  corrupted  from  hath,  hut  now  more  frequently  tt<cd  botll'- 
in  verfe  and  profc. 

Simple  Preterite. 
Sing.  I  had  ;   thou  hadft  ;   he  had  ; 
Plur.   We  had  ;  ye  had  ;  they  had. 

Compound  Preterite. 
Sing.  I  have  had  ;    thou  haft  had  ;  he  has  or  hath  had ; 
Flur.  We  have  had  ;  ye  have  had  ;  they  have  had. 

Sing.  I  had  had  ;  thou  hadft  had  ;  he  had  had  ;- 
Plur.  We  had  had  ;  ye  had  had  ;  they  had  had. 

Sing.  I  (hall  have  ;  thou  (halt  have  ;  he  fliall  have  ;■ 
Plur.  W(  (hail  have ;  yt  (hall  have ;  they  Ihall  have. 

A     GRAMMAR      OF      THE 

SeetHd  Futurt. 
Slug.  I  will  have  ;  thou,  wilt  have  ;  be  will  have  ; 
Plur.  IVe  will  have  ;  ye  will  have  ;  they  will  have. 

By  Tudiog  thele  future  tcnfci  may  be  obfenred  the  vuiationt  t>{  Jball  and 

Imperative  Mood. 
Sing.  Have,  w  have  thou  ;  let  him  have ; 
Plur,  Let  HI  have ;  have,  or  have  ye ;  let  them  have, 

Conjunflive  Mood. 

Sing,  I  have  ;  thou  have  ;  he  have  ;  % 

Plur.  We  have  ;  ye  have  ;  they  have. 

Preterite fimfle  as  in  the  Indicative. 

Preterite  compound. 
Sing,  I  have  had  ;  /^eu  have  had  ;  he  have  had  ; 
Plur.  Ife  have  had  ;  ye  have  had  ;  they  have  had. 

Sing,  I  (hall  have ;  as  in  the  Indicative. 

Second  Future, 
Sing.  I  (hall  have  had  ;  thou  (halt  have  had  ;  be  (hall  have  had  ; 
Plur.  We  (hall  have  had  ;  ye  (hall  have  had  j  they  (hall  have  had. 

The  potential  form  of  fpeaking  is  expre(red  by  may,  can,  in 
the  prefent ;  and  might,  could,  or  Jhould,  in  the  preterite,  joined 
with  the  infinitive  mood  of  the  verb. 

Sing.  I  may  have  ;  thou  mayft  have  ;  he  may  kave{ 
Plur.  We  may  have  ;  ye  may  have;   they  may  ha%'c. 

Sing.  I  might  have  ;  thou  mighttt  have  ;  he  might  have  ; 
Plur.  We  might  have  ;  ye  might  have  i  they  might  have. 

Sing.  I  can  have  ;   thoa  canft  have  ;  he  can  have^ 
Plur.  We  can  have  ;  ye  can  have  ;  they  can  have. 

Sing,  /could  have  ;  thou  couldft  have  ;  be  could  have; 
J'lur.  We  could  have  ;  ye  could  have  ;   they  could  have. 

In  like  manner  Jhould  is  united  to  the  verb. 

There  is  likewife  a  double  preterite. 
Sing.  I  Ihould  have  had  ;   thou  (houldll  have  had  ;  be  Ihould  have 

had  ; 
Plur.  We  (hould  have  had  ;  j'f  ihould  have  had  ;  they  Ihould  have 
In  like  manner  we  ufe,  /  might  have  had  ;  /  could  have  had, 

In(inttive  Mood. 

Prefent.     To  have.  Preterite,     To  have  had. 

Participle  pT  if ent.    Having.       Partiiiple  preler.     Had. 

Verb  Aftive. "  To  lovt. 

Indicative.     Prefent, 
Sing,  /love;  //^ox  loveft  ;  /v  loveth,  or  loves  j 
Plur.  We  love  ;  ye  love  ;  they  love. 

Prefer  in  Jimple. 
Sing,  /loved;  fltoM  lovedll ;  Af  loved; 
Plur.  We  loved  ;  ye  loved  ;  they  lo\'ed. 

Prettrperfeit  compound.  I  have  loved,  ^u 

Preterpluperfeil.     J  had  loved,  ij(. 

Future.     J  (hall  bve,  Wc .     /  will  love,  ^c. 

Sing.  Love,  «r  love  thou ;  let  him  love  ; 
Plur.  Let  atf  love  j  love,  or  lovc>*  ;  let  them  love. 

Conjunftive.     Preftnt. 
Sing.  I  love  ;  thou  love  ;  he  love  ; 
Plur.  We  love  ;  ye  love  ;  they  love. 

Preterite  fimple,  as  in  the  Indicative. 
Preterite  compound.     I  have  loved,  l^c. 
Future.     I  (hall  love,  i^c. 
Second  Future.    I  fliall  have  loved,  tic. 

Prefent.  I  may  or  can  Iwe,  t5ff. 
Preterite,  /might,  could,  «r (hould  Iove,£sf<-. 
Double  Preterite.  J  might,  could,  or  (hould  have  loved,  fcff. 

Prtfent.  To  love.  Preterite.  To  have  loved. 

Participle  prefent.   Loving.  Participle  paft.  Loved. 

The  palTive  is  farmed  by  the  addition  of  the  participle  prete- 
rite to  the  diiFerent  tenfes  of  the  verb  to  be,  which  muft  there- 
fore be  here  exhibited. 

Indicative.     Prefent, 
Sing.  I  am ;  thou  art ;   he'u; 

Plur.  We  are,  or  be  ;  ye  are,  or  be  ;  they  are,  or  be. 
The  plural  tc  is  now  Uctle  in  ufe. 

Sing.  I  was  ;   thou  waft,  or  wert ;  A«  wa«  ; 
Plur.  We  were  ;  ye  were  ^  //^{y  were. 

fyeri  is  properly  of  the  conjunflive  mood,  and  ought  not  to  be  ttfed  !a  the 

Preterite  compound,  /have been,  lie-. 
Preterpluperfea.  I  had  been,  l^c. 
Future.  I  (liall  or  will  be,  i£c. 

Sing.   Be  thou  ;   let  him  be  ; 
Plur.  Letajbc;  be_;v ;   Xttthemhe, 

Conjunftive,     Prefent, 
Sing.  I  be  ;  thou  beeft  ;  ^^  be  ; 
Plur.  We  be  ■;  _;'^  be  ;  they  be. 

Sing.  I  wpre  ;  thou  wert ;  he  were; 
Plur.  We  were  ;  ye  were  ;   they  were. 

Preterite  compound.  /Jiave  been,  ^r. 
Future.  I  (hall  have  been,  ^r. 

/  may  er  can  ;    would,"  could,  or  (hould  be  ;  could,  would,  w 
(hould  have  been,  tSc, 

Prefent,  To  be.  Preterite.  To  have  been. 

Participle  prefent.  Being,  Participle  preter.  Having  been. 

PalTive  Voice.     Indicative  Mood. 
/  an  loved,  lie.     I  was  loved,  ^c      I  have  been  loved,  He. 

If /be  loved,  ^f. 
loved,  He, 

Conjunftive  Mood. 
If  /  were  loved,  He, 

If /ftiall  have  been 


Potential  Mood, 
/may  er  can  be  loved,  tfr .     /  might,  could,  er  (hould  be  loved, 
i^c    /might,  could,  er  fliould  have  been  loved,  (sfc^ 

Frtfent.  To  be  loved.    Preteriie.  To  have  been  loved. 
Participle.  Loved. 

There  is  another  form  of  Engli(h  verbs,  in  which  the  infinitive 
mood  is  joined  to  the  verb  do  in  its  various  infledions,  which  are 
therefore  to  be  learned  in  this  place. 

To  Do; 

Indicative.     Prefent, 
Sing,  I  do ;  thou  doft ;  it  doth ; 
Flur.  IVeioijieio;  they  do. 

Sing.  I  did ;  thou  didll ;  he  did  ; 
Plur.  We  did ;  ye  did  ;  they  did. 
Preterite,  i^c.    /  have  done,  tsfc.    /had  done,  ^c, 
Future.  I  Ihall  or  will  do,  ^c. 

Sing.  Do  thou  ;  let  him  do; 
Flur.  Let  ut  do;  ioye;  let  them  do. 

Conjunftive.    Preftnt. 
Sing.  /  do ;  thou  do ;  ^*  do ; 
Plur.  We  do sye  do;  they  do. 

The  reft  are  as  in  the  Indicative. 

Infiniti've.  To  do  ;  to  have  done. 

Participle  prefent.  Doing.     Participle  preter.  Done. 

Do  is  fometimes  ufed  fuperfluoufly,  as  /  do  love,  /did  love; 
fimply  for  /  love,  or  /  loved;  but  this  is  confidered  as  a  vitious 
mode  of  fpeech. 

It  is  fometimes  ufed  emphatically;  as, 

/  do  love  thee,  and  vihen  I  love  thee  net. 

Chaos  is  come  again.  Shakefpeare. 

It  is  frequently  joined  with  a  negative  ; "  as  /  like  her,  hut  I 
do  not  love  her  ;  I  vjijhed  him  fuccefi ,  but  did  not  help  him.  This, 
by  cnftom  at  leaft,  appears  more  eafy  than  the  other  form  of 
cxpreffing  the  fame  fenfe  by  a  negative  adverb  after  the  verb,  / 
like  her,  but  love  her  not. 

The  Imperative  prohibitory  is  feldom  applied  in  the  fecond 
perfon,  at  leaft  in  profe,  without  the  word  do  ;  as  Stop  him,  but 
do  not  hurt  him  ;   Praife  beauty,  but  do  not  dote  on  it. 

Its  chief  ufe  is  in  interrogative  forms  of  fpeech,  in  which  it  is 
ufed  through  all  the  perfons ;  as  Do  /  live  ?  Doft  thou  Jlrike 
me?  Do  they  rebel ?  Did  J  complain  F  DidA  thou  love  her?  Did 
Jhe  die  ?  So  likewife  in  negative  interrogations  ;  Do  /  not  yet 
griev!?  D\d  file  not  die  ? 

Do  and  did  are  thus  ufed  only  for  the  prefent  and  fimple  pre- 

There  is  another  manner  of  conjugating  neuter  verbs,  which, 
when  it  is  ufed,  may  not  improperly  denominate  them  neuter 
pajjivei,  as  they  are  inflefted  according  to  the  paffive  form  by  the 
help  of  the  verb  fubftantive  to  be.  They  anfwer  nearly  to  the 
reciprocal  verbs  in  Frencli ;  as 

1  am  rifen,  furrexi,  Latin ;  Je  me  fuis  leve,  French, 
I  vjas  vjalkedout,  exieram  ;  Je  m'etois  promene. 

In  tike  manner  we  commonly  exprefs  the  prefent  tenfe ;  a;,  I  am  going,  to. 
1  am  grieving,  ditto.  She  is  dying,  ilia  morilur.  The  temped  is  raging, /«nf 
proctlla.  I  am  purfuing  an  enemy,  brtji^m  wjequor.  So  the  other  tenfcs,  as,  tVt 
vitr-  -uialking,  iluyx^nitn  <«{iw»lWif,  /  havt  iien  v/olkirg,  I  had  ittn  walking, 
&a^  or  ivi/l  bt  'walki'^z. 

Vol.  I. 

There  Is  another  manner  of  ufing  the  aftive  participle,  which  gives  !t  a  paji 
five  fignificarion  :  as,  The  grammar  is  now  printing,  graixmauca  jam  tiun 
charlis  mprimilur.  The  brals  is  forging,  <rrj  cxcuduijiur.  This  is,  in  my  opi- 
nion, a  vitious  exprcflion,  probably  corrupted  from  a  phrafe  more  pure,  but  now 
fomewhat  obfolete  :  The  took  it  a  printing.  The  brafs  is  a  forging  ;  a  being  pro- 
perly at,  and  printing  and  forging  verbal  nouns  fignifying  ailion,  according  to 
the  analogy  of  this  language. 

The  indicative  and  conjunflive  moods  are  by  modern  writers  frequently  con- 
founded, or  rather  the  conjunftive  is  wholly  neglefted,  when  fome  convenience 
of  verCfication  does  not  invite  its  revival.  It  is  ufed  among  the  purer  writers  of 
former  times  after  if,  though,  ere,  before,  till  or  until,  -whether,  except,  un/eft, 
•whatjofver,  luhomfeever,  and  words  of  wifhing  ;  as,  Doubilefs  ihou  art  our  father, 
though  Abraham  be  ignorant  of  us,  and  Ifael  acknowledge  us  not, 

0/"Irregular  Veres. 

The  Englilh  verbs  were  divided  by  Ben  Jonfon  into  four  con- 
jugations, without  any  reafon  arifing  from  the  nature  of  the  lan- 
guage, which  has  properly  but  one  conjugation,  fuch  as  has  been 
exemplified ;  from  which  all  deviations  are  to  be  confidered  as 
anomalies,  which  are  indeed  in  our  monofyllable  Saxon  verbs, 
and  the  verbs  derived  from  them,  very  frequent ;  but  almoft  all 
the  verbs  which  have  been  adopted  from  other  languages,  follow 
the  regular  form. 

Our  verbs  are  obferved  by  Dr.  Wallls  to  be  irregular  only  in  the  formation  of 
the  preterite,  and  its  participle.  Indeed,  in  the  fcantinefs  of  our  conjugations, 
there  is  fcarcely  any  other  place  for  irregularity. 

The  firft  irregularity  is  a  (light  deviation  from  the  regular 
form,  by  rapid  utterance  or  poetical  contraction  :  the  laft  plia- 
ble ed  is  often  joined  with  the  former  by  fuppreffionof  ^  ;  as  lov^d 
for  loved ;  after  c,  cb,fh,f,  k,  x,  and  after  the  confonantsy",  th, 
when  more  ftrongly  pronounced,  and  fometimes  after  m,  n,  r,  if 
preceded  by  a  fhort  vowel,  /  is  ufed  in  pronunciation,  but  very 
feldom  in  writing,  rather  than  d ;  as  plac't,  fnatch't,fjh^t,  vjak't, 
dvL-eV t ,  fmel' t ;  (or  plac'd,/aatch'd,fljh'd,  ivak'd,  dwel'dffriel'd  i 
or  placed,  fnatched,fl/hed,  vjaked,  divelled ,  fmelled, 

Thofe  words  which  terminate  in  /  or//,  or  p,  m^ke  their  pre- 
terite in  /,  even  in  folemn  language  ;  as  crept,  felt,  divelt, 
fometimes  after  *■,  ed  is  changed  into  /,  as  vext ;  this  is  not  con- 

A  long  vowel  is  often  changed  into-  a  Ihort  one ;  thus,  kept, 
flept,  vjept,  crept,  f-wept ;  from  the  verbs,  to  keep,  Xajleep,  to  vieep, 
to  creep,  Xo/iueep. 

Where  </  or  /  go  before,  the  additional  letter  d  or  /,  in  thii 
contrafted  form,  coalefce  into  one  letter  with  the  radical  d  ox  t  ; 
if/  were  the  radical,  they  coalefce  into  /  ;  but  if  a' were  the  ra> 
dical,  then  into  d  or  t,  as  the  one  or  the  other  letter  may  be 
more  eafily  pronounced  :  as  read,  kd,fpread,  fhed,  fhred,  bid,  hid, 
chid, fed,  bled,  bred,fped,f}rid,Jlid,  rid;  from  the  verbs  to  read, 
to  lead,  tofpread,  to  Jhed,  to /bread,  to  bid,  to  hide,  to  chide,  to' 
feed,  to  bleed,  to  breed,  tofpeed,  to firide,  to  flide,  to  ride.  And 
thus,  caft,  hurt,  coft,  bitrji,  eat,  beat,  fvjeet.  Jit,  quit,  fmit,  ivri', 
bit,  hit,  met,  jhot ;  from  the  verbs  to  cafi,  to  hurt,  to  ccfl,  to 
burfi,  to  eat,  to  beat,  to  f-weat,  to  fit,  to  quit,  to  fmite,  to  vjrite, 
to  bite,  to  hit,  to  meet,  to  fhoot.  And  in  like  manner,  lent,  fent, 
rent,  girt  ;  from  the  verbs  to  lend,  to  fend,  to  rend,  to  gird. 

The  participle  preterite  or  pafTive  is  often  formed  in  en,  in- 
ftead  of  ed ;  as  been,  taken,  given,  flain,  knovjn  ;  from  the  verbs 
lobe,  to  take,  to  give,  to  flay,  to  know. 

Many  words  have  two  or  more  participles,  as  not  only  vuritten, 
bitten,  eaten,  beaten,  hidden,  chidden,  fhotten,  chofen,  broken  ;  but 
likewife  imit,  hit,  eat,  beat,  hid,  chid,  fhot,  chofe,  broke,  arc  pro- 
mifcuoufly  ufed  in  the  participle,  from  the  verbs  to  vurite,  to 
bite,  to  eat,  to  beat,  to  hide,  to  chide,  to  fhoot,  to  cboofe,  to  break, 
and  many  fuch  like. 

In  the  fame  manneryoTt;^,  fhevjn,  hevin,  movin,  loaden,  laden, 
as  well  a.sfoiv'd,  fhevi'd,  hevj'd,  moiv'd,  loaded,  laded,  from  the 
verbs  to yoTLu,  to  fhevi,  to  hevi,  to  movj,  to  load,  or  lade. 

Concerning  theie  double  participles  it  is  difficult  to  give  any 
rule ;  but  he  ftiall  feldom  err  who  remembers,  that  when  a  verb 

I  has  a  participle  diftinft  from  its  preterite,  as  tf:riu,  ivrote,  ivrit- 
len,  that  diftindt  participle  is  more  proper  and  elegaat,  as  Tite 
h  iook 

A     GRAMMAR     OF     THE 

ie*i  is  written,  is  better  th»n  Tin  book  is  wrote.  UWoie  however 
may  be  oled  in  poetry ;  at  lead  if  we  allow  any  authority  to 
poets,  who,  in  the  exultation  of  genius,  think  therafclves  perhaps 
entitled  to  trample  on  grammarians. 

There  are  other  anomalies  in  the  preterite. 

1.  Win,  /fin,  begin, Jnuim, ftriitt, ftick,  ft'ig,  fling,  fling,  ring, 
nuring,  I'friiig,  J'lving,  drink.  Jink,  Jhrink,  ftink,  come,  run,fiitd^ 
hind,  grind,  tuind,  both  in  the  preterite,  imperfeft,  and  partici- 
ple palfive,  give  -iich,  /pun,  begun,  Jivum,  flruck,  ftuck,  Jung, 
flung,  flung,  rung,  iorung,/prung,/'Wiing,  drunk,J'unk,  Jhrunk,  flunk, 

camt,  run,fouhd,  bound,  ground,  ivound.  And  moft  of  them  are 
alfo  formed  in  the  preterite  by  a,  as  began,  rang,  Jang,  fprang, 
drank,  came,  nh,  and  fome  others  ;  but  moft  of  thefe  are  now 
obfolete.  Some  in  the  participle  paflive  likewife  take  en,  as 
J}ricken,flrucken,  drunken,  boundtn. 

2.  Fight,  teach,  reach,  Jeek,  hejeech,  catch,  buy,  bring,  think, 
rtvork,  make  fought,  taught,  raught,  Jought,  bejoughl,  caught, 
bought,  brought,  thought,  'wrought. 

But  a  great  many  of  thefe  retain  likewife  the  regular  form, 
as  teached,  reached,  bejeeched,  catcbed,  tvorked. 


3.  Take,  jhake,  forjake,  luake,    axvake,  fland,   break,  Jp. 
hear ,  fljear ,JiMear ,  tear,  t.\iear,iuea've,  cleave, flrive,  thri-ve,  drii/e, 
Jhine,   rije,  arije,  Jmile,    ivrite,    bide,    abide,  ride,    cbooje,  chuje, 
tread, get,  beget,  forget,  feethe,  make  in  both  preterite  and  partici- 
ple tookr  Jhook,  forjook,  ■woke,  awoke ,  flood ,  broke,  Jpoke,  bore,Jhorc, 

Jwore,  tore,  'wore,  'wo've,  clove,  flrove,  thro<ve,  dro've,  Jhone,  rofe, 
aroJe,Jmote,  lurote,  bode,  abode,  rode,  choje,  trode,  got,  begot,  for- 
got, Jod.  But  we  fay  likewife,  thri-ve,  riJe,  Jmit,  ivrit,  nbid, 
rid.  In  the  preterite  fome  are  likewife  formed  by  a,  as  brake, 
/pake,  bare,  Jhare,  /-ware,  tare,  'ware,  clave,  gat,  begat,  forgat,< 
and  perhaps  fome  others,  bit  more  rarely.  In  the  participle 
paflive  many  of  them  are  formed  by  en,  as  taken,  /haken,  J'or- 
Jaken,  broken,  Jpoken,  born,  Jhorn,  J'worn,  torn,  'worn,  'wo'ven, 
flo'ven,  thri'ven,  driven,  rifen,  fmitten,  ridden,  chojen,  troddat,  got- 
ten, begotten,  forgotten,  fodden.  And  many  do  likewife  retain 
the  analogy  in  both,  as  'waked,  a'waked,  /beared,  txiectved,  lea-ved, 
abided,  feet  bed. 

4.  Gi've,  bid,  fit,  make  in  the  preterite  ga've,  bade,  fate;  in 
the  participle  paflive,  giijen,  bidden,  fitten  ;  but  in  both  lid. 

5.  Dravj,  ino'w,  gro'w,  throtv,  bloiu,  croi.u  like  a  cock,  fly, 
Jlay,  Jee,  ly,  make  their  preterite   dre'w,   kne'w,  greiv,  threvo, 

hienu,  crevi,  flc'w,  fle'v>,Ja'w,  lay;  their  participles  paflive  by  », 
dra'wn,  knovjn,  gro'wn,  thro'wn,  blovjn,  flotvn,  flain,  Jeen,  lien, 
lain.  Yet  from  flee  is  made  fled;  from  go,  -went,  from  the  old 
nxiend,  the  participle  is  gotie. 

Of  Derivation. 

Th»(  the  Engli(h  language  may  b«  more  eafily  underftnod,  it  is  ntccflary  to 
encjuire  how  its  derivative  words  are  deduct  from  their  primitives,  and  how  the 
primitives  are  borrowed  from  other  languages.  In  this  enquiry  I  fhall  fome- 
times  copy  Dr.  Wallis,  and  f«mctimes  endeavour  to  fupply  his  dei'"efts,  and  rec- 
tify his  errouts. 

Nouns  are  derived  from  verbs. 

The  thing  implied  in  the  verb,  as  done  or  produced,  is  com- 
monly either  the  prefent  of  the  verb;  as  tolove, /e-uf ;  to  fright, 
^fright;  to  fight,  3i.flght;  or  the  preterite  of  the  verb,  as,  to 
flrike,  I  ftrick  or  ftrook,  zflroke.  , 

The  aftion  is  the  fame  with  the  participle  prefent,  as  loving, 
frighting,  fighting,  flriking. 

The  agent,  or  perfon  afting,  is  denoted  by  the  fyllable  er 
added  t«  the  verb,  as  lo'vcr,  fighter,  flriker. 

Subllantives,  adjeftives,  and  fometimes  other  parts  of  fpeech, 
are  changed  into  verbs  :  in  which  cafe  the  vowel  is  often 
kngthened,  or  the  confonant  foftened  ;  as  a  houfe,  to  houfe  ; 
brafs,  to  braze;  glafs,  to  glaze;  grzis,  to  graze  ;  price,  to  prize  ; 
breath,  to  breathe;  a  filh,  to  fi/h ;  oil,  to  oil;  further,  to  fur- 
ther ;  forward,  to  forward ;  hinder,  to  hinder. 

Sometimes  the  termination  en   is   added,  efpecially  to  ad- 

jc£lives  J   34  hafte,  t»  iaflen ;  length,  to  lengthtn ;  Jtrength,  to 

'  I 

ftrengthen ;  (hort,  to  flporten ;  faft,  t§  fsflen  j  white,  te  •wbiien  p 
black,  to  blacken;  hard,  to  harden  ;  foft,  to /often. 

From  fubftantives  are  formed  adjeilives  of  plenty,  by  adding 
the  termination  y;  as  a  loufe,  lou/y ;  wealth,  'wealthy ;  healths 
healthy  ;  might,  mighty  ;  worth,  'worthy  ;  wit,  'witty  ;  luft,  lufly  ; 
water,  luatery ;  earth,  earthy  ;  wood,  a  wood,  'woody  ;  air,  airy  j 
a  heart,  hearty  ;  a  hand,  handy. 

From  fubltantives  are  formed  adjeftives  of  plenty,  by  adding 
the  termination />//,  denoting  abundance;  as  }oy, Joyful ;  fruit, 
fruitj'ul ;  youth,  youthful;  care,  careful;  ufe,  uj'efuh,  delight^ 
deligbtj'ul;   p\twVj ,  plentiful ;   he\p,  he/pfut. 

Sometimes,  in  almoft  the  fame  fenie,  but  with  fome  kind  of 
diminution  thereof,  the  termin.ition  fome  is  added,  denoting 
/oinetbing,  or  in/ome  degree, ;  as  delight,  delight/ome;  game,  game" 
/ome;  irk,  irkj'ome ;  burden,  burdenjomei  trouble,  troublesome  i 
light,  lightjome  ;  hand,  handjome  ;  alone,  lone/ome ;  toil,  tailjomt. 
On  the  contrary,  the  termination  le/s  added  to  fubltantives, 
makes  adjectives  fignifying  want;  as  ivorthle/s,  ivitlefj,  heart' 
le  s,  joyleji,  careUfs,  helflefu  Thus  comfort,  ccmfortlefs ;  fap, 

Privation  or  contrariety  is  very  often  denoted  by  the  par- 
ticle ««  prefixed  to  many  adjedtives,  or  in  before  words  derived 
from  the  Latin  ;  as  pleafant,  unpleafant ;  Wife,  univife  ;  profit- 
able, unprofitable  ;  patient,  impatient.  Thus  unworthy,  unhealthy,, 
unfruitful,  unufeful,  and  many  more. 

The  original  Englifh  privative  is  un;  but  as  we  often  borrow  from  the  Latin, 
or  its  defendants,  words  already  fignifying  privation,  as  mtffcac'avs,  ttnf'aut^ 
mi't/rcet,  the  inleparable  particles  un  and  in  have  fallen  into  confufion,  froia 
which  it  is  not  cafy  to  dilentangle  them. 

Un  is  prefixed  to  all  words  "orginally  EngUih  ;  as  untrue,  untruth,  uniaugbtt 

Un  is  prefixed  to  all  participles  made  privative  adjcftives,  as  unfeeling,  uruijpjt- 
ing,  unaided,  unddigbud,  unendeared. 

Un  ought  never  to  be  prefixed  to  a  participle  prefent,  to  mark  a  forbearance  of 
aftion,  as  unjighing  ;  but  a  privation  oi  habit,  as  unpitying. 

Un  is  prefixed  to  moft  fubftantives  which  have  an  Engliih  termination,  as  un- 
fertilcneji^  unpcr/e&nefi,  which,  if  they  have  borrowed  terminations,  take  in  or  iw, 
as  infertility,  inpir/e^fion ;  uncivil,  incivility  ;  una^ivc,  incBl-vity. 

In  borrowing  adjedtives,  if  we  receive  them  already  compounded,  it  is  ufual 
tojrctoin  the  partich  prefixed,  as  indecent,  inelegatt,  impnJKr;  but  if  we  borrow 
the  adjcftive,  and  add  the  privative  particle,  w,;  commonly  prefix  un,  as  unfdite, 

The  prepofitive  particles  dit  and  mis,  derived  from  the  det 
and  mes  of  the  French,  fignify  almoft  the  fame  as  un ;  yet  dis 
rather  imports  contrariety  than  privation,  fince  it  anfwers  to 
the  Latin  prepofition  de.  Mis  inCnuates  fome  error,  and  for 
the  moft  part  may  be  rendered  by  the  Latin  words  male  or  fer- 
peram.  To  like,  to  diflike ;  honour,  di/honour  ;  to  honour,  to 
grace,  to  di/honour,  to  di/graei;  to  deign,  to  di/deign;  chance, 
hap,  mi/chance,  mipap ;  to  take,  to  miflake ;  deed,  mi/deed ; 
to  ufe,  to  tHifufe ;  to  employ,  to  mifemploy ;  to  apply,  to  mij- 

Words  derived  from  Latin  written  with  de  or  dis  retain  the 
fame  fignification ;  as  diflingui/h,  diftinguo ;  detraS,  detraho  j 
de/ame,  defamo  ;  detain,  detineo. 

The  termination  ly  added  to  fubftantives,  and  fometimes  to 
adjedives,  forms  adjeftives  that  import  fome  kind  of  fimilitudc 
or  agreement,  being  formed  by  contraftion  of  lick  or  like. 

A  giant,  giantly ,  giantlike  ;  earth,  earthly  ;  heaven,  beavtiilyi 
\vot\6.,  ivorldly  ;  God,  godly;  good,  goodly.. 

The  fame  termination  ly  added  to  adjeftives,  forms  adverb* 
of  like  fignification  ;  as  beautiful*  beautifully ;  fweet,  fweetly  ; 
that  is,  in  a  beautiful  manner  ;  'with  fome  degree  ofjhveetnejs. 

The  termination  ijh  added  to  adjeftives,  imports  diminution; 
and  added  to  fubftantives,  imports  fimilitude  or  tendency  to  a 
charader;  as  green,  greeni/h ;  white,  'whiti/h  ;  ioit,  fofti/h;  a 
thief,  thievi/h;  a  wolf,  •wol'viflj;  a  child,  childi/h. 

We  have  forms  of  diminutives  in  fubftantives,  thotigh  not 
frequent;  as  a  hill,  a  hillock;  a  cock,  a  cockrtl;  a  pike,  a 
pickrel;  this  is  a  French  termination:  a  goofe,  a  gofiing;  this 
is  a  German  rfrmination  :  a  lamb,  a  lambkin  ;  a  chick,  a  chicken ; 
a  man,  a  manikin ;  a  pipe,  a  pipkin  \  and  thus  Halkin,  whence  the 
patroniniick,  Havikini;  Wilkin,  Thomkin,  and  others. 



Yet  ftUl  there  h  »not1>«r  fcrm  of  diminution  among  the  Englilh,  by  leflening 
tJw  found  itfelf,  efpecially  of  vowels ;  as  there  is  a  form  of  augmenting  them 
by  eolargingi  or  even  lengthening  it}  and  that  fumetimcs  not  fo  much  by 
thange  of  the  letters,  as  o?  their  pronunciation  ;  as  fuf,  Jif,  jmf,  Jif,  fiffit, 
where,  bolides  the  extenuation  of  the  vowel,  there  is  added  tlie  French  termina- 
tion ft ;  tif,  up;  ffit,  Jfoui;  hebt,  baby  ;  baby,  (iitaic,  great  pronounced  long, 
efpecially  if  with  a  llroDgcr  found,  grta-t ;  /;Vf/f  pronounced  long, /«.?/;  j  ling, 
tang,  long,  imports  a  fuccelHon  of  fmaller  and  then  greater  founds;  and  fo  in 
jinglifjangU,  tingle,  tangle,  am^  many  other  made  words. 

Much  however  if  this  ii  arbitrary  and  fanciful,  Aefcr.d'tng  •wltlly  on  eral  ut- 
terance, and  thcrifort fcarcely  lucrihy  the  notice  of  ffallis, 

Of  concrete  adjeftives  are  made  abllraft  fubftantives,  by  add- 
ing the  termination  tir/t,  and  a  few  in  booc/  or  btacf,  noting 
charafter  or  qualities  ;  as  white,  luhitenefs  ;  hard,  harcinefs  ; 
great,  greatnefs  ;  flcilful,  Jkilfulnefs ,  unjiilfuliiefs  ;  godhead,  man- 
hood, maidenhead,  luidetvbood,  knighthood,  priejihood,  likelihood, 

There  are  other  abftrafts,  partly  derived  from  adjeftives,  and 
partly  from  verbs,  which  are  formed  by  the  addition  of  the  ter- 
mination th,  a  fmall  change  being  fometimes  made  ;  as  long, 
\  length;  Arong,  _firength.;  broad,  breadth;  wide,  ixidth  ;  deep, 
depth;  true,  truth;  v/3.rm,  luarmth  ;  desLr ,  dearth  ;  How,  fleavth  ; 
merry,  mirth  ;  heal,  health;  well,  weal,  ivealth;  dry,  drtughth  ; 
yoaag,  jcuth;  3.nd  {o  moon,  month. 

Like  thefe  are  forae  words  derived  from  verbs ;  die,  death ; 
till,  tilth ;  grow,  groimh  ;  mow,  later  tnoicth,  after  niovj'th  ; 
commonly  fpoken  and  written  later  math,  after  math  ;  (leal, 
Jiealth  ;  bear,  birth ;  rue,  ruth ;  and  probably  earth  from  to 
ear  ot  plonu;  &y,J!ighti  weigh, -wei^t ;  flay, /right;  to  draw, 

Tbcfc  ^uld  rather  be  written  Jligbti,  frighih,  only  that  cuftom  wiU  no' 
fuffer  i>  to  be  twice  repeated. 

The  fame  form  retain  faith,  (fight,  v/retlbe,  wraib,  troth,  froth,  breath, 
J'xth,  worth,  light,  ivigbi,  and  the  like,  whofe  primitives  are  either  entirely 
obfoletc,  or  feldom  occur.  Perhaps  they  arc  derived  inta  fey  0'fy,Jfy,  v)ry, 
wreak,  brew,  m9U3,fry,  bray,  jay,  vtcri* 

Some  ending  in  Jbip  imply  an  office,  employment,  or  con- 
dition ;  as  kingjhif,  luardjhip,  guardianfbip,  partiurjhip ,  fieivard- 
Jhif,  headfhip,  lordjhip. 

TTios  wtrfi'ip,  that  is,  vmtbpif ;  whence  vmjtiffu!,  and  to  ten-jhif. 

Some  few  ending  in  dom,  rick,  •wick,  do  efpecially  denote 
dominion,  at  leaft  ftate  or  condition  ;  as  kingdom,  dukedom, 
earldom,  princedom,  popedom,  chriflendom,  freedom,  ivifdom,  'whore- 
dom, bijhoprick,  hailyiuick. 

Ment  and  age  are  plainly  French  terminations,  and  are  of 
the  (ame  import  with  us  as  among  them,  fcarcely  ever  occur- 
ring, except  in  words  derived  from  the  French,  as  command- 
ment, u/age. 

There  are  in  Englifli  often  long  train)  of  words  allied  by  their  meaning  and 
derivation  }  as  f^  iw/,  a  bat,  balcin,  a  battle,  a  beetle,  a  battle-door,  id  batter, 
batter,  a  kind  of  glutinous  compofition  for  food,  made  by  beating  different  bo- 
dies into  one  mal's.  All  thefe  are  of  fimilar  flgnification,  and  perhaps  derived 
from  the  Latin  latui:.  Thus  take,  imh,  tickle,  tack,  tackle ;  all  imply  a  local 
conjunSlofl,  from  the  Latin  tango,  teiigi,  taflum. 

From  izi'o  are  formed  tivain,  twice,  twenty,  twelme,  twins,  twine,  twill,  tivirl, 
fwig,  twit,B,  twinge,  between,  betwixt,  twilight,  twibil. 

The  following  remarks,  extraQci  from  Wallis,  an  ingenious,  but  of  more 
fnktlety  than  folidity,  and  fuch  as  perhaps  might  in  every  language  be  enlarged 
without  end. 

Sn  ufually  imply  the  n<jft,  and  what  relates  to  it.  From  the  Latin  nafu, 
ire  deriwd  the  French  mn  and  the  Englilh  mfe  ;  and  ne/fe,  a  promontory,  ai 
proj-.lir.  •  like  a  nnfc.  But  as  if  from  the  cunlonants  ai  taken  from  ma/us, 
an<i  tri-iMfcd,  that  they  may  the  better  correfpond, /«  denote  nafui ;  ini 
tlitnrc  arc  d'a'ived  many  words  that  relate  to  the  nofe,  as  fnout,  fneeze,  fnore, 
fm-r,  freer,  Jmckir,  jm*,  Jneyil,  fnke,  huf,  Jnuffle,  fmifflc,  Jnarle,  f nudge. 

There  is  another  fn,  which  may  perhaps  be  derived  from  the  Latin  Jinu},  as 
fiuif,  fneak,  fnail,  fnare  ;  (b  likewife  fnaf  and  /natch,  /nib,  /nub. 

Bl  imply  a  bh/} ;  as  A.'«ti,  blafl,  t(,  bhji,  to  blight,  and,  metaphorically,  to 
Halt  ones  reputation  ;  bitat,  bleak,  a  bleak  place,  to  look  bleak  or  wcather- 
beatrn,  bitak,  thy,  bleach,  blufier,  blurt,  blijier,  blab,  bladder,  bleb,  bitfier,  blab- 
b-r-lit-t,  blahh'r-chrtft,  bl-jttd,  bhte-herring!,  blaji,  blaM,  ttblnu,  that  is,  bh/. 
/on,  ilo'.m  i   jnd  prrhap,  hlood  and  blu/h. 

ia  '.he  nauvc  worJ^  of  vur  wngue  is  to  bt  fwnJ  a  great  agreement  between 

the  letters  and  the  things  fignified ;  and  therefore  the  founds  t>f  letters  fmjller, 
(harper,  louder,  clofer,  fofter,  ftronger,  clearer,  n>nre  obfcurc,  and  more  ftridu' 
lotts,  do  very  often  intimate  the  like  effefls  in  the  things  fjgnihed. 

Thus  words  that  begin  with  fr  intimate  the  force  and  cffeft  of  the  thinj 
lignified,  as  if  probably  derived  from  rjiwu/xi,  orftrenuus;  a  jlrong,  firergth^ 
Jtrew,  jirike,  flreah,  jirote,  flrife,  /frive,  /irif:,  ftruggle,  /irout,  /Irut,  firetch, 
Jirait,firiB,  ftreight,  that  is,  narrow,  di/fraiti,  fircfi,  Jiflrt/t,  jlring,  flraf,  Jlream, 
jireamer,  /irand,  /Irip,  fray,  jiruggle,  frangc,  /Iride,  ftraddte. 

St  in  like  manner  imply  Itrength,  but  in  a  lefj  degree,  fo  much  only  as  is 

fufficient  to  preferve  what  has  been  already  communicated,  rather  than  acquire 

any  new  degree  }  a»  if  it  were  derived  from  the  Latin  y?o  ••  for  ixitnyk,  /land,  Jlay, 

chat  is,   to  remain,   or  to  prop;  flaff,  jlay,  that  is,  to  oppnk  ;  fnp,  to  fluff, 

jl'fie,  to /lay,  that  is,  to  flop;  a  flay,  that  is,  an  oh^zeXt:;  flick,  flut,  flutter, 

jiammer,  flaggcr,  flickh,  flick,  flake,    a    ftiarp    pale,  and    any  thing    depofited 

at  play  ;  /lock,  flem,  fling,  to  fling,  flink,  flitch,  flud,  j>,anchion,  flub,  ftubbU,  t» 

flub  up,  flump,  vihenctflumble,  flalk,  to  flalk,flep,  toflnr'f  with  the  feet,  whence 

to  flamp,  that  is,  to  make  an  impreifion  and  ^  iiamp  ;  flov:,  to  floiu,  to  bcfltrzv, 

fleward  or  floward,  /had,  fleady,  flcadfafl,  flahle,  a  flable,  a  flail,  to  flail,  flool, 

flail,  flill,  ftall,  flallagc,  flail,  fiagc,  fiiU  adj.  and  fill  adv.  flak,  flout,  flmdy, 

fleed,  fleet,  flalli'n,  fliff,  flark-dcad,  to  flarvc  with  hunger  or  cold  ;  ftore,  ftcel, 

flem,  fiancb,  to  Jianch  blood,  to  flare,  flctp,  flecple,  /iair,fliindard,  a  ftated  mea- 

'(are,  flately.     In  ail  thefe,  and  pcihapsi  fome  others,  yi  denote  fomethirg  £iia 

and  fixed. 

Ter  imply  a  more  violent  degree  of  motion,  at  ibrow,  thnfi,  throng,  throb, 
through,  threat,  threaten,  ttrall,  thnwi, 

Wr  imply  fomc  fi>rt  of  obliquity  or  dlftortion,  as  wry,  to  vjrcatie,  wrejt, 
tvrc/ik,  lurhtg,  wrong,  wrinch,  ivrench,  wrangle,  turinkle,  wrath,  wreak,  xvrack, 
W'ltcb,  •wr/t,  wrap. 

Sto  impiy  a  filent  agitation,  or  a  fofter  kiru}.  of  lateral  motion  ;  as  /way, 
/wag,  to  /way,  /wagg^r,  /wcrve,  jnueat,  /weep,  jwHI,  /wim,  /wing,  /wift ,  /weet, 

Nor  is  there  much  djfterence  of /«  in  fmootb,  fmug, /mile, /mirk, /mite,  which 
fignifies  the  fame  as  to  flrike,  but  is  a  fofter  word  ;  Jmall,  /mcll,  /mack.Jmcihcr, 
Jmari,  a  /mart  blow  properly  fignilie^  futh  a  kind  of  llroke  as  with  an  originally 
filcnt  motion,  implied  in  /m,  proceeds  to  »qulck  violence,  denoted  by  ar  fud- 
denly  ended,  as  is  (hewn  by  t. 

CI  denote  a  kind  of  adliefion  or  tenacity,  as  in  cleave,  clay,  cling,  climb, 
clamber,  clammy,  cla/p,  to  cla//>,  to  clip,  to  clinch,  cloak,  clog,  clo/e,  to  clo/e,  a  clod, 
a  clot,  as  a  clot  of  blood,  chuied  cream,  ercluitit,  a  elufler. 

Sp  imply  a  kind  of  diHipation  or  expanfion,  efpecially  a  quick  one,  particii- 
lariy  if  tliere  be  an  r,  aa  if  it  were  from  fparpo,  or /iparo  t  for  example,  /prcad, 
f^ffg'  jfig,  /prout,  Jprinkle,  /plit,  /plinter,  /pill,  /pit,  /putter, /patter. 

SI  denote  a  kind  of  filent  fall,  or  a  lefs  obfervablc  motion  ;  as  in  Jlime,  Jlidtt 
flip,  flipper,  fly,  Jleight,  fl:t,  flow,  flack,  flight,  fling,  flap. 

And  fo  likcwife  ajh,  in  cra/h,  ra/b,  gap,  flalh,  cla/h,  lejh,  fla/h,  pla/h,  trap, 
indicate  fonicthing  adjing  more  nimbly  and  (harply.  But  u]h,  in  eru/h,  rujh, 
gujh,  fiujb,  blu/h,  briifi,  hu/b,  pup,  implies  fumething  as  afling  more  obtufely 
and  duily.  Yet  in  bjtli  tlierc  is  indicated  a  fwlft  and  fudden  motion,  not  in- 
Ihntajicous,  but  gradual,  by  the  continued  foundyS. 

Thus  in  fling,  fling,  ding,  /wing,  cling,,  wring,  fling,  the  tingling  of 
the  termination  ng,  and  the  tliarpnefs  of  the  vowel  j,  imply  the  continuation  of 
a  very  ilendcr  motion  or  tremor,  at  length  indeed  saniOiing,  but  not  fuddenly 
interrupted.  But  in  tir.k,  wink,  Jink,  clink,  chink,  think,  that  end  in  a  mute 
confonant,  there  is  alfo  indicated  a  fudden  ending. 

It  there  be  an  /,  as  in  jingle,  tingle,  tinkle,  mingle,  /prinkle,  twinkle,  there  is 
implied  a  frequency,  or  iteration  of  fmall  adli.  And  the  fame  frequency  of  a£ls, 
hut  lefs  fubtile  by  rcafon  of  the  clearer  vowel  a,  is  indicated  in  jangle,  tangle, 
j'pangle,  mangle,  tvrangle,  brangle,  dangle ;  as  alfo  in  mumble,  grumble,  jumble, 
tumhlt, flun<hU,  rumble,  crumble,  fumble.  But  at  the  fame  time  the  clofc  u  im- 
plies fometliing  obfcure  or  obtunded  ;  and  a  congeries  of  confonants  rnbl,  dcnotei 
a  confufed  kind  of  rolling  or  tumbling,  as  in  ramble,  /camble,  /cramble,  wamble, 
amhle ;  but  in  thefe  there  is  fomcthing  acute. 

In  nimble,  the  acutcnels  of  the  vowel  denotes  celerity.  In  /parkle,  /p  denotes 
dilTipatioii,  ar  an  acute  crackling,  k  a  fudden  interruption,  /a  frequent  iteration  j 
and  in  like  manner  in  /prinkle,  unlefs  in  may  impiy  the  fubtility  of  the  diffi. 
pated  guttulcs.  Thick  and  thin  differ,  in  tliat  the  former  ends  with  an  obtufc 
confonant,  and  the  latter  with  an  acute. 

In  like  manner,  m/jucck,  /jueak,/qucal,  /quail,  braul,  wraul,yaul,/paul, /creek, 
/hriei,  prill, parp,  privel,  wrinkle,  crack,  crafl->,  clap,  gnap,  pla/h,  crup,  hup, 
l"Jp,  fijjc,  whifl,  J'ft,  jarr,  hurl,  curl,  whirl,  buz:,  buflic,  /pindle,  dwindle,  twine, 
iwfl,  and  in  many  more,  we  may  obfcrvc  the  agvcemcnt  of  fuch  fort  of  founds 
with  the  things  fignified  :  and  this  fo  freijuently  happens,  that  fcarce  /ny  language 
which  1  know  can  be  compared  viith  ours.  So  that  one  monofyllabic  word,  of 
which  kind  are  almoft  all  ours,  emphatically  expreffes  what  in  other  language* 
can  fcarce  be  explained  but  by  compounds,  or  decompounds,  or  fometimes  a 
tedious  circumlocution. 

We  have  many  words  borrowed  from  the  Latin  ;  but  the 
greateft  part  of  them  were  communicated  by  the  intervention 
of  the  French  ;  as  grace,  face,  elegant,  elegance,  re/emble. 

Some  verbs,  which  feem  borrowed  from  the  Latin,  are  form* 
ed  from  the  prefent  tenfe,  and  fome  from  the  fiipines. 

From  the  prefent  are  formed  fpend,  expend,  expendo ;  conJuce» 
conduce  ;  defpi/e,  defpicio ;  approve,  approbo ;  conitiw,  con- 

h  2  from 

A     GRAMMAR     OF     THE 

From  the  Cv^Ims, /npfJicatt,  fupplico  ;  dtmtnftraie,  demonftro  ; 
Jiff  oft,  difpono ;  ixpatiaie,  expatior ;  /upprefs,  fupprimo ;  exempt, 

Nothing  It  more  apparent,  than  diatWallis  goo  too  far  in  quell  of  originals. 
Many  of  tbefe  which  fcem  felejted  as  immediate  defcendanta  from  the  Latin, 
are  appirentl;  Ficnch,  as  conceive,  affrtmt,  exfofi,  txcmft. 

Some  words  purely  French,  not  derived  from  the  Latin,  we 
have  transferred  into  our  language  ;  as  garden,  garter,  buckler,  to 
aJi'ttttce,  to  cry,  to  plead,  from  the  French, Jardin,jartier,  bouclier, 
A-vancer,  crier,  plaider ;  though  indeed,  even  of  thefe,  part  is  of 
Latin  original. 

As  to  many  words  which  we  have  in  common  with  the  Germans,  it  is  doubt- 
flU  whether  the  old  Teutons  borrowed  them  from  the  Latins,  or  the  Latins 
ftom  the  Teutons,  or  both  had  tlicm  from  fome  common  original  ;  as  v)'tnt, 
vinum  ;  ixi'md,  vcntus ;  wf»f,  veni ;  icay,  via ;  •tvall,  vallum  ;  ivalkia,  volvo ; 
tinol,  vtilus  ;  lu'xll,  volo ;  imrm,  vermis  {  ■u'tirtb,  virtus  ;  waff,  vefpa  ;  Jay, 
dies;  Sravt,  traho ;  tame,  domo,  i'(t/>caar;  yoke,  jugum,  ^fDy*?;  over,  upper, 
fuper,  iir«; ;  am,  fum,  Hfju  ;  ireji,  frango ;  fy,  volo  j  ilc^v,  flo.  I  make  no 
doubt  but  the  Teutonick  is  more  ancient  than  the  Latin;  and  it  is  no  leff 
certain,  that  the  Latin,  which  borrowed  a  great  number  of  words,  not  only 
from  the  Greek,  efpccially  the  ^olick,  but  from  other  neighbouring  languages, 
a)  the  ©fcan  and  others,  which  have  long  become  ohfolete,  received  not  a  few 
from  the  Teutonick.  It  is  certain,  that  the  EngliOi,  German,  and  other  Teu- 
tonick languages,  retained  fome  derived  from  the  Greek,  which  the  Latin  has 
not ;  as  ex,  aebs,  mit,  ford,  pfurd,  daughter,  tocbter,  mick/e,  mingle,  moon, 
fear,  grave,  gra^,  to  grave,  tojcrape,  vjbole,  from  i^irn,  /j^ira,  ma^ixo^,  ^yyar^f , 
utyaXo^,  fxiyfCv,  fMr,m,  ^^^ii,  y^a'^ai,  cXof.  Since  they  received  thefc  immediate- 
ly from  the  Greeks,  without  the  intervention  of  the  Latin  language,  why  may 
not  other  words  be  derived  immediately  from  the  fame  fountain,  though  they  be 
likcwife  found  among  the  Latins  ? 

Our  anceftors  were  ftudious  to  form  borrowed  words,  however 
long,  into  monofyllables  ;  and  not  only  cut  off  the  formative 
terminations,  but  cropped  the  firll  fyllable,  efpecially  in  words 
beginning  with  a  vowel ;  and  rejefted  not  only  vowels  in  the 
middle,  but  likewife  confonants  of  a  weaker  found,  retaining  the 
Wronger,  which  feem  the  bones  of  words,  or  changing  them  for 
others  of  the  fame  organ,  in  order  that  the  found  might  become 
the  fofter  ;  but  efpecially  tranfpofing  their  order,  that  they  might 
the  more  readily  be  pronounced  without  the  intermediate  vowels. 
For  example,  in  expendo,  _/5>Ma' ;  txemp]um, /ample ;  excipio, 
/cape  ;  extraneus,  grange  ;  extraftum,  ^retch'd  ;  excrucio,  to 
/creiv  i  exfcorio,  to/our  ;  excorio,  to/courge  ;  excortico,  to /cratch  ; 
and  others  beginning  with  ^jr  .•  as  alfo,  emendo,  to  mend;  epif- 
copus,  hipop  ;  in  Danifh,  hi/p\  epillola,  epi/ile;  hofpitale,  /fit- 
tie  J  Hifpania,  Spain  ;  hiiloria,y?(7ry. 

Many  of  thefe  etymologies  are  doubtful,  and  fame  evidently  miftaken. 

The  following  are  fomewhat  harder,  Alexarier,  Sander ;  Elifabeiha,  Betty ; 
apis,  hee\  aper,  bar\  p  paOing  into  h,  as  in  bijhop  ;  and  by  cutting  off  a  from 
the  beginning,  which  is  reftored  in  the  middle  :  but  for  the  old  bar  or  hare, 
We  now  fay  hoar  ;  as  for  lartg,  long  ;  for  bain,  bane  ;  for  fiane,  flcne ;  aprugna, 
braton,  p  being  changed  into  b,  and  a  tranfpnfed,  as  in  afer,  and  g  changed 
intow,  as  in  pignus,  paton  ;  lege,  latu  ;  iXoirnJ,  fox;  cutting  off  me  begin- 
ning, and  changing/!  into  f,  as  in  pellis,  a  fell;  pullus,  a  foal;  pater,  father; 
pavor,y<ar  ;  polio,  jf/V;  pIco,  impleo,  _^//, /a//;  pifcis,  ^i  ;  and  tranfpofing  o 
into  the  middle,  which  was  taken  from  the  beginning;  apex,  apiece;  peak, 
pike;  zofhoia$,  freeze;  muftum,  JIum;  defenfio,  fence;  difpenfator,  fpencer  ; 
afculto,  efcouter,  Fr.  fcout ;  exfcalpo,  /(rape,  redoring  /  indead  of  r,  and  hence 
fhap,  fcrahle,  Icrawl;  exculpo,  /coop  ;  exterrltus,  Jlart ;  extonitus,  attonitus, 
fitnn'd;  ftomachus,  maw;  o&etiio,  fined ;  obftipo, y7o)> ;  audere,  dare;  cavere, 
xvare;  whenrc  a-iuare,  he-tvare,  ivary,  ivarn,  warning,  for  the  Latin  .1/ con - 
fonant  formeilv  founded  like  our  w,  and  the  modern  found  of  the  v  confonant 
was  formerly  that  of  the  letter y,  that  is,  the  i^o'.ick  digamma,  which  had  the 
found  of  ^,  and  the  modern  found  of  the  letter  /"was  that  of  the  Greek  ip  or  pb  ; 
ulcus,  ulcere,  ulcer^  fre,  and  hence  ferry,  jorrotv,  jorrovjful;  ingenium,  engine, 
gin;  fcalenus,  leaning,  unlrfs  you  w.juld  rather  derive  it  from  xXivv,  v.-hence  in- 
clino ;  infundibulum,  funnel ;  gagate:,  jctt ;  projeilum,  to  jctt  forth,  a  jetty ; 
cucullus,  a  civil. 

There  are  fyncopes  fomewhat  harder;  from  tempore,  time;  from  nomine, 
Tame  ;  domina,  eLtme  ;  as  the  French  b-.mme,  femme,,  fromlipminc,  fceraina, 
nomine.  Thua  pagina,  page  ;  «roTn{im,  pot ;  tamtWa.,  cup  ;  cantharus,  can  ; 
tentorium,  lint ;  precor,  pray  ;  prxda,  prey  ;  fpecio,  fpeculor,  Jpy  ;  plico,  ply  ; 
implico,  im^/y  ;  replico,  rrf«  ;  complico,  rom/i/y ;  fedes  epifcopalis,^v. 

■  A  vowel  is  alfo  cut  off  in  the  middle,  that  the  number  of  the  fyllable? 
may  be  leffened ;  ai  aroita,  aunt;  fpiritus,  ^ri^i/ ;  dcbitum,  debt;  dubito, 
tUnbt ;  com^5,  comitis,  count ;  ckticus,  clerk ;  quietus,  ^uit,  quite ;  acquieto, 
(»  Mf^t;  feparo,  r«  Jp<irt\  &al>ilis>  ^uiU;  lUbuluni;  Jiable  j   fa^atiym^  pp- 

lace,  place ;    rabula,  rail ;   rnel,  viraul,   Irawf,  raile,  Irthh  \    l]UiefitiO( 


At  alfo  a  confonant,  or  at  lead  one  of  1  fofter  found,  or  even  a  whole  fyl- 
lable ;  rotundus,  round;  fragilis, /rai/ ;  fecurus, /vn  ;  regula,  rule;  tegula, 
tile  ;  fubtilis,  futtle ;  nomen,  noun  ;  decanus,  dean  ;  computo,  rntiir ;  fubita- 
ncui,  fuddain,  foon  ;  fuperare,  tofoar;  periculum,  ^^i/;  mirabile,  marvel;  as 
magnus,  mo/R ;  dignor,  <fW^ii ;  Xingo,  JIain;  tin3um, /.linr ;  pingo,  ^o>»;  prx- 
dari,  reach,  

The  contraftions  may  feem  harder,  where  many  of  them  meet,  as  xit^ioju;, 
kyrk,  church;  prejbyter,  frir/?  ;  facrillanus,y<x.'cn;  frango,  fregi,  irrj>,  irraii  j 
fagus,  ^vya,  beech  ;  f  changed  into  b,  and  g  into  cb,  which  are  letters  near 
a-kin;  frigefco,yr«ai£;  Wigeko,  frefh,  fc  \n«>  p,  slz  TAioyt  in  hifbcp,  fijh,  fo  in 
fcapha,^iy,yl(^,  and  refrigefco,  refrejh  ;  butvirefcOj/r^;  phlcbotomusjj^rain  ; 
bovina,  huf;  vitulina,  vtal;  fcutifer,  fjuire  ;  pcenitentia,  penance;  fandtua- 
rium,  fanHuary,  fentry  ;  qusfitio,  chafe;  perquifitio,  purchaje;  anguilla,  «/; 
Jnfula,  ijle.  He,  iflar.d,  i'anJ ;  infuletta,  iflet,  u'el ;  eyght ;  and  more  contrafledly 
ey,  whence  Ovijney,  Ruhy,  Ely ;  ciaminare,  to  fan,  namely,  by  rejeiling  from 
the  beginning  and  end  t  and  0,  accord'mg  CO  the  ufual  manner,  the  remainder 
xamin,  which  tlie  Saxons,  who  did  not  ufe  *,  write  cfamen,  or  fcamen,  is  con- 
tracted into  yr  an  ;  as  from  dominus,  don;  nomine,  noun;  Ahomlno,  ban ;  and 
indeed  apum  cxamen  they  turned  into  fciame ;  for  which  we  fay  ftvjrme,  by 
inferting  r  to  denote  the  murmuring  ;  thefaurus,  fiore  ;  fedile,  fiuol ;  w'o;, 
•uiet ;  fudo,  fweat ;  gaudium,  gay  ;  jocus,  joy ;  fuccus,  juice ;  catena,  chain  j 
caliga,  calga  ;  chaufe,  chaulTe,  Fr.  hcfi ;  extinguo,  ftancb,  fquencb,  fucnchf 
ftint;  (otii, forth;  {fCcXts, fpice ;  recito,  read;  adjuvo,  aid;  a\vi,  a;vum,  erff 
age,  ever ;  noccus,  lock ;  excerpo,  fcrape,  fcrahbU,  fcratul ;  extravagus,  flray, 
ftraggle;  c.o\\t&\itn,  clot,  clutch;  cnlligo,  coil;  recoUigo,  recoil;  feveio,  fivear  ; 
iWduluSj^ri//;  procurator,  ^roxy ;  pulfo,  ro /i»/!!> ;  calamus,  a  quill;  impetere, 
to  impeach;  augeo,  auxi,  tv<ix;  and  vanefco,  vanui,  TJane  ;  fyllabare,  tofpelli 
puteus,  ^ir;  granum,  ccrn  ;  compritno,  cramp,  crump,  crumple,  crinkle. 

Some  may  feem  harOier,  yet  may  not  be  reje^ed,  for  it  at  lead  appears, 
that  fome  of  them  are  derived  from  proper  names,  and  there  are  others  whofe 
etymology  is  acknowledged  by  every  body  ;  as  Alexander,  Elick,  Scanjer,  San- 
der, Sanny,  Sandy;  Eiizabetha,  Eiixabeth,  Elifaheth,  Betty,  Befi;  Margareta, 
Margaret,  Margct,  Meg,  Peg  ;  Maria,  Mary,  Mai,  Pal,  Malkin,  Mawkin, 
Matokcs;  Matthaeus,  Mattlu,  Ma'tbew ;  Martha,  Matt,  Pat;  Gulielmus, 
IVilhelmus,  Cirolamo,  Guillaume,  miliam,  fVitl,  Bill,  fTiUm,  HHcken,  fTicki, 

Thus  cariophyllus,  flos ;  gerofilo,  leal,  giriflee,  gilofer,  Fr.  gillifiovter,  \vhich 
the  vulgar  call  julyfloiuer,  as  if  derived  from  the  month  July  ;  petrofclinum, 
parjley;  portulaca,  ^wr/Jjm  ;cydonium,  quince;  cydoniatum,  quiddeny  ;  perfi- 
cum,  peach ;  cruca,  eruke,  which  they  corrupt  to  ear-viig,  as  if  it  took  its 
name  from  the  ear  ;  annulus  geminus,  a  gimmal,  or  gimbal  ring  ;  and  thus  the 
word  gimbal  and  jumbal  is  transferred  to  other  things  thus  interwoven  ;  quelques 
chofes,  kickfbaivi.  Since  the  origin  of  thefe,  and  many  others,  however  forced, 
is  evident,  it  ought  to  appear  no  wonder  to  any  one  if  the  ancients  have  thus 
disfigured  many,  efpecially  as  they  fo  much  affefted  monofyllables  ;  and,  to 
make  them  found  the  fofter,  took  this  liberty  of  maiming,  taking  away,  chang- 
ing, tranfpofing,  and  foftening  them. 

But  while  we  derive  thefe  from  the  Latin,  I  do  not  mean  to  fay,  that  many 
of  them  did  not  immediately  'come  to  us  from  the  Saxon,  DanUh,  Dutch,  and 
Teutonick  languages,  and  other  dialedls,  and  fome  taken  more  lately  from  the 
French,  or  Italians,  or  Spaniards. 

The  fame  word,  according  to  its  different  Cgnifications,  often  has  a  diflferent 
origin;  »s  to  bear  a  burden,  (com  fero;  but  to  bear,  whence  birth,  born,  bairn, 
comes  from  pario,  and  a  bear,  at  leaft  if  it  be  of  Latin  original,  (com  f era, 
Thas  perch,  a  fifli,  ftomperca;  but  perch,  a  meafure,  from  pertica,  and  like- 
wife  ro^frri.  To  fpett  is  from  Jyllaba  ;  hut  fpell,  an  inchantmcnt,  by  which 
it  is  believed  that  the  boundaries  are  fo  fixed  in  lands,  that  none  can  pafs  them 
againft  the  mailer's  will,  from  expello ;  and  fpell,  a  me(Tenger,  from  epijlola ; 
whence  gofpel,  good-fpell,  or  god-Jpell,  Thus  frcefe,  or  freexe,  from  frigejco ; 
but  /"«««,  an  architeflonic  word,  from  xophorus;  bat  freefe,  for  cloth,  from 
Frifia,  or  perhaps  from  frigefco,  as  being  more  fit  than  any  other  for  keeping  out 
the  cold. 

There  are  many  words  among  us,  even  monofyllables,  compounded  of  two  or 
more  words,  at  leaft  ferving  inftead  of  compounds,  and  comprifing  the  fignifi- 
cation  of  more  words  than  one  ;  as  from  fcrip  and  roll,  comes  fcrcll ;  from  froud 
and  dance,  prance  ;  from  ft  of  the  verb  Jlay,  or  Jland  and  c:a,  is  made/oar  ; 
from  flout  and  hardy,  flurdy  ;  from  fp  of  fpit  or  fpevi,  and  out,  comes  fpout  j 
from  the  dmn  fp,  with  the  termination  in,  \%  fpin;  and  iii\n%oul,fpin  tut  ; 
and'from  the  Um&fp,  with  /'/,  is  fpit,  which  only  differs  ftom  fpout  m  that  it 
is  fmaller,  and  with  lei's  noife  and  force  ;  but  fputter  is,  becaufe  of  the  obfcure 
V,  fomething  between  fpit  and  (pout  ;  and  by  reafon  of  adding  r,  it  intimates 
a  frequent  iteration  and  noife,  but  cbicurely  confufed  :  whereas  fpatter,  on  ac- 
count of  the  (harper  and  clearer  vowel  a,  intimates  a  more  diftiniS  noife,  in 
whiih  it  chiefly  differs  from  fputter.  From  the  dmefp,  and  the  termination 
ark,  comas  fpark,  fignifying  a  fingle  cmifiion  of  fire  with  a  noife  ;  namely,  j^ 
the  cniiOion,  ar  the  more  acute  noife,  and  k  the  mute  confonant,  intimates  its 
being  fuddenly  terminated  ;  but  adding  /,  is  made  the  frequentative  fparkle. 
The  famc_y^,  by  adding  r,  that  is  fpr,  implies  a  more  lively  impecus  of  diffufing 
or  expanding  itfclf;  to  which  adding  the  termination  ing,  it  becomes  J^rjn^  ; 
its  vigour  fpr  imports,  its  fiiarpnefs  the  termination  ing;  and  lalHy  in  acute  and 
tremulous,  ending  in  the  mute  confonant  g,  denotes,  the  fudden  ending  of  any 
motion,  that  it  is  meant  in  its  primary  fignificatioo,  of  a  finglr,  not  a  com- 
plicated exilition.  Hence  we  call  fpring  whatever  has  an  elallick  force  :  as 
alfo  a  fountain  of  water,   and  thence  the   origin  of  any  thing ;  and  to  fpring, 

to  germinate  J  and  fpring,  gnc  vf  Uis  fpur  f«afoasi    Froio  ths  faroc  ^r  and 



Hit,  U  formed  ffrtul,  «nJ  with  tie  termination  ig,  ffrig ;  of  which  the  follow- 
ing, for  the  moft  part,  is  the  difference:  ffrout,  of  a  groffer  found,  imports 
a  fatter  or  groffer  bud  ;  fprig,  of  a  tenderer  found,  denotes  a  fmaller  (hoot. 
In  like  manner,  from  fir  of  the  verb  firhic,  and  out,  comes  firout  3ni  firut. 
From  the  fame  fir,  and  the  termination  ugg/e,  is  made  firuggle  ;  and  this  g 
imports,  but  without  any  great  noife,  by  reafon  of  the  obfcure  found  of  the 
vowel  u.  In  like  manner  from  threw  and  nil  is  made  troll ;  and  almoft  in 
the  fame  fenfe  is  trur:J!e,  f")m  thrciv  or  ttrufi,  and  ruitdle.  Thus  grajf  or 
grcugb  is  compounded  of  grave  and  rough  j  and  trudge  from  tread  or  trot,  and 

In  thefe  obfervations  it  is  eafy  to  difcover  great  fagacity  and 
great  extravagance,  an  ability  to  do  much  defeated  by  the  de- 
fire  of  doing  more  than  enough.     It  may  be  remarked, 

1 .  That  Wallis's  derivations  are  often  fo  made,  that  by  the 
fame  licence  any  language  may  be  deduced  from  any  other. 

2.  That  he  makes  no  diftinftion  between  words  immediately 
derived  by  us  from  the  Latin,  and  thofe  which,  being  copied  from 
other  languages,  can  therefore  afford  no  example  of  tlie  genius 
of  the  Englifti  language,  or  its  laws  of  derivation. 

3.  That  he  derives  from  the  Latin,  often  with  great  harftinefs 
and  violence,  words  apparently  Teutonick  ;  and  therefore,  ac- 
cording to  his  ovyn  declaration,  probably  older  than  the  tongue 
to  which  he  refers  them. 

4.  That  feme  of  his  derivations  are  apparently  erroneous. 


The  eftabliflied  praftice  of  grammarians  requires  that  I  ihould  here  treat  of 
the  Syntax;  but  our  language  has  fo  little  inflexion,  or  varietj'  of  termina- 
tions, that  its  conftruflion  neither  requires  nor  admits  many  rules.  Wallls 
therefore  has  totally  negleded  it ;  and  Jonfon,  whofc  defire  of  following  the 
writers  upon  the  learneJ  languages  made  him  think  a  fycta^  indifpenfably  ne- 
ceflary,  has  publiihed  fuch  petty  obfervatioiw  ai  weic  better  omitted. 

The  verb,  as  in  other  languages,  agrees  with  the  nomina- 
tive in  number  and  perfon  ;  as  Ti/eu  flUJi  from  good ;  He  runt  to 

Our  adjeAives  and  pronouns  are  invariable. 

Of  two  fubftantives  the  noun  poffefliye  is  the  genitive  ;  as 
His  father's  glory.  The  fun's  heat. 

verbs  tranfitive  require  an  oblique  cafe  ;  as  He  lovet  me ; 
You  fear  him. 

All  prepofitions  require  an  oblique  cafe  :  He  gave  this  to  me  ; 
He  took  thii  from  me  ;  He  fays  this  of  me ;  He  came  with  me* 


It  is  common  for  thofe  that  deliver  the  grammar  of  modern  languages,  to 
omit  their  Profody.  So  that  of  the  Italians  is  negleded  by  Suemaitei ;  that  of 
the  French  by  Dejmarais ;  and  that  of  the  Englifli  by  fyatlii,  Cmfer,  and  even 
by  Jivfon,  though  a  poet.  But  at  the  laws  of  metre  are  included  in  the  idea 
of  a  grammar,  I  have  thought  it  proper  to  iafert  them. 

Profody  comprifes  orthoepy,  or  the  rules  of  pronunciation  ; 
and  orthometry,  or  the  laws  of  verfification. 

Pronunciation  is  juft,  when  every  letter  has  its  proper 
found,  and  when  every  fyllable  has  its  proper  accent,  or,  which 
in  Engliih  verfification  is  the  fame,  its  proper  quantity. 

The  founds  of  the  letters  have  been  already  explained  ;  and  rules  for  the  ac- 
cent or  quantity  are  not  eafily  to  be  given,  being  fubjeft  to  innumerable  excep- 
tioos.    Such  howcTCi  a>  I  have  read  or  formed,  I  fliall  here  ptopote. 

1.  Of  difTyllables  formed  by  affixing  a  termination,  the  former 
fyllable  is  commonly  accented,  as  chiUiJh,  kingdom,  aHeJi,  atled, 
toilfome,  lo'ver,  fciffer,  fairer,  f'oremofl,  zealous,  fulnefs,  godly, 
meekly,  artijl. 

2.  Diffyllables  formed  by  prefixing  a  fyllable  to  the  radical 
word,  have  commonly  the  accent  on  the  latter ;  as  to  beget,  to 
tefeem,  to  hefotxi. 

3.  Of  diffyllables,  which  arc  at  once  nouns  and  verbs,  the 
verb  haa  commonly  the  accent  on  the  latter;  and  ths  noun  on 

the  former  fyllable  j  as  to  defcant,  a  difcam ',  to  timent,  a  e^ 
ment ;  to  contraB,  a  contraB, 

This  rule  has  many  exceptions.  Though  verbs  feldom  have  their  accent  ob 
the  former,  yet  nouns  often  have  it  on  the  latter  fyllable;  as,  dtUght,  ferfume^ 

4.  All  diflyllables  ending  in  y,  as  cranny  ;  in  aur,  as  labour, 
favour ;  in  oou,   as  ivillo'w,  'walloiu,   except    allovj  ;  in   le,  as 

battle,  bible  ;  in  ijh,  as  banijh  ;  in  ck,  as  cambrick,  caffock  ;  in 
ter,  as  to  batter  ;  in  age,  as  courage  ;  in  en,  as  fajien  ;  in  et,  as 
quiet,  accent  the  former  fyllable. 

5.  DifTyllable  nouns  in  er,  as  canker,  butter,  have  the  accent 
on  the  former  fyllable. 

6.  DifTyllable  verbs  terminating  in  a  confonant  and  e  final, 
as  comprije,  efcape ;  or  having  a  diphthong  in  tlie  laft  fyllable, 
as  appeafe,  reveal;  or  ending  in  two  confonants,  as  attend,  have 
the  accent  on  the  latter  fyllable. 

7.  DifTyllable  nouns  having  a  diphthong  in  the  latter  fyllable, 
have  commonly  their  accent  on  the  latter  fyllable,  as  applaufe  ; 
except  words  in  ain,  certain,  mountain, 

8.  TrifTyllables  formed  by  adding  a  termination,  or  prefixing 
a  fyllable,  retain  the  accent  of  the  radical  word,  as  lavelinefs, 
tendernefs,  contemner,  iKagonner,  phyfical,  befpatter,  commenting, 
commending,  ajjurance. 

9.  TrifTyllables  ending  in  ous,  as  gracious,  arduous  ;  in  al,  as 
capital ;  in  ion,  as  mention,  accent  the  firfl.  "1 

10.  TrifTyllables  ending  in  ce,  ent,  and  ate,  accent  the  firfl 
fyllable,  as  countenance,  continence,  armament,  imminent,  elegant, 
propagate,  except  they  be  derived  from  words  having  the  accent 
on  the  laft,  as  connivance,  acquaintance  ;  or  the  middle  fyllable 
hath  a  vowel  before  two  confonants,  as  promulgate. 

1 1.  TrifTyllables  ending  \ny,  as  entity,  fpecify,  liberty,  vtBory, 
fubfidy,  commonly  accent  the  firft  fyllable. 

1 2.  TrifTyllables  in  re  or  le  accent  the  firfl  fyllable,  as  legible, 
theatre  ;  except  difciple,  and  fome  words  which  have  a  pofuion, 
as  example,  tpifile, 

13.  TrifTyllables  in  ude  commonly  accent  the  firfl  fyllable,  as 

1 4.  TrifTyllables  ending  in  ator  or  atour,  as  creattur ;  or  hav- 
ing in  the  middle  fyllable  a  diphthong,  as  endeavour;  or 'a 
vowel  before  two  confonants,  as  domeflick,  accent  the  middle 

1 5 .  TrifTyllables  that  have  their  accent  on  the  laft  fyllable  arc 
commonly  French,  as  acquiefce,  repartee,  magazine  ;  or  words 
formed  by  prefixing  one  or  two  fyllables.  to  an  acute  fyllable,  as 
immature,  overcharge. 

16.  Polyfyllables,  or  words  of  n»re  than  three  fyllables,  fol- 
low the  accent  of  the  words  from  which  they  are  derived,  as 
arrogating,  continency ,  incontinently ,  commendable,  commiinicablenefs . 
We  fhould  therefore  fay  difputable,  indifputable,  rather  than  dif- 
putable,  indifputable ;  and  advertifement  rather  than  advertife~- 

17.  Words  in  ion  have  the  accent  upon  the  antepenult,  as 
falvation,  perturbation,  concoBion  ;  words  in  atour  or  ator  on  the 

penult,  as  dedicator. 

1 8.  Words  ending  in  le  commonly  have  the  acceat  on  the  firfl 
fyllable,  as  amicable,  unlefs  the  fecond  fyllable  have  a  vowel  be- 
fore two  confonants,  as  comb'ujlible. 

19.  Words  ending  in  ous  have  the  accent  on  the  antepenult, 
as  uxorious,  voluptuous. 

20.  Words  ending  in  ty  have  their  accent  on  the  antepenult, 
as  pujillanimity,  aBivity. 

Thefe  rules  arc  not  advanced  an  complete  or  infallible,  but  propofcd  as  ufefiiU 
Almoft  every  rule  of  every  language  hns  its  exceptions  ;  and  in  Erjglifh,  as  in 
other  tongues,  much  muft  be  learned  by  example  and  authority.  Perhaps  more 
and  better  rules  may  be  given  that  have  efcaped  my  obfervation. 

Versification  is  the  arrangement  of  a  certain  number  of 
f}llables  according  to  certain  laws. 

The  feet  of  our  verfes  are  either  iambiek,  as  al'ofty  create  ; 
or  trochaisk*  as  kHy,  lofty. 


A     GRAMMAR     OF     THE 

Our  lambick  meaTure  comprife*  verfes 


Mod  good,  moil  fair. 
Or  things  as  rare. 
To  call  you 's  loft ; 
For  all  the  coft 
Words  can  beftow. 
So  poorly  Ihow 
Upon  your  praifc. 
That  all  the  ways 
Senfc  hath,  come  ihort. 

Of  fix. 

With  ravilh'd  ears 
7^he  monarch  hears. 

This  while  we  are  abroad. 
Shall  we  not  touch  our  lyre  ? 

Shall  we  not  fing  an  ode  i 
Shall  that  holy  fire. 

In  us  that  ftrongly  glow'd. 
In  this  cold  air  expire  i 

Though  in  the  utmoffi  Peak 

A  while  we  do  remain. 
Among  the  mountains  bleak, 

Expos'd  to  fleet  and  r^in, 
No  fport  our  hours  fliall  break. 

To  exercife  our  vein.  ♦ 

What  though  bright  Phoebus'  beams 
Refrelh  the  fouthern  ground. 

And  though  the  princely  Thames 
With  beauteous  nymphs  aboundj 

And  by  old  Camber's  Itreams 
Be  many  wonders  found  : 

Yet  many  rivers  clear 

Here  glide  in  filver  fwathes. 

And  what  of  all  moft  dear, 
Buxton's  delicious  baths. 

Strong  ale  and  noble  chear, 

T'  affwage  breem  winter's  fcatlies. 

In  places  far  or  near. 

Or  famous,  or  obfcure. 
Where  wholfom  is  the  air. 

Or  where  the  moft  impure. 
All  times,  and  every  where. 

The  mufe  is  ilill  in  ure. 


A  thoufand  crannies  in  the  walls  vit  made  | 
Nor  gate  nor  bars  exclude  the  bufy  trade. 
'Tis  built  of  brafs,  the  better  to  diffufe 
The  fpreading  founds,  and  multiply  the  news  ; 
Where  echoes  in  repeated  echoes  play  : 
A  mart  for  ever  full ;  and  open  night  and  day. 
Nor  filence  is  within,  nor  voice  exprefs. 
But  a  deaf  noife  of  founds  that  never  ceafe ; 
Confus'd,  and  chiding,  like  the  hollow  roar 
Of  tides,  receding  from  th'  infulted  fliore: 
Or  like  the  broken  thunder,  heard  from  far. 
When  Jove  to  diftance  drives  the  rolling  war. 
The  courts  are  fill'd  with  a  tumultuous  din 
Of  crowds,  or  iifuing  forth,  or  ent'ring  in  : 
A  thorough-fare  of  news  ;  wheie  fome  devife 
Things  never  heard,  fome  mingle  truth  with  lies: 
The  troubled  air  with  empty  founds  they  beat. 
Intent  to  hear,  and  eager  to  repeat. 



Of  eight,  which  is  the  ufual  meafure  for  ftiort  poems. 
And  may  at  laft  my  weary  age 
Find  out  the  peaceful  hermitage. 
The  hairy  gown,  and  mofly  cell. 
Where  I  may  fit,  and  nightly  fpell 
Of  ev'ry  ftar  the  flcy  doth  (hew. 
And  ev'ry  herb  that  fips  the  dew.  Milton. 

Gf  ten,  which  is  the  common  meafure  of  heroick  and  tragick 

Full  in  the  midft  of  this  created  fpace, 

BctwiSct  hcav'n,  earth,  and  flties,  there  Hands  a  place 

Confining  on  all  three  ;  with  triple  bound ; 

Whence  all  things,  though  remote,  arc  view'd  around. 

And  thither  bring  their  undulating  found. 

The  palace  of  loud  Fame,  her  feat  of  pow'r, 

Plac'd  OD  thefummit  of  a  lofty  tow'r; 

A  thoufand  winding  entries  long  and  wide 

lUceive  of  frefii  reports  a  flowing  tide. 


In  all  thefe  meafures  the  accents  are  to  be  placed  on  even 
fyllables ;    and  every  line  confidcred  by  itfelf  is  more  harmo-* 
nious,  as  this  rule  is  more  Aridlly  obferved.     The  variations  ne- 
ceffary  to  pleafuxe  belong  to  the  art  of  poetry,  not  the  rules  of 

Our  trochaick  meafures  are 

Of  three  fyllables. 

Here  we  may 
Think  and  pray. 
Before  death 
Stops  our  breath : 
Other  joys 
Are  but  toys. 

Waltotfs  Angler. 

Of  five. 

In  the  days  of  old. 

Stories  plainly  told. 

Lovers  felt  annoy.  Old  Ballad. 

Of  feven, 

Faireft  piece  of  well-form'd  earth. 

Urge  not  thus  your  haughty  birth.  Waller. 

In  thefe  meafures  the  accent  is  to  be  placed  on  the  odd 

Thefe  are  the  meifures  which  are  now  in  ufe,  and  above  the  reft  thofe  of 
feven,  eight,  and  ten  fyllables.  Our  ancient  poets  wrote  verfes  fomctimet  ai 
twelve  fyllables,  as  Drayton's  Polyolbion, 

Of  III  the  Cambrian  (hires  their  heads  that  bear  fo  high. 
And  farth'ft  furvey  their  foils  with  an  ambitious  eye, 
Mervinia  for  her  hills,  as  for  their  matchlefs  crowd:i. 
The  ncareft  that  are  (aid  to  kifs  the  wand'ring  clouds, 
Efpecial  audience  craves,  oflcnded  with  the  tlirong^ 
That  Iheof  all  the  rcll  ncgleclcd  was  fo  long; 
Alleging  for  hcrfelf,  when  through  the  Saxon's  pride. 
The  godlike  race  of  Brute  to  Severn's  fctting  fide 
Were  cruelly  inforc'd,  her  mountains  did  relieve 
Thofe  vvlmm  devouring  war  clfc  every  where  did  grieve. 
And  when  all  Wales  befide  (by  fortune  or  by  might) 
Unto  her  ancient  foe  refign'd  her  ancient  right, 
A  conftant  maiden  ftill  (he  only  did  remain, 
The  laft  her  genuine  laws  which  ftoutly  did  retain. 
And  as  each  one  is  prais'd  for  her  peculfar  things. 
So  only  (he  is  rich  in  mountains,  meres,  and  fprings  ; 
And  holds  hcrfelf  as  great  in  her  fuperfluous  uafte. 
As  others  by  their  towns  and  fruitful  tillage  grac'd. 

And  of  fourteen,  as  Chapman's  Homer. 

And  as  the  mind  of  fuch  a  man,  that  hath  a  long  way  gone. 
And  either  Icnowcth  not  his  way,  or  ell'c  would  let  aloac 
His  purpos'd  journey,  is  diftract. 

The  meafures  of  twelve  and  fourteen  fyllables  were  often  mi>gleJ  by  out 
old  poets,  fomcumcs  iu  alternate  lUcs,  and  lometimcs  ijt  altciaatc  cuuplcu. 
'  The 


Th«  »erfe  »f  tvwtre  fylUblM,  citlci  an  Altxandrine,  it  now  only  ufe4   to 
iiiaif-j  heroick  lines. 

Waller  was  fmooth,  but  Dr/den  taught  to  joi« 

The  varying  verfc,  the  full-refounding  line, 

7hi  lung  maj'f-ic  murcb,  and  cncr^  Jivine.  Pif' 

The  paufe  in  the  Alcxaajrine  m»ft  be  at  the  iixth  fyllable. 

The  verfe  of  fourteen  fyllables  is  now  broken  into  a  foft  lyrick  meafun  of 
«rfo  conliiling  alternately  of  eight  fyllables  and  fix. 

fi.      i 

She  to  receive  thy  radiant  name» 
Selects  a  whiter  fpace. 

When  all  (hall  praife,  and  ev'ry  hj 

Devote  a  wreath  to  thee. 
That  day,  for  come  it  will,  that  day 

Shall  I  lament  to  fee. 

Beneath  t!>i>  tnmb  an  'infant  liet 

To  earth  whofe  body  lent. 
Hereafter  (hall  more  glorious  rife. 

But  not  more  innocent. 
When  the  Archangel's  trump  (hall  bI•^r» 

And  fouls  to  bodies  join. 
What  crowds  thall  wilb  their  lives  below 

Had  been  as  jhort  as  thine  I 


liwit  U  Ft^' 



We  have  another  roeifure  very  quick  and  lively,  and  therefore  much  ufcd 
in  fongj,  which  may  be  called  the  atutftfiick,  in  which  the  accent  refts  upon 
every  third  fyllable. 

May  I  govern  my  paiTione  with  ab&Iute  f»'ay. 

And  grow  wiiiir  and  i)cBer  as  lile  wear&  away..  Dr.  Popi^ 

!■  this  meafure  a  fyllable  is  often  retrenched  from  the  firft  foot,  as 

Diogenes  furly  and  proud.  Dr.  Pafu 

When  prefent  we  love,  and  when  abfent  agrcCj. 

I  think  not  of  I'ris,  nor  I'ris  of  mc.  DryJen. 

Thefe  meafares  are  varied  by  many  combinations,  and  fometimes  by  double 
tS(!jngS|  either  with  w  without  rhyme,  as  in  the  heroick  meafure^ 

'Tij  the  Divinity  that  ftirs  •within  ut, 

Tis  Heav'n  itfelf  that  points  out  an  htritfitrf 

And  intimates  eternity  to  roan.  AUifoiit- 

So  ra  that  of  eight  fyllables, 

'  They  neither  added  nor  confounded. 

They  neither  wanted  nor  abounded..  Fritit^ 

In  that  of  (even, 

For  refiftsnce  I  could  fear  none. 

But  with  twenty  ihips  ha^  dtme. 
What  thou,  brave  and  happy  Vernon» 

H«ft  atchiev'd  with  fix  alone.  Gtmtr, 

In  that  of  fix, 

'Tv;as  when  the  feas  were  roaring* 

With  hollow  blafts  of  wind, 
A  damfel  lay  deploring, 

AH  en  a  rock  reclin'd.  <»<jyv 

la  the  aaapeftick,. 

When  terrible  tempefts  alTail  us. 
And  mountainous  billows  affright,. 
-^  Nor  grandeur  or  wealth  can  avail  us. 

But  flciiful  induftry  fleers  right.  Bj/W» 

To  tbefe  meofures,  and  their  laws,  may  be  reduced  every  fjiecles  of  Sogllfik 
verfe.  i 

Our  verfification  admits  of  few  licences,,  except  tsi.  fynaloepha^ 
or  elifion  of  t  in  the  before  a  vowel,,  as  r/j'  eternal ;  and  more 
rarely  of  o  in  to,  as  r'  accept ;  and  a  fyntrrejis,  by  which  two- 
fhort  vowels  coalefce  into  one  fyllable,  as  quefiion,  fpecial  \  or  a. 
word  is  contrafted  by  the  expulfion,  of  a  Ihort  vowel  before  a  li- 
quid, as  anPrUtr  temf'rance.. 

Thus  have  I  collected  rules  and  examples,. by  which  the  Englifli  language 
may  be  learned,  if  the  reader  be  already  acquainted  with  grammatical  terms, 
or  caught  by  a  mailer  to  thofe  that  arc  more  ignorant.  To  have  written  a 
grammar  for  fuch  as  are  not  yet  initiated  ux  the  I'clwols,  would  have  been  te> 
diouS)  and  peilufs  at  lall  iacfitftual* 



TO      THE 


MA  N  Y  are  the  works  of  human  induftry,  which  to  begin  and  finifli  are  hardly  granted  to 
the  fame  man.  He  that  undertakes  to  compile  a  Didionary,  undertakes  that,  which,  if  it 
comprehends  the  full  extent  of  his  defign,  he  knows  himfelf  unable  to  perform.  Yet  his  labours, 
though  deficient,  may  be  ufeful,  and  with  the  hope  of  this  inferior  praife,  he  muft  incite  his  a(5tivity,^ 
and  folace  his  wearincfs. 

Perfection  is  unattainable,  but  nearer  and  nearer  approaches  may  be  made  ;  and  finding  my  Dic- 
tionary about  to  be  reprinted,  I  have  endeavoured,  by  a  revifal,  to  make  it  lefs  reprehenfible.  I  will 
not  deny  that  1  found  many  parts  requiring  emendation,  and  many  more  capable  of  improvement. 
Many  faults  I  have  correfted,  fome  fuperfluities  I  have  taken  away,  and  fome  deficiencies  I  have 
fupplied.  I  have  methodifed  fome  parts  that  were  difordered,  and  illuminated  fome  that  were  obfcure. 
Yet  the  changes  or  additions  bear  a  very  fmall  proportion  to  the  whole.  The  critick  will  now  have 
lefs  to  objeft,  but  the  ftudent  who  has  bought  any  of  the  former  copies  needs  not  repent  j  he  will 
not,  without  nice  collation,  perceive  how  they  differ  j  and  ufefulnels  feldom  depends  upon  little 

For  negligence  or  deficience,  I  have  perhaps  not  need  of  more  apology  than  the  nature  of  the  work 
will  furnifh :  I  have  left  that  inaccurate  which  never  was  made  exadt,  and  that  imperfeft  which  never 
was  completed. 

A    D  I  C- 


OF     THE 


A  The  firft  letter  of  the  European 
alphabets,  has,  in  the  Englifti 
^  language,  three  different  tounds, 
which  may  be  termed  the  broad,  open, 
and  (lender. 

The  broad  found,  refembling  that  of 
the  German  a,  is  found  in  many  of  our 
monofyllables,  as  all.  wall,  malt, /alt,  in 
which  a  is  pronounced  as  au  in  cau/e,  or 
aiv  in  lazv.     Many  of  thefe  words  were 
anciently   written    with    au,   as   fault, 
I'jauli ;  which  happens  to  be  ftill  retained 
\r\  fault.    This  was  probably  the  ancient 
found  of  the  Saxons,  fmce  it  is  almoft 
uniformly  preferred  in  the  ruflic  pro 
nunciation,  and  the  Northern  dialefts, 
as  maun  for  man,  haund  for  hand. 
A  open,  not  unlike  the  a  of  the  Italians, 
is    found  in  father,  rather,    and   more 
obfcurely  \n  fancy,  fafi,  &c. 
A  (lender  or  clofe,  is  the  peculiar  a  of  the 
Englifh  language,  refembling  the  found 
of  the  French  e  mafculine,  or  diphthong 
ai  in  pais,  or  perhaps  a  middle  found 
between  them,  or  between  the  a  and  e ; 
to  this  the  Arabic  a  is  faid  nearly  to  ap- 
proach.    Of  this  found  we  have  exam- 
ples in  the  wor^i, place,  face,  luajle,  and 
all  thofe  that  terminate  in  ation  ;  as  re- 
lation, nation,  generation. 
A  is  (hort,  as,  glafs,  grafs  ;  or  long,  as, 
glaze,  graze:  it  is  raarlted  long,  gene- 
rally, by  an  e  final,  plane,  or  by  an  / 
added,  as  plaia.     The  ihort  a  is  open, 
the  long  a  clofe. 
1.  A,  an  article  fet  before  nouns  of  the 
fingular  number;  a  man,  a  tree  ;  de- 
noting the  number  one,  as,   a  man   is 
coming,  that  is,  no  more  than  one  ;  or  an 
indefinite  indication,    as,   a  man  may 
come  this  way,  that  is,  any  man.     This 
article  has  no  plural  (ignification.     Be- 
fore a  word  beginning  with  a  vowel,  it 
is  written  an,  as,   an  ox,   an  egg,  of 
which  a  is  the  contraction. 
Vol.  I. 

2.  A,  taken  materially,  or  for  itfelf,  is  a 
noun  ;  as,  a  great  A,  a  little  a. 

3.  A  is  placed  before  a  participle,  or  par- 
ticipial noun  ;  and  is  confidered  by 
Wallis  as  a  contraction  of  at,  when  it 
is  put  before  a  word  denoting  fome  aftion 
not  yet  finilhed  ;  ls,  I  am  a  walking. 
It  alio  feeras  to  be  anciently  contrafted 
from  at,  when  pl.-.ced  before  local  fur- 
names  ;  as,  Thomas  a  Becket.  In  other 
cafes,  it  feems  to  fignify  to,  like  the 
French  a. 

/i  hunting  Chloe  went.  Trkr. 

They  go  a  brgging  to  a  bankrupt's  door.    Dryi!in. 

May  peace  Hill  llumbcr  by  thcfs  purling  foun- 
tains ! 
Which  we  may  every  year 
Find  when  we  come  a  fifliing  here.  IfDiUn. 

Now  the  men  fell  a  rubbing  of  armour,  which 
a  great  while  had  lain  oiled.  IVcticn. 

He  will  knap  the  fpears  a  pieces  with  his  teeth. 
M-.rc't  Antid.  Athm. 

Another  falls  a  ringing  a  Pefcennius  Niger,  and 
judicioufly  diftinguiihes  the  found  of  it  to  be 
modern.  AJJifin  on  Midah. 

4.  A  has  a  peculiar  fignification,  denoting 
the  proportion  of  one  thing  to  another. 
Thus  we  fay.  The  landlord  hath  a  hun- 
dred a  year  ;  The  (hip's  crew  gained  a 
thoufand  pounds  a  man. 

The  river  Inn  paflcs  through  a  wide  open  coun- 
try, during  all  its  courfe  through  Bavaria  ;  which 
is  a  voyage  of  two  days,  after  the  rate  of  twenty 
leagues  a  day.  Addijin  on  Italy. 

5.  A  is  ufed  in  burlefque  poetry,  to  lengthen 
out  a  fyllable,  without  adding  to  the 

For  cloves  and  nutmegs  to  the  line-u, 
And  even  for  oranges  to  China.  Vryden. 

6.  A  is  fometimes,  in  familiar  writings, 
put  by  a  barbarous  corruption  for  he; 
as,  will  a  come,  for  will  he  come. 

7.  A,  in  compofition,  fecms  to  have  fome- 
times the  power  of  the  French  «  in  thefe 
phrafes,  a  droit,  a  gauche,  Sic.  and  iome- 
timet  to  be  contracted  from  at ;  as,  afde, 
uflope,  afoot,  ajleep,  athirjl,  aiuare. 


I  'gin  to  be  a  viiary  of  the  fun ; 
And  wifh  the  ftate  of  tli'  world  were  now  undone. 
Sbakefpearet  Miicbetb, 

And  now  a  breeze  from  (hore  began  to  blow. 
The  Tailors  (hip  their  oars,  and  ccufe  to  row  ; 
Then  hoift  their  yards  a-tr'p,  and  all  their  fails 
Let  fall,  to  court  the  wind,  and  catch  the  gales. 

Drydcn'i  Ceyx  and  A/cjmi, 

A  little  houfe  with  trees  a  row. 
And,  like  its  maftcr,  very  low.  I'lfe,  Hor, 

8.  A  is  fometimes  redundant ;  as,  arife, 
aroufe,  a-wake ;  the  fame  with  rife,  roufe, 

9.  A,  in  abbreviations,  (lands  for  artium, 
or  arts ;  as,  A.  B.  batchelor  of  arts,  ar- 
tium haccalaureus  ;  A.  M.  mailer  of  arts, 
artium  magifier  ;  or,  anno  ;  as,  A.  D. 
anno  domini. 

AB,  at  the  beginning  of  the  names  of 
places,  generally  (hews  that  they  have 
fome  relation  to  an  abbey,  as  Abingdon. 


Aba'cke.  adv.  [from  lack.'\  Backwards. 

But  when  they  came  where  thou  thy  (kill  didit 
They  drew  abacke,  as  half  with  (hame  confound. 

S/ievJ.  Pafl. 

ABACTOR,  n.f.  [Latin.]  One  who  drives 
away  or  fteals  cattle  in  herds,  or  great 
numbers  at  once,  in  didindlion  from 
thofe  that  ileal  only  a  (heep  or  two. 


A'BACUS.  n.f.  [Latin.]  _ 

1.  A  counting- table,  anciently  ufed  ia 
calculations.  ' 

2.  [In  architecture.]  The  uppermoU mem- 
ber of  a  column,  which  ferves  as  a  fort 
of  crowning  both  to  the  capital  and  co- 
lumn. Dm. 

Aba'ft.  adv.  [of  abapran.  Sax.  behind.] 
From  the  fore-part  of  the  (liip,  towards 
the  llern.  Dia. 

Abm'sance.  n.f.  [from  the  French  abai.. 
fer,  to  deprcfs,  to  bring  down.]  An  aCl 
of  reverence,  a  bow.  Obeyfance  is  con- 
fidered by  Skinner  as  a  corruption  bf 
ahaifame,  but  is  now  univcrl'ally  uled. 
B  1* 




To  ABA'LIENATE.  -v.  a.  [from  aiallene, 
Lat.]  To  make  that  another's  which 
was  our  own  before.  A  term  of  the  civil 
Jaw,  not  much  ufed  in  common  fpeech. 

Abalien a'tiox.  n.f.  [Lat.  abalicnaiio.'] 
The  afl  of  giving  up  one's  right  to  ano- 
ther perfon  ;  or  a  making  over  an  eftatc, 
goods,  or  chattels  by  fal«,  or  due  coiirfc 
oflaw.  Dia. 

To  Aba'nd.  v.  a.  [A  word  con  traced  from 
abandon,  but  not  now  in  uie.  See  A- 
BANDON.]    To  forfalce. 

Thi  y  ftr :>nger  arc 
Than  they  which   fought   at  firft   their  helping 

Mai  Vortiger  enforced  the  kingdom  to  abatiet, 

Sftnftr'i  Fairy  Sheen,  h.  li.  cuu.  to. 

To  ABA'NDON.  -v.  a.  [Fr.  abandonner. 
Deriv«d,  according  to  Menage,  from  the 
Italian  abandonare,  which  fignifies  to 
forfake  his  colours  ;  bandum  ['vexillum] 
deferere.  /"a/^a/Vr  thinks  it  a  coalition  of" 
a  ban  donner,  to  give  up  to  a  profcription  ; 
in  which  fenfe  we,  at  this  day,  mention 
the  ban  of  the  empire.  Ban,  in  our 
own  old  dialed,  fignifies  a  curfe  ;  and 
to  a^aWoa,  if  confidered  as  compounded 
between  French  and  Saxon,  is  exaftly 
equivalent  to  diris  de-Tjcuere.'] 

I.  To  give  up,  refign,  or  quit ;  often  fol- 
lowed bv  the  particle  to. 

]f  Jhe  be  fo  ahand'jn'd  to  her  forrow, 
Ac  iti*  fpokc,  file  never  will  admir  me. 

Shah/j>.  -Tivtlfth  Night. 

The-  paflive  gods  behold  the  Greeks  defile 
Their  temples,  and  abandon  to  the  fpoll 
Their  own  abodes ;  wc,  feeble  few,  confpire 
To  fave  a  finking  town,  involv'd  in  ftre. 

Dryil.  j^miJ. 

Who  is  he  fo  ahatidomd  re  fottifli  credulity,  as 
to  think,  that  a  clod  of  earth  in  a  fick,  may  ever, 
fay  eternal  ihaking,  receive  the  fabric  of  man's 
body  ?  Bcmley'i  Sermom. 

Muft  he,  whofe  altars  on  the  Phrygian  (hore. 
With  frequent  rites,  and  pure,  avow'd  thy  pow'r, 
Be  doom'd  the  worft  of  human  ills  to  prove, 
Unblefs'd,  abaxdon'd  to  the  wrath  of  Jove  ? 

Pofi't  Odyjfty,  h.  i.  1.  80. 

^.  To  defert ;  to  forfake  :  in  an  ill  fenfe. 

The  princes  ufing  the  palTions  of  fearing  evil, 
and  defiring  to  efcape,  only  to  ferve  the  rvile  of 
virtue,  not  to  abandon  one's  felf,  leapt  to  a  rib  of 
the  (hip.  Sidney,  b.  ii. 

Seeing  the  hurt  flag  alone, 
I<eft  and  abandoned  of  his  velvet  friends, 
'Tis  right,  quoth  he  ;  thus  mifery  doth  part 
The  flux  of  company.  Shakifp.  As  you  lih  it. 

What  face  a  wretched  fugitive  attends, 
Scom'd  by  my  foes,  abandoned  by  my  friends. 

Dryd.  jUneid,  2. 

But  to  the  partisg  goddcfs  thus  (he  pray'd  j 
Propitious  dill  be  prcfcnt  to  my  aid. 
Nor  quite  abandon  your  oncc-favour'd  maid. 

Dryd.  Fab. 

3.  To  forfake,  to  leave. 

He  boldly  fpakc,  Sir  knight,  if  knight  thou  be, 
.Abandon  this  Ibreflalled  place  at  crft, 
For  fear  of  further  harm,  1  ccunfel  thee. 

Sfenfer'i  Fairy  Sunn,  b.  ii.  eant.  ^.  Jlanx.  39. 

Te  ABANDON  OVER.  11.  fl.  [a  fomi  of  wri- 
ting not  ufual,  perhaps  not  exacl.]  To 
give  up  to,  to  refign. 

Look  on  me  as  a  man  abandon  d  o'er 
To  an  eternal  lethargy  of  love  ; 
To  puU,  and  pinch,  and  wound  me,  cannot  cure, 
And  but  diAurb  the  quiet  of  my  death. 

Dryd.  Sp.  Friar. 

Aba'nooned.  farticip.  adj.  Corrupted 
in  the  higheil  degree ;  as,  an  abandoned 
%vretch.    In  this  fenfe,  it  is  a  contradion 

of  a  longer  form,  abandoned  [given  up] 
to  wickednefs. 

Aba'ndoninc.  [A  verbal  noun  from 
abandon.]  Defertion,  forfaking. 

He  hop'd  his  paft  meritorious  ailions  might  out- 
weigh his  prcfent  abandoning  the  thought  of  future 
action.  Clarend.  b.  viii. 

Ab  a'k  [abajtdoanement  ,Ft .] 

1.  The  aft  of  abandoning. 

2.  The  ftate  of  being  abandoned.       Dia. 
Abanni'tiOn.  n./.   [LblZ.  aiannitio.]   A 

banifhment  for  one  or  two  years,  for 
manflaughter.     Obfolete.  Dia. 

Te  Aba're.  1/.  a.  [abajiian.  Sax.]  Tomake 
bare,  uncover,  or  difclofe.  Dia. 

Ab  ARTicutA'TiON.«.y;  [from  ab,  from, 
and  articulus,  a  joint,  Lat.]  A  good  and 
apt  conftruftion  of  the  bones,  by  which 
they  move  ftrongly  and  eafily  ;  or  that 
fpecies  of  articulation  that  has  manifeft 
motion.  Dta. 

To  Aba'se.  1).  a.  [Fr.  abaijfer,  from  the 
Lat.  hajis,  or  bajfus,  a  b.arbarous  word, 
fignifying  low,  bafe.] 

1.  "To  deprefs,  to  lower. 

It  is  a  point  of  cunning  to  wait  upon  him  with 
whom  you  fpeak  with  your  eye;  yet  with  a  demure 
abajing  of  it  fomctimes.  ,  Baccn. 

2.  To  caft  down,  to  deprefs,  to  brijig  low  ; 
in  a  figurative  and  perfonal  fenfe,  which 
is  the  common  ufe. 

Hjppy  Ihephcid,  to  the  gods  be  thankful,  that 
to  thy  advancement  their  wlfdoms  have  thceabajcd. 

Sidney,  b,  \. 
Behold  every  one  that  is  proud,  and  abiije  him. 

'Job,  xl.  II. 
With  unrefiftcd  might  the  monarch  reigns; 
He  levels  mountains,  and  he  raifes  plains  j 
And,  not  regarding  difl'rence  of  degree, 
jit>as'd  your  daughter,  and  exalted  me. 

Dryd.  Fables. 

If  the  mind  be  curbed  and  humbled  too  much 

in  children  ;  if  their  fpirlts  be  ahafed  and  broken 

much  by  too  ftrlit  an  hand  over  them  ;  they  lofe 

all  their  vigour  and  induftry. 

Loekt  on  Education,  §  46. 

Aba's  ED.  adj.  [with  heralds]  a  term  ufed 
of  the  wings  of  eagles,  when  the  top 
looks  downwards  towards  the  point  of  the 
ftiield  ;  or  when  the  wings  are  ftiut ;  the 
natural  way  of  bearing  them  beingfpread 
with  the  top  pointing  to  the  chief  of  the 
angle.  Bailey.  Chambers. 

Aba'sement.  n.f.  The  ftate  of  being 
brought  low  ;  the  aft  of  bringing  low  ; 

There  is  an  abafenunt  becaufe  of  glory ;    and 
there  is  tliat  lifteth  up  his  head  from  a  low  cftate. 
EccUfijJlicus,  XX.  II. 

7ff  Aba'sh.  ni.  a.  [See  Bashful.  Per- 
haps from  abaiffer,  French.] 

1.  To  put  into  confufion  ;  to  make  afha- 
med.  It  generally  implies  a  fudden 
impreflion  of  Ihame. 

They  heard,  and  were  abap'd. 

Milton's  Paradife  Loft,  b,  !,  /.  3  ji. 
This  heard,  th'  imperious  queen  fat  mute  with 
Nor  further  dur(l  incenfc  the  gloomy  thunderer. 
Silence  was  in  the  court  at  this  rebuke  : 
Nor  could  the  g'^ds,  abajb'd,  fullain  their  fove- 
reign's  look.  Dryden's  Fables. 

2.  The  paflive  admits  the  particle  at,  fomc- 
times of,  before  the  caufal  noun. 

1  n  no  wile  (peak  againft  the  truth,  but  be  abnjhed 
of  the  error  of  thy  ignorance.  Ecclui.  iv.  25. 

I  faid  unto  her,  From  whence  is  this  kid  ?  Is 
it  not  ftolen  ?   But  (be  replied  u^on  nic,  it  was 

liven  fm  >  gift,  more  than  the  wagtji  however^ 
I  did  not  believe  her,  and  1  was  aba/b.-d at  lier. 

iob.  ii.  13,  i^ 
In  the  ad-nirrtion  only  of  weak  minds 
Led  captive  :  ccafc  t"  admire,  and  all  her  plumct 
Fall  Hat,  and  (ink  into  a  trivial  toy. 
At  every  fudden  flighting  quite  abdjht. 

Mtlti.n's  Paradife  Ltji,  b.  ii.  /.  223. 
The  little  Cupiils  hov'ring  round, 
(As  pictures  prove)  with  garlands  crown'd, 
MaJIj'd  at  what  tbey  faw  and  heard, 
Ficw  off,  nor  ever  more  appcar'd. 

Sliift's  Mifcillariil, 

To  AB  A'TE.  V.  a.  [from  the  French  abba- 
ire,  to  beat  down.] 

1.  To  leffen,  to  diminifli. 

Who  can  tell  whether  tlie  divine  wifdoni,  to 
abate  the  glory  of  thoft  kings,  did  not  rcfcrve  this 
wo;k  to  be  done  by  a* queen,  that  it  might  appear 
to  be  his  own  immediate  work? 

Sir  John  Da'vies  on  Ireland^ 
If  you  did  know  to  whom  1  gave  the  ring. 
And  how  unwillingly  I  left  the  ring, 
.You  would  abate  the  ftreogth  of  your  difpleafure. 


Here  we  fee  the  hopes  of  great  benefit  and  light 

from  expofitors  and  commentators,  are  in  a  great 

part  abated;  and  thofe  who  have  moft  need  of  their 

help,  can  receive  but  little  from  them. 

Luke's  EJfay  on  St.  Paul's  Ef'JiUi. 

2.  To  dejeft,  or  deprefs  the  mind. 

This  iron  world 
Brings  down  the  llouteft  hearts  to  loweft  ftate : 
For  mifery  doth  braveft  m'indi  abate. 

Spenf.  Hubbird's  Tale. 
Have  the  power  ftiJl 
To  hani(h  your  defenders,  till  at  length 
Your  ignorance  deliver  you. 
As  moft  abated  captives  to  fome  nation 
That  won  you  without  blows  ! 

Sbatefpeare's  Coriolanus, 
Time,  that  changes  all,  yet  changes  us  in  vain. 
The  body,  not  the  mind  ;  nor  can  controul 
Th'  immortal  vigour,  or  abati  the  foul. 

Dryd.  ^ne'id, 

3.  In  commerce,  to  let  down  the  price  in 
felling,  fometimes  to  beat  down  the  price 
in  buying. 

To  Aba'te.  'V.  »; 

1.  To  grow  lefs  ;  as,  his  paflion  abates; 
the  ftorm  abates.  It  is  ufed  fometimes 
with  the  particle  of  before  the  thing 

Our  phyficians  have  obfcrved,  that  in  procefs  of 
time,  fome  difeafes  have  abiitidcfx.)\t\r  virulence, 
and  have,  in  a  manner,  worn  out  their  malignity, 
io  as  to  be  no  longer  mortal. 

Dryden's  Hind  and  Panther, 

2.  [In  common  law.] 

It  is  in  law  ufed  both  aftively  and  neuterly ;  as, 
to  abate  a  catlie,  to  beat  it  down.  To  ithate  a  writ, 
is,  by  fome  exception,  to  defeat  or  overthrow  it, 
A  ftranger  abatetb,  that  is,  entereth  upon  a  houfe 
or  land  void  by  the  death  of  him  that  laft  pon(:(red 
it,  before  the  heir  take  his  po(rcl1ian,  and  fo  keep- 
eth  him  out.  Wherefore,  as  he  that  putteth  out 
him  in  pofTelTinn,  is  faid  to  dilTelfe  :  fo  he  that 
fteppcth  in  between  the  former  pofTefTor  and  hi» 
heir  is  faid  to  abate.  In  '.he  neuter  fignlfication 
thus ;  The  writ  of  the  d  niandment  ihail  abate,  that 
is,  (hall  be  difabled,  fruftrated,  or  overthrown.  The 
appeal  ahateih  by  covin,  that  is,  that  the  accuO- 
tion  is  defeated  by  deceit.  CoiueU 

3.  [In  horfemanlhip.]  A  horfe  is  faid  to 
abate  or  take  down  his  curvets ;  when 
working  upon  curvets,'  he  puts  his  two 
hind  legs  to  the  ground  both  at  once, 
and  obfervcs  the  fame  exaftnefs  in  all 
the  times.  Dia, 

Aba'tement.  n.f.  \abatemcnt,^'c.'\ 
I.  The  aft  of  abating  or  leflening. 

Xenophon  tells  us,  that  the  city  contained  about 
ten  theuXond  houfes,  and  ^wing  one  saaa  to  every 




A  B  D 

houfc,  who  could  have  any  (hare  in  the  jorern- 
ment  (the  reft  coniiliing  of  women,  children,  and 
.  lervants},  and  making  orher  obvious  abatements^ 
thcfc  tyrants,  it"  they  had  been  careful  to  adhere 
together,  might  have  been  a  majority  even  of  the 
people  colle^ive. 

Sviift  on  tbe  Ctnteji  ofAthem  and  Romg' 

2.  The  ftate  of  being  abated. 

ColTee  has,  in  common  with  all  nuts,  an  oil 
ftrongly  combined  and  entangled  with  earthy  par- 
ticles. The  moft  noxious  part  of  oil  exhales  in 
roafting,  to  the  aiatemtnt  of  near  one  quarter  of  its 
weight.  Arhuthnct  on  Al'tmcrts. 

3 .  The  fum  or  quantity  taken  away  by  the 
aft  of  abating. 

The  law  of  works  is  that  Ijw,  which  requires 
pcrfefl  obedience,  without  rcmiflion  or  abatement^ 
fo  that,  by  thatlav,-,  a  man  cannot  be  juft,  or  jufti- 
6ed,  without  an  cxa3  performance  of  ever)'  tittle. 


4.  The  caufe  of  abating;  extenuation. 

As  our  advantages  towards  pradt^fing  and  pro- 
moting piety  and  virtue  were  greater  than  thofe  ot 
other  men;  fo  will  our  eicufe  be  lefs,  if  weneglcil 
to  make  ufe  of  them.  We  cannr't  plead  in  abate- 
ment of  our  guilt,  that  we  were  ignnrant  of  our 
duty,  under  the  prepolfefiion  of  ill  habits,  and  the 
bias  of  a  wrong  education.        Atterbury^sSermcm, 

5.  [Inlaw.]  The  ad  of  the  abator ;  as,  the 
abatement  of  t\\e  heir  into  the  land  before 
he  hath  agreed  with  the  lord.     The  af- 

,  feftion  or  paflion  of  the  thing  abated  ; 
Tis,  abatement  of  ihe  ■wnx..  Ctnve/. 

6.  [With  heralds.]  An  accidental  mark, 
which  being  added  to  a  coat  of  arms, 
the  dignity  of  it  is  abafed,  by  reafon  of 
fome  Ilain  or  dilhonourable  quality  of 
the  bearer.  />.<2. 

Aba'ter.  n./.  The  agent  or  caufe  by 
which  an  abatement  is  procured  ;  that 
by  which  any  thing  is  leffened. 

Abaters  of  acrimony  or  fliarpnefs,  arc  exprciled 
oils    of  ripe  vegetables,  and    all    preparations  of 
fucb  ;  as  of  almonds,  pillachocs,  and  ether  nuts. 
A'butbnot  on  Diet, 

Aba'tor.  n./.  [a  law  term.]  One  who 
intrudes  into  houfes  or  land,  void  by  the 
death  of  the  former  poffeflbr,  and  yet 
not  entered  upon  or  taken  up  by  his 
heir.  Di^. 

A'batude.  n.y;  [old  records.]  Anything 
dtminifhed.  Bailey. 

A'bature.  It./,  [from  aiatre,  French.] 
Thofe  fprigi  of  grafs  which  are  thrown 
down  by  a  ttag  irf  his  pafiing  by.     Dia. 

Abb.  «./.  The  yarn  on  a  weaver's  warp  ; 
a  terra  among  clothiers.  Chambers. 

ABB  J.  n.f.  [Heb.  ns]  A  Syriac  word, 
which  f\^n\fic% father . 

A'bqacv. /;./.  \LzX.  ahbatla.'\  The  rights 
or  privileges  of  an  abbot.    See  Abbey. 

According  to  Fctiuu>,  an  abbacy  is  tlie  iiignity 
itfclf,  fincc  an  abbot  ia  a  term  ( r  word  of  dignity, 
and  not  of  ofSce ;  and,  therefore,  even  i  fecular 
perfon,  who  has  the  cue  of  fouls,  is  fometimes, 
iR  the  canon  law,  alf  >  ftiled  an  abbot. 

^>7'j?='j  Parcrgitt  'jitrh  Canonhi. 

A'bbess.«./  [Lat..  aibali//b,  from  whence 
the  Saxon  abubij-yi;,  then  probably  ab- 
hatefs,  and  by  contrafticn  abheffe  in  Fr. 
and  abbej'i,  Eng.]  The  fuperiour  or  go- 
verncfs  of  a  nunnery  or  monaflery  of 

They  fled 
Into  this  al  bey,  whither  we  purfued  them  ; 
JVnd  here  the  abhejs  Ihuts  tbe  gate  on  us. 
And  will  not  fuffer  us  to  fetch  him  out. 

Shaltf.  Con.  ofErrtri. 

I  hive  a  filter,  aibcfs  in  Terceraf, 
Who  loft  her  lover  on  her  bridal-day. 

DiyJ.  D.  Sebajl. 
Conftantia,  as  foon  as  the  folemnities  of  her  re- 
ception were  over,  retired  with  the  abbefs  into  h?i 
own  apartment.  Adii'.jon. 

A'bbey,  or  Abby.  n.f.  [Lat.  abbatia; 
from  whence  probably  firft  Abbacy; 
which  fee.]  A  monaftery  of  religious 
perfons,  whetlier  men  or  women  ;  dif- 
tinguifhed  from  religious  houfes  of  other 
denominations  by  larger  privileges.  See 

With  eafy  roads  he  came  to  Leicefler ; 
Lodg'd  in  the  abbey,  where  the  reverend  abbot, 
Y^ithall  his  convent,  honourably  receivM  him. 


A'bbey- -Lubber,  n.f.  [See  Lubber.] 
A  flothful  loiterer  in  a  religious  houfe, 
under  pretence  of  retirement  and  aufte- 

This  is  no  Father  Dominic,  no  huge  overgrown 
abbey-lubber  \  this  is  but  a  diminutive  fucking 
f'iar.  '  DryH.  Sp.  fr. 

A'BBOT.  H.f.  [in  the  lower  Latin  abbas, 
from  i»  father,  which  fenfe  was  Hill 
implied  ;  fo  that  the  abbots  were  called 
patres,  and  abbefles  matres  monajicrii. 
Thus  Fortunatus  to  the  abbot  Paternus  : 
Namitiis  cffieiumjure.  Paterae, geris.'j  The 
chief  of  a  convent,  or  fellowfliip  of  ca- 
nons. Of  thefe,  fome  in  England  were 
mitred,  fome  not :  thofe  that  were  mi- 
tred, were  exempted  from  the  jurildic- 
tion  of  the  diocefan,  having  in  them- 
felves  epifcopal  authority  within  their 
precinfts,  and  being  alfo  lords  of  parlia- 
ment. The  oth/r  fort  were  fubjcft  to 
the  diocefan  in  all  fpiritual  government. 

See  Abbey. 

A'bbotship.  n.f.  The  ftate  or  privilege 
of  an  abbot.  Did. 

To  ABBRE'VIATE.  v.  a.  [Lat.  abbre- 
1)1  are.^ 

1.  To  Ihorten  by  contraftion  of  parts  with- 
out lofs  of  the  main  fubilance ;  to  abridge. 

It  is  one  thing  to  abbreviate  by  contradllng,  an- 
other by  cutting  off.  Baccn,  FJJay  26. 

The  only  invenfion  of  late  years,  which  hath 
contributed  towards  polirenefs  in  difcnurfc,  is  that 
of  abbreviating  or  reducing  words  of  many  fyllablei 
into  one,  by  lopping  ofF  tl.c  reft.  Sieift. 

2.  To  fliortcn,  to  cut  fliort. 

Set  the  rtrength  of  their  days  before  the  flood  j 
which  were  aibreviatej  after,  and  contracted  into 
hundreds  and  threefcores. 

Bro^vn'i  Vulvar  Ernun,  b.  vi.  e.  6. 
.Abersvi  a'tion.  n.f.   ~ 

1.  The  aft  of  abbreviating. 

2.  The  means  ufed  to  abbreviate,  as  cha- 
rafters  fignifying  whole  words  ;  words 

Such  is  the  propriety  and  energy  in  them  all, 
that  they  never  can  be  chang(:d,  but  to  difadvan- 
fage,  except  in  the  circumftance  of  ufing  albrevia- 
t'ont.  Swi/i. 

Abbrevia'tor.  n.f,  [abbre-viateur,Fr.] 
One  who  abbreviates,  or  abridges. 

.A,-!Ek.e'vi ATURE.  n.  f  [abbrevialura. 

1.  A  mark  ufed  for  the  fake  of  (hortening. 

2.  A  compendium  or  abridgment. 

Ht!  is  a  good  man,  who  grieves  ra.her  lor  him 
that  injures  him,  tlun  f^r  hii  own  fuffering;  who 
prays  fgr  bim  that  wrong!,  him,  forgiving  all  bis 

faults;  who  fooner  (hews  mercy  thah  anger;  wh« 
offers  violence  to  his  appetite,  in  ell  things  endea- 
vouring to  fubdue  the  fiefli  to  the  fpirit.  This  is 
an  excellent  abbreviature  of  the  whole  duty  of  a 
Chri!>ian.  7aylari  Guiti<  to  Dtvoricn, 

JBBREUFOI'R.  [in  French,  a  watering- 
place.  Ital.  abbe-jerato,  dal  verbo  beiiere. 
Lat.  bibcre.  Abbeverari  i  cavalli.  This 
word  is  derived  by  Menage,  not  much 
acquainted  with  the  Teutonic  dialefts, 
from  adbibare  for  adbibere ;  but  more 
probably  it  comes  from  the  fame  root 
with  bretxi.  See  Brew.]  Among  ma- 
fons,  the  joint  or  junfture  of  two  Hones, 
or  the  interftice  between  twoftonesto  be 
filled  up  with  mortar.  Di&. 

A'bby.     See  Abbey. 

A,  B,  C. 

1.  The  alphabet;  as,  he  has  not  learned 
his  a,  b,  c. 

2.  The  little  book  by  which  the  elements 
of  reading  are  taught. 

Then  comes  queilion  like  an  a,  b,  c,  book. 


To  A'BDICATE.  -v.  a.  [Lat.  abdicc]  To 
give  up  right ;  to  refign  ;  to  lay  down 
an  office. 

Old  Saturn,  here,  with  upcaft  eyes. 

Beheld  his  abdicatcil  Ikics.  AJdifon, 

Abdica'tion.  ?/._/".  [abduatio,  Lut.]  The 

aft  of  abdicating ;  refignation  ;  quitting 

an  office  by  one's  own  proper  aft  before 

the  ufual  or  dated  expiration. 

Neither  duth  it  appear  how  a  princ«'s  abdication 
can  make  any  other  fort  of  vacancy  in  the  throne, 
than  would  be  caufcd  by  his  death  ;  fince  hecan- 
not  abdicate  for  his  children,  otherwife  than  by  his 
own  confcnt  in  form  to  a  bill  from  the  two  houfes* 
Sivift  on  the  Sentiments  of  a  Church  of 
England  Man. 

A'bdicative.  adj.  That  which  caufes.or 
implies  an  abdication.  Diil. 

A'bdicative.  adj.  [from  <? Wo,  to  hide. j 
That  which  has  the  power  or  quality  of 
hiding.  Dia. 

ABDO'MEN.  n.  f  [Lat.  from  abdo,  to 
hide.]  A  cavity  commonly  called  the 
lower  venter  or  belly  :  It  contains  the 
Itomach,  guts,  liver,  fpleen,  bladder, 
and  is  within  lined  with  a  membrane 
called  the  peritoneum.  The  lower  part 
is  called  the  hypogallriiim  ;  the  forcmoll 
part  is  divided  into  the  epigaftrium,  the 
right  and  left  hypochondria,  and  the 
navel  ;  'tis  boended  above  by  the  car- 
tilago  eufiformis  and  the  diaphragm, 
fideways  by  the  flwrt  or  lower  ribs,  and 
behind  by  the  vertebra;  of  the  loins,  the 
bones  of  the  coxendix,  that  of  the  pubes, 
and  OS  facrum.  It  is  covered  with  feve 
ral  mufcles,  from  whofe  alternSle  relaxa- 
tions and  contra(itions  in  refpiration,. 
digeilion  is  forwarded,  and  the  due  mo- 
tion of  all  the  parts  therein  contained 
pfomoted,  both  for  fecretion  and  expul- 
fion.  '         ^iiicy. 

The  abJonun  confifts  of  parts  containing  and  con- 
tained. py)fem:in^s  Surgery. 

Abdo'minal.    Xadj.  Relating  to  the  ab- 

Abdo'm  INDUS.  5  domen. 

To  A.'JDU'CE.  'u.  a.  [Lat.  abduco.'\  Tq 
draw  to  a  diffcrcHt  part  ;  to  withdraw 
one  part  from  another.  A  word  chiefly 
ufed  in  phylic  or  fcience. 

B  i  If 


A  B  H 

A  B  I 

If  w«  tUtict  the  eye  unto  either  tomar,  the 
ohjcA  will  not  duplicKe;  (ur,  in  that  porition,che 
axis  of  (he  cones  remain  in  the  Tame  plain,  as  is 
demonftrated  in  the  optics  delivered  by  Galen. 

Browit'i  yulgar  Ernun,  b,  iii.  c.  20. 

Abou'cent.  aajr.  Mufcles  abducent  are 
thofe  which  ferve  to  open  or  pull  back 
divers  parts  of  the  body ;  their  oppofites 
being  called  adducent.  Di8. 

Abduc'tion.  n.f.  [aiduSHi,  Lat.] 

1.  The  art  of  drawing  apart,  or  withdraw- 
ing one  part  from  another. 

2.  A  particular  form  of  argument. 
JBDirCTOK.  n.f.  {^abduaor,  Lat.]  The 

name  given  by  anatomitts  to  the  muf- 
cles, which  ferve  to  draw  back  the  fe- 
veral  members. 

He  fuppofed  ih ;  conftriftors  of  the  eye-lid»  muft 
he  ftresgthened  in  the  fupercilious  j  the  aidulfsn 
in  drunkards,  and  contemplarive  men,  who  have 
the  fame  fteady  and  grave  motion  of  the  eye. 

jirtuititot  anil  Pofi'i  A''arlinus  Scriilcrus. 

Abeceda'rian.  »./  [from  the  names  of 
a,  b,  c,  the  three  firtt  letters  of  the  al- 
phabet.] He  that  teaches  or  learns  the 
alphabet,  or  firft  rudiments  of  literature. 
This  word  is  ufed  by  ff^ood  in  his 
Athena  Oxoninfes,  where  mentioning 
Farnaby  the  critic,  he  relates,  that,  in 
fome  part  of  his  life,  he  was  reduced  to 
follow  the  trade  of  an  abecedarian  by  his 

A'BECEDARY.fli^'.  [See  Ab  ECED  A  R  I  AN.] 

1.  Belonging  to  the  alphabet. 

2.  Infcribed  with  the  alphabet. 

This  is  pretended  from  the  fympathy  of  two 
needles  touched  with  the  loadllonc,  and  placed  in 
the  center  of  two  ahtcedary  circles,  or  rings  of  let- 
ters, defcribed  round  about  them,  One  friend  keep- 
ing one,  and  another  the  other,  and  agreeing  upon 
'  i^Ki  hour  wherein  they  will  communicate. 

Brovin^i  Vuhar  Errcurs^  b*  n.  r.  3. 

Abe'o.  aJv.  [from  a,  for  at,  and  bed.]  In 

It  was  a  (hame  for  them  to  mar  their  com- 
plexions, yea  and  conditions  too,  with  long  lying 
tfW :  when  fiie  was  of  their  age,  file  would  have 
in»ie  a  handkerchief  by  that  time  oMay. 

Suliy,  b»  ii. 
She  has  not  been  ahed,  but  in  her  chapel 
All  night  devoutly  watch'd.      Dryd.  Span.  Friar. 
-Abe'rrance.  ?«./.   [from  a berro,  La.t. 
Abe'rrancy.  5     to    wander    from    the 
right  way.]  A  deviation  from  the  right 
way ;  an  crrour ;  a  miftake ;  a  falfe  opi- 

They  do  not  only  fwarm  with  errours,  but  vices 
depending  thereon.  Thus  they  commonly  aft'edl 
no  man  any  farther  than  he  dcferts  his  reafon,  or 
complies  with  thrir  ahcrrartc'm. 

Brotim't  y^ulgar  Ernurs,  h.  i.  f.  3. 
Could  a  man  be  compofed  to  fuch  an  advantage 
of  conftitution,  that  it  ihould  not  at  all  adulterate 
the  images  of  his  mind  ;  yet  this  fecond  nature 
would  alter  the  cr.^iis  of  his  underilanding,  and 
render  it  as  obnoxious  to  aherraricetf  as  now. 

CfoBvilU^i  Supjit  Scientijicat  c.  16. 
Abe'rrant.  adj.  [from  aberraris,  Lat.] 
Deviating,  wandering  from  the  right  or 
known  way.  DiJl, 

Aberra'tio.n.  n.f.  [from «i«rra//o, Lat.] 
The  act  of  deviating  from  the  common 
or  from  the  right  track. 

If  it  be  a  miilake,  there  is  no  hercfy  in  fuch  an 
barmlefs  aherratkn ;  the  probability  of  it  will  ren- 
der it  a  lapfe  of  eafy  pardon. 

CUn-vilU'i  Sceffit  Seienllfica,  c.  11. 

ABE'jLRiKC./«r/.   [from  the  \<iih  aberr. 

cf  abini,  Lat.]  Wandering,  going  a- 

Of  the  verb  aberr  I  have  found  no 

Divers  were  out  in  their  account,  aterr'mg  feve- 
ral  ways  from  the  true  and  jult  compute,  and  call- 
ing that  one  year,  which  perhaps  might  be  another. 
Bri/ivns  Errourif  b.  iv.  r.  12. 
To  Aberu'nc  ATE.  I".  «.  [averunco,  Lat.] 
To  pull  up  by  the  roots ;  to  extirpate 
utterly.  D'^- 

To  ABE'T.  "v.  a.  [from  betan.  Sax.  Cg- 
nifyine  to  enkindle  or  animate.]  To 
pulh  forward  another,  to  fupport  him  in 
his  defigns  by  connivance,  encourage- 
ment, or  help.  It  was  once  indifferent, 
but  is  almoA  always  taken  by  modern 
writers  in  an  ill  fenfe :  as  may  be  feen 
in  Abetter. 

To  abd  fignifieth,  in  our  common  law,  as  much 
as  to  encourage  or  fet  on.  Co^vel. 

Then  fliall  I  foon,  quoth  he,  return  again, 
Abet  that  virgin's  caufe  difconfolate. 
And  ftiortly  back  return.  Fairy  Siueen,  b.  i. 

A  widow  who  by  folemn  vows, 
Contrafted  to  me,  for  my  fpoufe, 
Combin'd  with  him  to  break  her  word. 
And  has  abetted  all.  Hudibras,  p.  iii.  cant.  3. 

Men  lay  fo  great  weight  upon  right  opinions, 
and  eagernefs  of  abetting  them,  tliat  they  account 
that  the  unum  neceflarium.  Decay  of  Piety. 

They  abetted  both  parties  in  the  civil  war,  and 
always  furnifiied  fupplies  to  the  weaker  fide,  left 
there  fliould  be  an  end  put  to  thcfe  fatal  divifions. 
Jlddifin.  Freehulder,  No  2S. 

Abe'tment.  n.f.    The  aft  of  abetting. 

Abe'tter,  or  Abe'ttor.  ».yi    He  that 

abets  ;   the  fupport«r  or  encourager  of 

a  :v)  titer. 

Wliilft  calumny  has  two  fuch  potent  abetters, 
we  are  not  to  wonder  at  its  growth  ;  as  long  as 
men  are  malicious  and  defigning,  they  will  be  tra- 
ducing. Govertl.  of  tbe  Tongue. 

You  (hall  be  ftill  plain  Torrifmond  with  me, 
Th'  abfttir,  partner  (if  you  like  the  name), 
The  hulband  of  a  tyrant,  but  no  king  ; 
Till  you  dcferve  that  title  by  yourjullice. 

Dryden^s  Spjnijh  Friar. 
Thefe  confiderations,  though  they  may  have  no 
influence  on  the  multitude,  ought  to  fink  into  the 
minds  of  thofe  who  are  their  abettors,  and  who, 
if  they  cfcape  puniihment  here,  muft  know,  that 
thcfe  fcvcral  mifchiefs  will  be  one  day  laid  to  their 
charge.  Addijor.  Freeholder,  No  50. 

Abey'ance.  n.f.  [from  the  French  abo- 
yer,  allatrare,  to  bark  at.]  This  word, 
in  Littleton,  cap.  Difcontinuance,  is  thus 
ufed.  The  right  of  fee-fimple  lieth  in 
abeyance,  when  it  is  all  only  in  the  re- 
membrance, intendment,  and  confidera- 
tion  of  the  law.  The  frank  tenement  of 
the  glebe  of  the  parfonage,  is  in  no  man 
during  the  time  that  the  parfonage  is 
void,  but  is  in  abeyance.  Co-ivel. 

Aboreca'tion.  n.f.  [abgregatio,  LtA.] 
A  reparation  from  the  flock.  Diil. 

To  ABHO'R.  T/.  a.  [abborrea,  Lat.]  To 
hate  with  acrimony  ;  to  detell  to  extre- 
mity ;  to  loath  ;  to  abominate. 

■Whilll  I  was  b  g  in  claraout,  came  a  man. 
Who  having  freii  ;iie  in  my  worferftate, 
Shunn'd  my  abhorrd  fociety. 

Sl'akefpcaie's  K.  Lear, 
Juftly  thou  abb:^rryi 
That  fon,  who  on  the  qaict  ftate  of  men 
Such  trouble  brought,  aflfefting  Co  fubdue 
Rational  liberty. 

Mill.  ParaJ,  Loji,  6.  xii.  /.  79. 

The  felf.fame  thing  they  wilt  abbn> 
One  way,  and  long  another  for. 

Hudibras,  p,  i.  cant,  f , 

A  church  of  England  man  abhors  the  humour 
of  the  age,  in  delighting  to  Aing  fcandals  upon  the 
clergy  in  general  i  which,  befides  the  difgracsto 
the  reformation,  and  to  religion  itfcif,  cafts  an  ig- 
nominy upon  the  kingdom.       Stvift,  Ch,  ofEng, 

AbHo'rRENCE.      1  r    re  II        1 

A         r  >    n.f,  I  from  aoMr.l 

Abho  rrencv.    i       -^    '•  ■• 

1 .  The  a£t  of  abhorring,  deteflation. 

It  draws  upon  him  the  hatred  and  abhorrence  of 
all  men  here  ;  and  fubjedts  him  to  the  wrath  of 
God  hereafter.  Soutb's  Hcrmmst 

2.  The  difpofition  to  abhor,  hatred. 

Even  a  juft  arid  neceflary  defence  does,  by  giv. 
ing  men  actguaintance  with  war,  take  oS'  Ibine- 
what  from  the  abhorrence  of  it,  and  infenfibly  dif- 
pol'e  them  to  hoftilities.  Dec<iy  of  Piety, 

The  firft  tendency  to  any  injuftlce  that  appears, 
muft  be  fupprerted  with  a  (how  of  wonder  and  ai- 
borrency  in  the  parents  and  governours. 

Locke  on  Education,  §  1 10. 

Abho'rrekt.  adj.  [from  fl^ar.] 

1 .  Struck  with  abhorrence  ;  loathing. 

For  if  the  worlds 
In  worlds  inclos'd  could  on  his  fenfes  burft. 
He  would  abhorrent  turn. 

Thomjons  Summer,  I.  3io» 

2.  Contrary  to,  foreign,  inconfiflent  with. 
It  is  ufed  with  the  particles  from  or  to, 
but  more  properly  w\t.\ifrom. 

This  I  conceive  to  be  an  hypothefis,  well  worthy 
a  rational  belief;  and  yet  it  is  fo  abhorrent  frr.m 
the  vulgar,  that  they  would  as  foon  believe  Anaxa. 
goras,  that  fnow  is  black,  as  him  that  Ihould  af- 
firm it  is  not  white. 

GlantiiUe' s  Sceffis  Sciem.  c.  12. 
Why  then  thefe  foreign  thoughts  of  ftate  em- 
Abhorrent  to  your  funftjon  and  your  breeding  ? 
Poor  droning  truants  of  unpraftis'd  cells, 
Bred  in  the  fcUow(hip  of  bearded  boys. 
What  wonder  is  it  if  you  know  not  vntrs  ? 

Abho'rrer.  n.f.  [from  abhor.]  The  per- 
fon  that  abhors  ;  a  hater,  deteller. 

The  lower  clergy  were  railed  at,  for  difputing 
the  power  of  the  bilhops,  by  the  known  ahborrers 
of  cpifcopacy,  and  abuli^d  for  doing  nothing  in 
the  convocations,  by  thefe  very  men  who  wanted 
to  bind  up  their  hands.    Siuifl.  Examiner,  N°  2i. 

Abho'rring.  The  objeft  of  abhorrence. 
This  feems  not  to  be  the  proper  uie  of 
the  participial  noun. 

They  (hall  go  forth,  and  look  upon  the  carcafes 
of  the  men  that  have  tranlgreflcd  againft  Me  : 
for  their  worm  (hall  not  die,  neither  (hall  their 
fire  be  quenched,  and  they  ihall  be  an  abhorring 
unto  all  fie(h.  Ij'aiab,  Ixvi.  44. 

To  ABI'DE.  -K.  n.  I  abode  or  abid.  [from 
bibian,  or  aubibian.  Sax.] 

1 .  I'o  dwell  in  a  place  ;  not  remove ;  t» 


Thy  fervant  became  furety  for  the  lad  unto  my 
father,  faying.  If  1  bring  him  not  unto  thee,  then 
I  (hall  bear  the  blame  to  my  father  for  ever.  Now 
therefore  I  pray  thee,  let  thy  fervant  abide  inftead 
rf  the  lad,  a  bondman  to  my  lord  j  and  let  the 
lad  go  up  with  his  brethren.        Gen.  xliv.  31,  33-. 

2.  To  dwell. 

The  Marquis  Dorfet,  as  I  hear,  is  fled 
To  Kichmond,  in  the  parts  where  he  abides.    ■ 

Shakejp.  Richard  III. 

Thofe  who  apply  themfclves  to  learning,  are 
forced  to  acknowledge  one  God,  incoriuptible  and 
unbegotten  ;  who  is  the  only  true  being,  anu  aliJei 
for  ever  ibove  th-  higheft  heavens,  from  whence 
He  beholds  all  the  things  thac  are  done  in  heaven 
Md  earth. 

StilHngfi.  Defence  of  Di/c.  on  Rom.  Ido/ai, 

3.  To 

A  B  I 

3.  To  remain  ;  not  ceafe  or  fail}  to  be 

They  chat  truft  in  the  Lord  (hall  be  as  mount 
ZioPi  whxh  cannot  be  removed,  but  ahUdtb  for 
ever.  PJa/m  cxxv.  1. 

4.  To  continae  in  the  fame  ftate. 

The  tejr  of  the  Lord  toiJcth  to  life  ;  and  hs 
that  hath  it  (hall  ao:Je  fatistied.        Pr',v.  xix.  23 

There  can  be  no  ftuJy  without  time;  and  the 
mind  mull  j&iJi  and  dwell  upon  things,  or  be  al- 
ways a  ftranger  to  the  infijc  of  them.  South. 

5".  To  endure  without  offence,  anger,  or 

Who  canaiiVr,  that,  againli  their  own  doilors, 
fix  whole  books  ^ould  by  their  fatherhoods  be  im- 
periuuOy  obtruded  upon  God  and  his  church  ? 


6.  It  is  ufed  with  the  particle  ivit/f  be- 
fore a  perfon,  and  at  or  in  before  a  place. 

It  is  tetter  that  I  give  her  to  thee,  than  that  1 
Jhould  give  her  to  another  man  :  ylMde  ivith  me. 

G-.r,  xx'ix,  19. 

For  thy  fervant  vowed  a  vow,  while  I  atoJt  at 
Ge/hur  in  Syria,  faying,  if  the  Lord  {ball  bring  me 
again  indeed  to  Jerufalem,  then  1  will  ferve  th:: 
Lord.  2  Sam.  xv.  S. 

7.  It  is  ufed  with  hy  before  a  thing;  as,  to 
abide  by  his  teftimony  ;  to  abide  by  his 
own  (kill ;  that  is,  to  rely  upon  them  ;  to 
abide  by  an  opinion  ;  to  maintain  it  ;  to 
abide  by  a  man,  is  alfo,  to  defend  or  /up 
fort  him.  But  thefe  forms  are  fome- 
thing  low. 

Of  the  participle  aiid,  I  have  found 
only  the  example  in  Woodward,  and 
(hould  rather  determine  thztabidein  the 
aftive  fenfe  has  no  paflive  participle,  or 
compounded  preterite. 
To  Abi'de.  t/.  a. 

1.  To  wait  for,  e.-cpeft,  attend,  wait  upon, 
await :  ufed  of  things  prepared  for  per- 
fons,  as  well  as  of  perfons  expecting 

Home  is  be  brought,  and  laid  in  fumptuous  bed, 
Where  many  Ikilful  leeches  him  aliuie. 
To  f:.Iwe  his  hurts.     Fairy  S^ueen,  b.  i.  c,  ^.  fi.  17. 

Whil':  lions  war,  and  battle  for  their  dens, 
Poor  harmief;  iambs  thidt  their  enmity. 

Sbah^f.  Hen.  VI.  f.  3. 

Bonds  and  affliOinns  aiije  mc.      y^ffs,  xx.  23. 

2.  To  bear  or  fupport  the  confequences  of 
a  thing. 

Ah  me  !  they  little  know 
How  dearly  I  tt'ule  that  bead  fo  vain. 

Milloit'i  Par.  Left. 

3.  To  bear  or  fupport,  without  being  con- 
quered or  deftroyed. 

But  the  Lord  lie  is  the  true  God,  he  is  the 
living  Cod,  and  an  everlafling  Icing :  At  his 
wrath  the  earth  (hall  tremble,  and  the  nations 
Aallntbe  .ible  tOd^;i/r  his  indignation.  Jtr.  x.  10. 

It  muft  le  allowed  a  fair  prefumption  in  favour 
of  the  truth  of  my  doilrines,  that  they  hav3  abid 
a  very  rigorous  teft  now  for  above  thirty  years, 
and  the  mote  ftiirtly  they  are  looked  into,  the 
moie  they  are  confirmed.         IVxdviard,  Litter  i. 

4.  To  bear  without  averfion  ;  in  which 
fenfe  it  is  commonly  ufed  with  a  nega- 

Thou  canit  not  abide  Tiridates;  thia  is  but 
iove  of  th)fcl(.  Sidney,  b.  ii. 

Thy  vile  race, 
Though   thou  didA  learn,  had  that  io't,  which 

g!>)i  natures 
Gould  not  abide  tube  with;  therefore  wall  thou 
Oefervcdly  confin  d  unto  this  rock. 

Sbahff.  Ttmfrft. 

J.  To  bear  or  uffcr, 

A  B  J 

Girl  witk  circumfluous  tides, 
He  ftiU  calamitous  conllraint  abides. 

Pope'i  Odyf  b.  iv.  /.  750 
Abi'der.  n.f.  \^{iom  abide.]  The  perfon 
that  abides  or  dwells  in  a  place  ;  per- 
haps that  lives  or  endures.  A  word 
little  in  ufe. 
Abi'ding.  ti.f.  [from  abide."]  Continu- 
ance ;  (lay ;  fixed  ftate. 

We  arc  (Irangers  before  Thee  and  fojourners,  as 
were  all  our  fathers  :  our  days  on  the  earth  ate  as 
a  fliadow,  and  there  is  none  abidirg. 

1  Ciyran.  xxix,  15. 
The  air  in  that  region  is  fo  violently  removed, 
and  carried  about  with  fuch  fwiftnefs,  as  nothing 
in  tlut  place  can  confifl  or  have  abidirg. 

Raiv'eigl.'i  Hift:iry  ^ihe  ffcrld. 

A'BJECT.    adj.    \^abjeifus,   Lat.    thrown 
away  as  of  no  value.] 

1.  Mean;    worthlefs ;   bafe ;    groveling: 
fpoken  of  perfons,  or  their  qualities. 

Came  like  itfelf  in  bafe  and  ahjcS  routs. 
Led  on  by  bloody  yourh  grjaJed  with  rage. 
And  counceoanc'd  by  boys  and  beggary. 

Sbahfprare't  Henry  IV. 
I  wa?  at  fird,  as  other  bealls  thkr  graze 
The  trodJcn  herb,  of  abjed  thoughts  and  low. 

Milt.  Para-.aje  Left,  b.  ix.  /.  571, 

Honed  men,  who  tell  ;heir  fovereigns  what  they 

expeft  from  them,  and  what  obedience  they  fliall 

be  always  ready  to  pay  them,  are  not  upon  an 

equal  foot  with  bafe  and  abjrfl  flatterers. 

Aldifin'a  fnig  Examiner. 

2.  Being  of  no  hope  or  regard ;  ufed  of 

The  rarer  th^  example  (lands, 
Ey  how  much  trom  the  top  of  wond'rous  gbry, 
Strongeft  nf  mortal  men. 

To  loweft  pitch  of  aijeS  fortune  thou  art  fall'n. 
Milton's  Sampfin  ^gcmftcs. 
We  fee  man  and  woman  in  the  higheft  inno- 
cence and  perfeflion,  and  in  the  moft  abjc^  ftate 
of  guilt  and  infir.nity. 

yfddijon.  SftHator,  N"  279. 

3.  Mean  and  defpicable  ;  ufed  of  aflions. 

'1  he  rapine  is  f)  abjcfl  and  profane. 
They  not  from  trifles,  nor  from  gods  refrain. 

Dryden'i  Juvenal,  Sat.  8. 

To  what  bafe  ends,  and  by  what  abjea  ways. 
Are  mortals  urg'd  through  facred  lull  of  praif  •  ? 
^  P'.l>e's  Ejjjy  an  Criticifm. 

Abject,  n.f.    A  man  without  hope;  a 

manwhofe  miferies  are  irretrievable; 

one  of  the  loweft  -condition. 
Yea,  the  akjeHi  gathered  themfclvcs  together 

againft  m^c.  pfalm  xixv.  15. 

To  Abje'ct.    v.  a.    [abjicio,  Lat.]     To 

throw  away.     A  word  rarely  ufed. 
Abje'ctedness.  n.f.  Ifrom  abjed.]  The 

ftate  of  an  abjedt. 

Our  Saviour  would  love  at  no  !efs  rate  than 
death;  and,  from  the  fupereml:icr,t  height  of 
glory,  ftooped  and  abafed  himfejf  to  tire  fuft^^rancc 
of  the  extremcft  of  indignities,  and  lunk  himfelf 
to  the  bottom  of  abjifiidntfs ,  to  exalt  our  condi- 
tion to  the  contrary  extreme.  B(,yle's  fVorks. 
Abje'ction.  w./.  [homabjea.']  Mean- 
hefsofraind;  want  of  fpirit ;  fervility; 

That  this  (hould  be  termed  bafenefs,  abjeaitin 
of  mind,  or  fervility,  is  it  crcJijle  ? 

H'yoier,,b.  v.  ^  47. 

The  juft  medium  lies  betwixt  pride  and   the 

abjcBian,  the  two  extremes.  VEftrange. 

A'bjectly.  ad'u.    [from  abje^.]    In  an 

abjcft    manner,    meanly,    balcly,    fer- 

vilely,  contemptibly. 

A'BJECT^•Ess,   n./.  [from  abjea."]     Ab- 

jeftiony  fervility,  meannefs. 

A  B  J 

Servility  and  aljeBncJs  of  humour  is  implicitlir 
involved  in  the  charge  of  lying. 

Government  of  the  Tongue,  §  8. 
By  humility  I  mean  not  the  abjtlincjs  of  a  bafa 
mind  :  but  a  prudent  care  not  to  over-value  our- 
felves  upon  any  account. 

Gn^u^s  Cofmclogia  Sacra,  b.  ii.  e.  7. 
Abi'lity.  n.f.   [Babihte,  Fr.] 
I.  The  power  to  do  any  thing,  whether 
depending   upon    (kill,    or    riches,    or 
ftrength,  or  any  other  quality. 

Of  finging  thou  hall  got  tiie  reputation. 
Good  Thyrfis,  mine  1  yield  to  thy  ability  j 
My  heart  doth  feek  another  eftimation. 

Sidney,  b,  u 
If  aught  in  my  ability  may  ferve 
To  lighten  what  thou  iulier'll,  and  appeafe 
Thy  mind  with  what  amends  is  in  my  pow'r. 

Milton  s  Sumfjon  Agoniftei,  I.  74^ 
They  gave  after  their  ab'dity  unto  the  treafure. 

Exra,  ii.  69. 
If  any  man  minifter,  let  him  do  it  as  of  the- 
ability  v^•hich  God  givcth  !  that  God  in  all  things 
may  be  glorified  through  JefusChrift.  i  Pa.  iv.  11. 
Wherever  we  find  our  abilities  too  weak  for  the 
performance,  he  affures  us  of  the  afliftance  of  his 
Holy  Spirit,  Rogeis's  Sermons. 

z.  Capacity  of  mind;  force  of  underftand- 
ing  ;  mental  power. 

Children  in  whom  tjiere  was  no  blemilh,  but" 
well-favoured,  and  (kilful  in  all  wifdom,  and  cun- 
ning in  knowledge,    and   underllanding  fcience,    . 
and  fuch  as  had  ability  in  them  to  ftand  in  the 
king's  palace.  Can.  i.  4. 

2.  When  it  has  the  plural  number,  abi/i^ 
ties,  it  frequently  fignifies  the  faculties 
or  powers  of  the  mind,  and  fometimes 
the  force  of  underftanding  given  by  na- 
ture, asdiftinguifhedfrom  acquired  qua- 

Whether  it  may  be  thought  nccefTary,  that  in 
certain  trails  of  country,  like  what  we  call  pa- 
rities, there  (hould  be  one  man,  at  lead,  of  abili- 
ties to  read  and  write  ?  Stuift. 
Abinte'state.  adj.    [of  etb,  from,  and 
intejiatiis,  Lat.]    A   term  of  law,   im- 
plying him  that  inherits  from  a  man„ 
■  who,  though  he  had  the  power  to  mate 
a  will,  yet  did  not  make  it. 
To  A'bjugate.  1/.  a.   [abjugc,  Lat.]   To 
unyoke,  to  uncouple.  Bin 
To  ABJU'RE.  v.  a.   [abjuro,  Lat.] 

1 .  To  caft  off  upon  oath,  to  fwear  not  to 
do  or  not  to  have  fomething. 

Either  to  die  the  death,  or  to  abjure 
For  ever  the  fociety  •■»  man. 

Sbakcjpeare's  Midfum.  Night's  Dreaiir^ 

No  man,  therefore,  that  hath  not  abjured  hi» 
reafon,  and  Ivvorn  allegiance  to  a  preconceived 
fantadical  hypothefis,  can  undertake  the  defence 
of  fuch  a  fuppofjtion.  Hale, 

2.  To  retraci,  recant„  on  abnegate  a  po, 
(ition  upon  oath. 

Abjiira'tion.  »./  [horn  abjure.}  The 
aft  of  abjuring^    The  oath   takea  for    , 
that  end. 

Until  Henry  VIIL  his  time,  if  a  man,  havina 
committed  felony,  could  go.  inio  a  church,  o» 
church-yard,  before  he  were  apprehended,  he  might 
not  be  takeji  from  thence  to  the  ufual  trial  of  law, 
but  confcfling  his  fault  to  the  juftices,  or  to  thr 
coroner,  gave  his  oath  to  forfakc  tlie  realm  for 
ever,  which  wascalled  abjuration. 

There  are  fome  abjurations  dill  in  force  among 
U5  here  in  England  ;  a.»,  by  the  (latute  of  the  2jth. 
of  king  Charles  II.  all  persons  that  are  aitmittcd 
into  any  odice,  civil  or  military,  mud  take  the 
teft  5  which  is  an  ahjuratim'oS  iomcdoclrines  ot 
the  church  of  Rome. 

There  is  likewile  another  oath  of  clJuraiiM, 


A3  L 



-which  laymsn  and  clergymen  are  bath  obllgeil  to 
take;  and  thai  is  to  at  jure  tlic  Pretender. 

Ail^e's  Panrgrtn  "Jurii  Cutionici* 

To  ABLA'CTATE.  v.  a.  [ablaao,  Lat.] 
To  wean  from  the  breaft. 

Ablacta't ION.  n.j.  One  of  the  me- 
thods of  grafting  ;  and,  according  to 
the  fignification  of  the  word,  as  it  were 
X  weaning  ol  a  cyon  by  degrees  from  its 
mother  ituck ;  not  cutting  it  off  wholly 
from  the  Itock,  till  it  is  firmly  united 
to  that  on  which  it  is  grafted. 

Ab  I  A  qjj  E  a't  ion.  tt./.  [^ahlaqueatie,  Lat. ] 
The  art  or  praftice  of  opening  the 
ground  about  the  roots  of  trees,  to  let 
the  air  and  water  operate  upon  them. 

Trench  the 'ground,  and  make  it  ready  Jor  the 
fpting  :  Prepare  alio  foil,  and  ufe  it  where  you 
have  occafion  :  Dig  borders.  Uncover  as  yet  roots 
oftieet,  where  ablajucmion  is  requifite. 

jLvtilyii's  Kahndar, 

The  tenure  in  chief  is  the  very  root  that  doth 
«iaint:iin  this  fihxr  ^tm,  that  by  many  rich  and 
fruitful  branches  fpreadcth  itfelf :  fo  if  it  be  luf- 
fered  to  ftarve,  by  want  of  ablatjueal'ion,  and 
other  good  liulbandry,  this  yearly  fruit  will  much 
decrcafe.  Bacm's  Office  af  AlUnaiions. 

ABLA'TION.  »./  [ablatio,  Lat.]    The 

aft  of  taking  away. 
A'hlative.  n.  a.  [eblati'vus,  Lat.] 

1 .  That  which  takes  away. 

2.  Thefixth  cafe  of  the  Latin  nouns;  the 
cafe  which,  among  other  fignifications, 
includes  the  perfon  from  whom  fome- 
thing  is  taken  away.  A  term  of  gram- 

A'BLE.  aJj.  [habile,  Fr.  habilis,  Lat. 
Ikilful,  ready.] 

1.  Having  ftrong  faculties,  or  great  ftrength 
or  knowledge,  riches,  or  any  otiier 
power  of  mind,  body,  or  fortune. 

Henry  VU.  was  not  afraid  of  an  able  man,  as 
LcwTs  the  Eleventh  was.  But,  contrariwife,  iic 
was  ferved  by  the  abUfi  men  that  were  to  be  found  ; 
without  which  his  aifairs  could  not  have  profpercd 
a?  they  did.  Baccn's  Henry  VII. 

Such  gambol  faculties  he  hath,  that  (hew  a 
weak  mind  and  an  abU  body,  for  the  which  the 
prince  admits  him.  Shakejf,  Henry  IV.  f.  ii. 

2.  Having  power  fnfficient ;  enabled. 

All  mankind  acknowledge  tiiemfelves  able  and 
fulHcient  to  do  many  things,  which  aftually  they 
never  do.  South",  Serm. 

Every  man  (hall  give  as  he  is  able,  according  to 

the  bleliing  of  the  Lord  ».y  God,  which  he  hath 

■  given  thee.  _  Deut.  xvi.  17. 

3.  Before  a  verb,  with  the  particle  to, 
it  fignifies  generally  having  the  power. 

Wrath  is  cruel,  and  anger  is  outrageous  j  but 
who  is  able  to  ftand  before  envy  ?     Prw,  xxvii.  4. 

4.  With  /or  it  is  not  often  nor  very  pro- 
perly ufed. 

There  have  been  fome  inventions  alfo,  which 
have  been  able  for  the  utterance  of  articclate 
founds,  as  the  fpeaking  of  ccrt.iin  word*. 

Wi/imi'j  Mathematlal Magic. 

To  A'ble.  v.  a.  To  make  able;  to  en- 
able, which  is  the  word  commonly  ufed. 
See  Enable. 

Plate  fin  with  gold. 
And  the  ftrong  lance  of  jufticc  hurtiefs  breaks ; 
Arm  it  with  rags,  a  pigmy's  ftraw  doth  pierce  it. 
None  does  offend,  none,  I  fay  none,  I'll  able  'em  ; 
Take  that  of  me,  my  friend. 

Shakefpcare* s  Kir.g  hear. 

Able-bodied.  o<^'.     Strong  of  body. 

It  lies  in  the  power  of  every  fine  woman,  to  fe- 
«urc  at  leaft  half  a  doaen  able-h'Jicd  men  to  his 
tn^eAj'l  fervice.  Add'ijai.  FncbslJcr,  N"  4. 

To  A'BLEGATE.    v.  a.    [ablep.  Lat.] 

To  fend  abroad  upon  fome  employment ; 

to  fend  out  of  the  way.  Di£l. 

Ablega'tion.  tt./.  [from  abUgate.'\  The 

adl  of  fetiding  abroad.  Di£i. 

A'bleness.  n.f.  [from  able.']  Ability  of 

body  or  mind,  vigour,  force. 

That  nation  4oth  fo  excel,  both  for  comelinefs 
and  abtenejs,  that  from  neighbour  countries  they 
ordinarily  come,  fome  to  ftrive,  fome  to  learn, 
fome  to  behold.  SiJniy,  b.  ii. 

A'blepsy.   a.  /    [aSxt-i'M,  Gr.]  Want 

of  fight,  blindnefs;  unadvifednefs.  D/V7. 
Abliguri'tion.  n./.  [abliguritio,  hzt.] 

Prodigal  expence  on  meat  and  drink. 

TV  A'bligatb.  v.  a,   [abligo.  Lit,"]    To 

tic  up  from.  -  Di<S. 

To  A'BLOCATE.  v.  a.  [abloco,  Lat.]  To 

let  out  to  hire. 

Perhaps  properly  by  him  who  has  hired 

it  from  another. 

Calvin^ s  Lexicon  Juridicum. 
Abloca'tion.  ti.  j.  [from  ablocate.]    A 

letting  out  to  hire. 
To  Ablu'de.  -v.  n.  [abludo,  Lat.]   To  be 

unlike.  Dia. 

A'b  l u  e  n  t.  adj.  [abluens,  Lat.  from  abluo, 

to  wa(h  away.] 

1.  That  which  wafhes  clean. 

2.  That  which  has  the  power  of  cleanfmg. 

Ablu'tion.  tt./.  [ablttfio,  Lat.] 
1 .  The  aft  of  cleanfmg,  or  walhing  clean. 

There  is  a  natural  analogy  between  the  ablution 
of  the  body  and  the  purification  of  the  foul ;  be- 
tween eating  the  holy  bread  and  drinking  the  facred 
chalice,  and  a  participation  of  the  body  and  blood 
of  Chrift.  Baylor  t  Worthy  Covtmunicant. 

z.  The  water  ufed  in  wafhing. 

Wafh'd  by  the  briny  wave,  the  pious  train 
Are  deans'd,  and  call  th*  ablutions  in  the  main. 

Pope's  Iliad. 

3.  The  rinfing  of  chemical  preparations  in 
water,  to  diffolve  and  walh  away  any 
acrimonious  particles. 

4.  The  cup  given,  without  confecration, 
to  the  laity  in  the  popifli  churches. 

To  A'BNEGATE.  i>.  a.  [from  abnego, 
Lat.]  To  deny. 

Abnega'tion.  n.f.  [abnegatia,  Lat.  de- 
nial, from  abtiego,  to  deny.]  Denial, 

The  abnegation  or  renouncing  of  all  his  own 
holds  and  intciefts,  and  trufts  of  all  that  man  is 
mod  apt  to  defend  upon,  that  he  may  the  more 
expeditely  follow  Chrift.  Hammond. 

Abnoda'tion.  n.f.  [abnodatio,  Lat.] 
The  aft  of  cutting  away  knots  from 
trees  :  a  term  of  gardening.  DiS. 

Abno'rmous.  adj.  [abnormis,  Lat.  out 
of  rule.]  Irregular,  milhapen.         DiSi. 

Abo'ard.  adv.  [a  fea-term,  but  adopted 
into  common  language;  derived  im- 
mediately from  the  French  a  bord,  as, 
aller  a  lord,  eifvoyer  a  bord.  Bord  is 
itfelf  a  word  of  very  doubtful  original, 
and  perhaps,  in  its  different  accepta- 
tions, deducible  from  different  roots. 
Bopb,  in  the  ancient  Saxon,  fignified  a 
hatife  ;  in  which  fenfe,  to  go  aboard,  is 
to  take  up  refidence  in  a  Ihip. 

I.  In  a  ihip. 

He  loudly  eall'd  to  fuch  as  were  abnari. 
The  little  bark  unto  the  Hiore  to  draw, 
And  him  to  ferry  over  that  deep  ford. 

Fairy  Sueeti,  b.  ii.  cant.  6. 
He  might  land   them,    if  it  plcafcd  him,   or 
otlierwife  keep  them  aboard. 

Sir  W.  Ratvleigb's  EJ/ayt, 

2.  Into  a  Ihip. 

When  morning  rofe,  I  fent  my  matea  to  bring 
Supplies  of  water  from  a  ncighb'rlng  fpring, 
Whilft  I  the  motions  of  the  wind    expio:  'd  ; 
Then  fummon'd  in  ray  crew,  and  went  abcarJ, 

jiddifin'i  Ovid's  Mr:ami>rfht^es,  i.  iiK 
Abo'de.  tt./.  [from  abide.]  , 

1.  Habitation,   dwelling,    place  of  refi- 

But  I  know  thy  abode  and  thy  going  out,  and 
thy  coming  in,  2  ^'"gh  »i»-  -t?" 

Others  may  ufe  the  ocean  as  their  road. 
Only  the  Englilh  make  it  their  abode; 
Whofe  ready  fa'ijs  with  every  wind  can  fly. 
And  make  a  cov'nant  with  th'  inconftant  flcy. 


2.  Stay,  continuance  in  a  place. 

Sweet  friends,  your  patience  for  my  long  abode; 
Not  I,  but  my  affairs,  have  made  you  wait, 

Sbakefpeare's  Merchant  o/V^mce, 

Making  a  Ihort  abode  in  Sicily  the  fecond  time, 
landing  in  Italy,  and  making  the  war,  may  be  rea* 
fonably  judged  the  bufinefs  but  often  months. 

Dryden's  Dedicat.  to  jSneiJ. 

The  woodcocks  early  vifit,  and  abode 
Of  long  continuance  in  our  temp'rate  dime, 
Foretcl  a  liberal  harveft.  PhilUpt. 

3.  To  make  abode.  To  dwell,  torefide,  to 
inhabit.    . 

Deep  in  a  cave  the  Sibyl  makes  abode  ; 
Thence  full  of  fate  retum? ,  and  of  the  God. 

Dryd.  jEn.  6. 

7e  Abo'de.  i».  a.  [See  Bode.]  To  fore- 
token or  fbrefhow  ;  to  be  a  prognoflic, 
to  be  ominous.  It  is  taken,  with  its  de- 
rivatives, in  the  fenfe  either  of  good  or 

Every  man, 
After  the  hideous  ftorm  that  follow'd,  was 
A  thing  infpir'd  ;  and,  not  confulcing,  broke 
Into  a  general  prophecy,  that  this  tempcft, 
Da/hing  the  garment  of  this  peace,  abodcd 
The  fudden  breach  of  it.         Sbakrff.  Henry  VIII. 
Abo'dement.  n.f.  [frova  To  abode.]    A 
fecret  anticipation  of  fomething  future  ; 
an   impreflion  upon  the  mind  of  fome 
'event  to  come;  prognoftication ;  omen. 

I  like  not  this. 
For  many  men  that  ftumbic  at  the  thre/hold, 
Are  well  furttoid  that  danger  lurJcs  within.— 
— Tuih  1  man,  abodimcnti  muft  not  now  affright  us. 
Shakcjfcarc's  Henry  VI.  f,  ili. 
My  lord  bilhop  alked  him,  Whether  he  had  never 
any  lecret  abodcincnt  iir  his  mind  ?  No,  replied  the 
duke;  but  I  think  fome  adventure  may  kill  me  as 
well  as  another  man,  ff^ot/on* 

To  AB'OLISH.  -j.  a.   [aboleo,  Latin.] 

1.  To  annul ;  to  make  void.  Applied  to 
laws  or  inllitutions. 

For  us  to  aboltjh  what  he  hath  cftablilhed,  were 
prcfumption  molt  intolerable.  Hcoktr,  b.  iii.  ^  10. 

On  the  paiilamcnt's  part  it  was  propoled,  that 
all  the  biihops,  deans,  and  chapters,  might  be  im- 
mediately taken  away,  and  abolijhcd. 

Clarendon,  b,  viii. 

2,  To  put  an  end  to,  to  deftroy. 

The  long  continued  wars  between  the  Engli/h 
and  the  Scots,  had  then  raifed  invincible  jea- 
loufies  and  hate,  which  long  continued  peace  hath 
fince  abitijhfd.  Sir  Jchn  Hayward. 

Tiiat  Jhall  Perocles  well  requite,  I  wot, 
And,  with  thy  blood,  aboltfi  fo  reproachful  blot. 

Fairy  S^uecn, 
More  deftroy'd  than  they. 
We  ihould  be  quite  abolyb'd,  and  expire, 

«  Or 


Or  wilt  thou  tJijfsIf 
Abtl'i/h  thy  CT«3tion,  and  unrrake 
For  him,  what  for  thy  glory  thou  haft  made  ? 

Miltin,  t-  iii.  A  163. 
Nor  cotild  Vuicjnian  flame 
The  ftench  abuhjh,  or  the  favour  tame. 

Dryd.  yirg,  Geo,  iii. 
Fermented  Tpirits  contraft,   harden,  and  con- 
folidate  many  6bres  together,  abolUhing  many  ca- 
nals ;  efpecinlly  where  the  fibres  are  the  tendereft, 
as  in  the  brain.  Arhutb,  en  Altttunti. 

Abo'i. !SH  ABLE.  a;^'.  \^xova  abolijh .'\  That 

which  may  be  abolifhed. 
Abo'lisher.  «,/.  [from  ahelijh.l  He  that 

Abo'lishment.  n./.  [from aiolijh.']  The 
aft  of  aboliftiing. 

The  plain  and  dircfl  way  had  been  to  prove, 
that  all  fuch  ceremonies,  as  they  require  to  be 
aboli/hcd,  are  retained  by  us  with  the  hurt  of  the 
church,  or  with  lefs  benefit  than  the  abalipmcr.! 
of  them  would  bring.  Jiccirr,  b.  iv. 

He  Ihould  think  the  thchjhmert  of  cpifcopacy 
among  us,  would  prove  a  mighty  Icandat  and  cor- 
ruption to  our  faith,  and  manifeftly  dangerous  to 
our  monarchy.  SiL'ifri  Cburcb  of  Enfrland  Man. 
Aboli'tion.  n.f.  [from  a^c/r/A.]  The  aft 
of  aboliftiing.  '1  his  is  now  more  fre- 
quently ufed  than  aboUjhment. 

From  the  total  abdiihn  of  the  popular  power, 
may  be  dated  the  ruin  of  Rome :  for  hi;u  the  re- 
ducing hereof  to  its  ancient  condition,  propofeil 
by  Agrippa,  been  accepted  inllead  of  Matcenas's 
model,  that  ftate  might  have  continued  unto  this 
day.  Crt%o*i  Cofmclogia  Sacra,  b,  iii.  r.  4. 

An  apoplexy  is  a  fudden  abelitUn  of  all  tht- 
fenfes,  and  of  all  voluntary  motion,  by  the  ftop- 
page  of  the  flux  and  reflux  ot  the  animal  fpirits 
through  the  nerves  dellined  for  thofe  motions. 

Arbuttnu  on  Our. 

Abo'minable.  aJj.   [alominabilij,  Lac] 

1.  Hateful,  deteilable  ;  to  be  loathed. 

This  infernal  pit 
yiiom'waile,  accurs'd,  the  haufe  of  woe. 

Aiilun . 
The  queen   and  miniftry  might  eafily  redref 
this    abominab/e   grievance,    by    endeavouring    t» 
choofc  men  of  virtuous  principles. 

Sivifi^s  Przjffifor  the  Advancement  of  Relighn. 

2.  Unclean. 

The  foul  that  Ihall  touch  any  unclean  beaft,  or 
any  abominable  unclean  thing,  even  that  foul  Ihall  be 
cut  off  from  his  people.  Leviticus,  vii.  21. 

3.  In  low  and  ludicrous  language,  it  is 
a  word  of  loofe  and  indeterminate  cen- 

They  fay  yon  Me  a  melancholy  fcllow.^I  am 
fo  ;  I  do  love  it  better  than  laughing. — Thofe 
th-t  are  in  extremity  of  cither,  arc  abominab/e 
fellr'jvs,  and  betray  themfelves  to  every  modern 
cenfurr,  worfe  than  drunkards. 

Stakeffeare'i  As  you  fUeir. 
Abo'minableness.  n.  /  [from  abomin- 
able.]  The    quality  of  being  abomin- 
able ;  hatefulncfs,  odioufnefs. 

Till  we  have  proved,  in  its  proper  place,  the 
eternal  and  cffcnlial  difference  between  virtue  And 
»i<e,  we  muft  forbear  to  urge  athcifts  with  the 
corruption  and  abominablinefs  of  their  principles. 

Bentley's  Sermors. 

A  B  o'm  I !« A  B  I,  Y .  adv.  [from  abominable.] 
A  word  of  low  or  familiar  language, 
fignifying  exccflively,  extremely,  ex- 
ceedingly ;  in  an  ill  fcnfe.  It  is  not 
often  fenoufly  ufed. 

I  have  obicrved  great  abufea  and  diforders  in 
your  family ;  your  ferv.int3  are  mutinrru*  and 
i]uarielfome,  and  cheat  you  mod  abonisahly. 


To  ABO'MINATE.  -v.  a.  [alminor,  Lat.] 
To  abhor,  decdt,  hate  utterl/ 


Pride  goes,  bated,  curfcd,  and  ahmtnated  t>y 

all,  Hammond* 

We  arc  not  guilty  of  your  injuries, 
No  way  confent  to  them ;  but  do  ai>Iior> 
Abominatef  and  loath  thJs  cruelty. 

Southern*!  Oroonok^* 

He  profened  both  to  ahommate  and  defpife  all 

myftery,    refinement,  and   intrigue,   either   in   a 

prince  or  minifter.  S^vift. 

A  BO  MI  N  a'tION.    «.y*. 

1.  Hatred,  detertation. 

To  affift  king  Charles   by  Engllfli    or  Dutch 

forces,  would  rendi^r  him  odious  to  his  new  fub- 
jefls,  who  have  nothing  in  fo  great  abomination, 
as  theft:  whom  they  hold  for  heretic?.  Sivift^ 

2.  The  objed  of  hatred. 

Every  ilicphcrd  is  an  abomination  to  the  Egyp- 
tians. Gentjis,  xlvi.  34. 

3.  Pollution,  defilement. 

And  there  fhall  in  no  wife  enter  Into  it  any 
thing  that  defileth,  neither  whatfocver  worketh 
ahminaticny  or  maketh  a  lie.  Rt'v,  xxi.  27. 

4.  Wickednefs  ;  hatefol  or  fhameful  vice. 

Th'  adulterous  Antony,  n»eft  large 
In  his  abcminationtf  turns  you  oft. 
And  gives  his  potent  regiment  Co  a  trull. 
That  nofcs  it  agaioil:  us. 

Sbakefp,  Antan^  and  Cleopatra, 

5.  The  caufe  of  pollution. 

And  the  high  places  ihat  were  before  Jerufa- 
Icm,  which,  wcce  on  the  right  hand  of  the  mount 
of  corruption,  which  Solomon  the  king  of  Ifrael 
had  builded  for  Aihtorcth  the  abominatkn  of  the 
Zldonians,  and  for  Chemo/h  the  ab'.minaticn  of 
the  Moabites,  and  iot  Milcom  the  abomination  ot 
the  children  cf  Ammon,  did  the  king  defile. 

2  fCirgSj  xxiii,  13. 

JBORIGINES.  n.f.  [Lat.]  The  earlieft 
inhabitants  of  a  country  ;  thofe  of  whom 
no  original  is  to  be  traced;  as,  the  Welfli 
in  Britain. 

To  ABO'RT.  -v.  n.  [abcrto,  Lat.]  To  bring 
fxth  before  the  time ;  to  mi(carry.  /)/<?. 

Abo'rtion.  n.f.  [uborlio,  Lat.] 

1.  The  aft  of  bringing  forth  untimely. 

Thefe  then  need  caufe  na  aborticn.  Sandyi. 

2.  The  produce  of  an  untimely  birth. 

His  wife  mifcarricd  ;  but,  as  the  abortion  proved 
only  a  female  foetus,  he  comforted  himlclf. 

Arbutknot  and't  Martinus  Scribkrui. 
Behold  my  arm  thus  blaftcd,  dry  and  withcr'd, 
Shnjnlc  like  a  foul  alortif^n,  and  decay'd, 
Lilce  fome  untimely  produ£l  of  the  feafons. 


Abo'rtive.  n.f.  That  which  is  born  be- 
fore the  due  time.  Perhaps  anciently 
any  thing  irregularly  produced. 

No  common  wind,  no  cultomcd  event. 
But  they  wi  lipluck  away  its  nat'ral  caufes. 
And  call  them  meteors,  prodigies,  and  figns, 
Abortives,  and  prcfages,  tongues  ot  heav'n. 
Plainly  denouncing  vengeance  upon  John. 

Shakejp.  King  yobn. 

Take   the  fine  (kin  of  an  abortive,   and,  with 

Aarch  thin  laid  on,  prepare  your  ground  or  tablet. 

Peacbam  on  Dratvirtg. 

Many  are  preferved,  and  do  lignal  fervicc  to 
their  cnintry,  who,  without  a  provifion,  might 
have  perilled  as  abcrtit-es,  or  have  come  to  an 
untimely  end,  and  perhaps  have  brought  upon 
their  guilty  parents  the  like  dcftruftion. 

AJdifon.  Guardian,  N"  106. 

Abo'rtiyI!.  ac/J,   [abortiviis,  Lat.] 
I .  That  which  u  brought  forth  before  the 
due  time  of  birth. 

If  ever  he  have  child,  abtrtive  be  it. 
Prodigious,  and  untimely  brought  to  light. 

Sbakefp.  Richard n\. 
All  th'  unaccomplifli'd  works  of  nature's  hand. 
Abortive,  monftrous,  or  unkindly  mix'd, 
Diflo.v'd  on  earth,  fleet  liithcr. 

Mi Umi  '  >  Paradif;  LcJI,  bXa,         56. 

A  B  a 

Nor  will  his  fruit  expeft 
Th'  autumnal  fjafon,  but,  in  fummer's  pride 
When  other  orchards  fmile,  abortive  fail. 


2.  Figuratively,  that  which  fails  for  want 
of  time. 

How  often  haft  thou  waited  at  my  cup. 
Remember  it,  and  let  it  make  thee  creft-fall'n  y 
Ay,  and  allay  this  thy  abortive  pride. 

Sbakefp.  Henry  VI.  f.  iu 

3.  That  which  brings  forth  nothing. 

The  void  profound 
Of  nneffential  night  receives  him  next. 
Wide-gaping  ;   and  with  utter  lofs  of  being 
Threatens  him,  plurgM  in  that  abcrtive  gulfl 

Milton's  Pnradifc  Loji,  b.  ii.  /.  4jr» 

4.  That  which  fails  or  mifcarries,  from 
whatever  caufe.     This  is  lefs  proper. 

Many  politic  conceptions,  fo  elaborately  formed 
and  wrought,  and  grown  at  length  ripe  for  delivery, 
do  yet,  in  the  iffue,  mifcarry  and  prove  abortive. 

South^s  Sermins* 

Abo'ktively.  ach).  [from  aborti-T.'e.']  Born 
without  the  due  time;  immaturely,  un- 

Abo'rtiveness.  ft.  y.  [from  abortive.^ 
The  ftate  of  abortion. 

Abo'r.tment.  «. /.  [from  abort.]  The 
thing  brought  forth  out  of  time ;  an  un- 
timely birth. 

Concealed  treafures,  now  loft  to  mankind,  (hall 
be  brought  into  ufe  by  the  induftry  of  converted 
penitents,  whole  wretched  carcafes  the  impartial 
laws  dedicate,  as  untimely  tcafts,  to  the  worms 
of  the  earth,  in  whofe  womb  thofe  dcfcrted  mi- 
neral riches  muft  ever  lie  buried  as  loft  aborttnen's^ 
unlefs  thofe  be  made  the  adlive  midwives  to  de- 
liver them.  Bacon^s  Pbyjical  Remains*, 

ABO'VE.  fref.  [from  a,  and  bupan, 
Saxon  ;  bo'ven,  Dutch.] 

1.  To  a  higher  place;  in  a  higher  place. 

So  when  with  crackling  flames  a  cauUlron  fries^ 
The  bubbling  waters  from  the  bottom  rife ; 
Above  the  brims  they  force  their  fiery  way  ; 
Black  vapours  climb  aloft,  and  cloud  the  day, 

Dryden,  ^mid  vii.  /.  643* 

2.  More  in  quantity  or  number. 

E\cry  one  that  palTeth  among  then),  that  are- 
numbered  from  twenty  years  old  and  above,  IhaU 
give  an  ofF.ring  unto  the  J^ord; 

Exodus,  XXX.  14. 

3.  In  a  fuperiour  degree,  or  to  a  liiperiour 
degree  of  rank,  power,  or  ex'Ccllence. 

The  Lord  is  high  above  all  nations,  and  hi» 
glory  above  the  heavens.  PJalm.  cxiii.  4. 

The  public  power  of  all  focicties  is  above  every 
foul  contained  in  the  fame  focicties. 

Hooker,  b.  i. 
There  is  no  riches  above  a  found  body,  and  no 
joy  above  the  joy  of  the  heart. 

To  her 
Thn^  didft  refign  thy  manhood,  and  the  place 
Wherein  God  fet  thee  above  her,  made  of  thee. 
And  for  thee  :  whofe  perfc^ion  far  exceU'd 
Hers,  In  all  real  dignity.  ' 

Milton's  Paraiiife  Loji.  b.  X.  /.  147^ 
Latona  fees  her  ihiae  above  the  reft. 
And  feeds  with  fecret  joy  her  filent  breaft. 

Drydeirs  j-EntiJ, 

4.  In  a  (late  of  being  faperior  to ;  unai- 
•  tainable  by. 

It  is  an  old  and  true  dift'nfiion,  that  things 
may  be  above  our  reifon,  without  being  contrary 
to  it.  Of  this  kind  are  the  power,  the  nature, 
and  the  univerfal  prefence  of  God,  with  innu- 
merable other  points.  Swift* 

5.  Beyond;  morfe  than. 

We  were  prcfl'ed  out  of  meafure,  above  ftrength  } 
iofomuch  that  we  defpaired  even  of  life. 

2  Cor.  \.  8. 
Jo  baling  thoughts  voconfufed,  and  bciiig  ab'^ 


to  JiftmEulfti  one  thing  from  another,  where  there 
is  bat  the  le»ft  diflcrencc,  confifts  the  exaflnefs  of 
judgment  »nd  cleirnefs  of  reafon,  which  is  in  one 
man  ebtn'C  another.  L^ckt. 

The  inhabitants  of  Tirol  liave  miny  privileges 
eh(n/e  tliol'e  of  the  other  hereditary  countries  of 
thf  emperor.  MJifir. 

6.  Too  proud  for ;  too  high  for.    A  phrafe 
chiefly  ufed  in  familiar  expreffion. 

Kings  and  princes,  in  the  earlier  ages  of  the 

world,  laboured  in  arts  and  occupations,, and  were 

thvc  notliing  that  tended  to  promote  the   con- 

\enienccs  of  life.  I'tft'i  Oiiyjly;  r.Ms. 

Abo've.  adv. 

I.  Over-head  ;  in  a  higher  place. 

To  men  (landing  below,  men  Handing  aloft 
feem  much  lelTcned  ;  to  thofc  ahcvc,  men  Handing 
below,  feem  not  fo  much  k-fl'encd.  Bacon, 

When  he  cftabllflied  the  clouds  above;  when 
he  Ihcngtlitncd  the  fountains  of  the  deep  ;  when 
he  gave  to  the  fca  bis  decree,  that  the  waters  fliould 
not  pafs  his  ccmmandment;  when  he  appointed 
tlie  foundations  of  the  earth  ;  then  1  was  by  him, 
us,  one  brought  up  with  him ;  and  I  was  daily  his 
delight,  rejoicing  always  befire  him. 

Pnyterbs,  viii,  48. 

Every  good  gift,  and  every  fti(a&  ^ift,  is  from 
atovty  and  comcth  down  from  the  Father  of 
lights,  witli  whom  is  no  variablencfs,  neither 
fliadow  of  turning.,  i.  ij. 

The  TrojansyVoBi  ai^t  their  foes  beheld  ; 
And  with  arm'd  legions  all  the  rampircs  fiil'd. 

Dryden,  yEmid. 
a.  In  the  regions  of  heaven. 

Your  prailc  the  birds  (hall  chant  in  every  grove, 
And  winds  /hall  waft  it  to  the  pow'rs  above. 

Pope's  Pajiorah. 

3,  Before.    [See  Above-cited.] 

I  faid  ahove,  that  thefe  two  machines  of  the  ba- 
lance, and  the  dira,  were  only  ornamental,  and 
that  the  -fuccefs  of  the  duel  had  been  the  fame 
without  them.  Diyd.  Vedicat.  ^ne'id. 

Above  all.    In  the  firft  place  ;  chiefly. 

I  ftudied  Virgil's  defign,  his  difpofition  of  it, 
his  manners,  his  judicious  management  of  the 
ii  jures,  the  fober  retrenchments  of  his  fenfe,  which 
always  leaves  fomethlng  to  gratify  our  imagina- 
tion, on  which  it  may  enlarge  at  pleafure  ;  but 
above  ati,  the  elegSnce  of  bis  expreffion,  and  th? 
harmony  of  his  numbers. 

Dryden' s  Dedieat'ion  to  the  JEmid. 


I.  In  open  fight ;  without  artifice  or  trick, 
A  figurative  expreffion,  borrowed  from 
gamefters,  who,  when  they  put  their 
hands  under  the  table,  are  changing 
their  cards.  It  is  ufed  only  in  familiar 

It  is  the  part  alfo  of  an  honed  man  to  deal 
above-board,  and  without  tricks.  L'EJIratige. 

a.  Without  difguife  or  concealment. 

Though  there  have  not  been  wanting  fuch 
heretofore,  as  have  praftifed  thefe  unworthy  arts, 
for  as  much  as  there  have  been  villains  in  all 
placet  and  all  ages,  yet  now-a-days  they  are 
owned  above-board.  Soutb's  Sermons. 

Above-cited.  Cited  before.  A  figu- 
rative expreffion,  tak?n  from  the  ancient 
manner  of  writing  books  on  fcrolls  ; 
where  whatever  is'  cited  or  mentioned 
before  in  the  fame  page,  mull  be  abeme. 

It  appears  from  the  authority  abcve-cited,  that 
this  is  afaQ  confcfled  by  heathens  thomfclves. 

yiddifon  on  the  Cbtijiian  Religion, 

Above-crovnd.     An  expreffion  ufed  to 

fignify  alive  ;  not  in  the  grave. 
ABOVE-MENTiONED.See  Above-cited. 

1  do  not  remember,  that  Homer  any  whi-re  falls 
into  the  faults  above-meniioned,  which  were  indeed 
tbe  falTc  refincmcats  of  latter  ages. 

.^ddijon,  Sfel}aiir,'ti<' z-jij. 


To  ABO'UND.  Vi  n.  [abundo,  Ltt.  abonJer, 

1.  To  have  in  great  plenty;  to  be  co- 
pioufly  ftored.  It  is  ufed  fometimes 
with  the  particle  in,  and  fometimes  the 
particle  luiih. 

The  king-becoming  graces, 
I  have  no  relilb  of  them,  but  abound 
In  the  divifion  of  each  fevetal  crime, 
Afting  it  many  ways.  Shakejpeare's  Macbeth, 

Com,  wine,  and  oil,  are  wanting  to  this  ground. 
In  which  our  countiies  fruitfully  abound. 

Drydcn's  Indian  Emperor. 

A  faithful  man  fliall  abound  tvilb  bleffings  : 
but  he  that  maketh  hafte  tu  be  rich,  fliall  not  be 
innocent.  Prov.  xxviii.  20. 

Now  that  languages  are  made,  and  abound  with 
words  (landing  for  combinations,  an  ulual  way  of 
getting  complex  ideas,  is  by  the  explication  of 
thofe  terms  that  (land  for  them.  Locke. 

2.  To  be  in  great  plenty. 

And  becaule  iniquity  (hall  abound,  the  love  of 
many  (hall  wax  cold.  Matthew,  xxiv.  12. 

Words  are  like*  leaves,   and  where  they  moft 
Much  fruit  of  fenfe  beneath  is  rarely  found. 

Pope's  EJJay  on  Criticiftn. 

ABO'UT.  frep.  [abutan,  or  aburon.  Sax. 

which  feems  to  fignify  encircling  on  the 

I.  Round,  furrounding,  encircling. 

Let  not  mercy  and  truth  forlake  thee.  Bind 
them  about  thy  neckj  write  them  upon  the  table 
of  thy  heart.  Proverbs,  iii.  3. 

She  cries,  and  tears  her  cheeks, 
Her  hair,  her  veft  j   and,  (looping  to  the  fands, 
Mout  his  neck  (he  cad  her  trembling  hands. 

Dry  den's  Fables. 

z.  Near  to. 

Speak  unto  the  congregation,  faying,  get  you 
up  from  about  the  tabernacle  of  Korah,  Dathan, 
and  Abiram.  Exodus. 

Thou  doft  nothing,  Sergius, 
Thou  cand  endeavour  nothing,  nay,  not  thin?:,  j 
But  I  both  fee  and  hear  it;  and  am  with  thee. 
By  and  before,  about  and  in  thee  too. 

Ben  yonf.  Cataline. 

.  Concerning,    with   regard    to,    relat- 
ing to. 

When  Conrtantine  had  (inifhed  an  houfe  for 
the  fervice  of  God  at  Jcrufalem,  the  dedication 
he  judged  a  matter  not  unworthy,  about  the  fo- 
Icmn  performance  whereof,  the  greatcft  part  ol 
the  bifliopsin  Chriftendom  (hould  meet  together. 

The  painter  is  not  to  take  fo  much  pains  about 
the  drapery  as  about  the  face  where  the  principal 
refemblance  lies.  Drydrn. 

They  arc  moft  frequently  ufed  as  words  equi- 
valent, and  do  both  of  tliem  indifferently  fignify 
either  a  fpeculative  knowledge  of  things,  or  a 
praftlcal  (kill  about  them,  according  to  the  exi- 
gency of  the  matter  or  thing  fpoken  of. 

^ill.t.  Sermon  i. 
Theft  is  always  a  fin,  although  the  particular 
fpecies  of  it,  and  the  denomination  of  particular 
a^s,  doth  fuppofe  pofitivelawstf^cur  dominion  and 
property.  SiilUn^Jlcct. 

Children  (hould  always  be  heard,  and  fairlj  and 
kindly  anfwcred,  when  they  afk  after  any  thing  they 
would  know,  and  defire  to  be  informed  abcut. 
Curiofity  (hould  be  as  carefully  cheridied  in  chil- 
dren, as  other  appetites  fupprefled*  Locke. 
It  hath  been  pra^ifed  as  a  method  of  making 
men's  court,  when  they  are  a(ked  abiut  the  ratr 
of  lands,  the  abilities  of  tenants,  the  (late  of 
trade,  to  anfwer  that  all  things  are  in  a  flourifh- 
ing  condition.           Sivift's  Short  yie^u  of  Inland. 

^.  In  a  ftate  of  being  engaged  in,  or  em- 
ployed upon. 

Our  blelfed  Lord  was  pleafed  to  command  the 
rcprefentation  of  his  death  and  facrilice  on  the 
crofi  (hould  be  made  by  bieaking  of  bread  and 


elTufion  of  wine ;  to  fignify  to  ui  the  nature  anl 
facrednefs  of  the  liturgy  we  an  about.  Taykr. 

Labour,  for  labour's  fake,  is  againll  nature. 
The  underftanding,  as  well  as  all  the  other  fa- 
culties, choofcs  always  the  /horted  way  to  iu 
end,  would  prefently  obtain  the  knowledge  ir  is 
about,  and  then  fet  upon  fome  new  enquiry.  But 
this,  whether  laainefs  or  hafte,  often  mKleada 
«•  Locie. 

Our  armies  ought  to  be  provided  with  fecre- 
Urics,  to  tell  their  ftory  in  plain  tngliih,  and  to 
let  us  know,  in  our  mother  tongue,  what  it  is 
our  brave  countrymen  are  about. 

Mdifin.  Spelt.  N"  309. 

5.  Appendant  to  the  perfon ;  as  deaths. 

If  you  have  this  about  jou. 
As  I  will  give  you  when  we  go,  you  may 
Boldly  affault  the  necromancer's  hall. 

Milton's  Comus, 

It  is  not  ftrange  to  me,   that  perfons  of  the 

fairer  fex  (hould  like,  in  all  things  about  them, 

that  handfomenefs  for  which  they  find  themfelves 

moft  liked.  Boyle  on  Colours. 

6.  Relating  to  the  perfon,  as  a  fervant,  or 


Liking  very  well  the  young  gentleman,  fuch  I 
took  him  to  be,  admitted  this  Deiphantus  about 
roe,  who  well  (hewed,  there  is  no  fervice  like  hi* 
that  ferves  becaufe  he  loves.  Sidney,  b.  ii. 

7.  Relating  to  perfon,  as  an  aft  or  office. 

Good  coiporal,  for  my  old  dame's  fake,  ftand 
my  friend  :   (he  hath  no  body  to  do  any   thing 
about  her  when  I  am  gone,  and  die  is  old  and  can- 
not^ help  herl'clf.  Sbakcjpeare's  Henry  IV. 
Abo'ut.  ati'v. 

I.  Circularly,  in  a  round  ;  eircum. 
The  weyward  fiders,  hand  in  hand, 
Pofters  of  the  fea  and  land. 
Thus  do  go  about,  about. 
Thrice  to  thine,  and  thrice  to  mine. 
And  thrice  again  to  make  up  nine. 

Sbakefp,  Macleti. 

:.  In  circuit,  in  compafs. 

I'll  tell  you  what  I  am  about. — Two  yards  and 
more.— No  quips  now,  Piftol :  indeed  I  am  in 
the  waid  two  yards  about}  but  I  am  about  no 
wade,  I  am  about  thrift.  Shake/pearl. 

A  tun  about  was  ev'ry  pillar  there, 
A  polifh'd  mirrour  (hone  not  half  fo  clear. 

Diyd.  Fables. 
j.  Nearly;  circiler. 

When  the  boats  were  come  within  about  fixty 
yards  of  the  pillar,  they  found  themfelves  all 
bound,  and  could  go  no  farther;  yet  fo  as  they 
might  move  to  go  about,  but  might  not  approach 
nearer.  Bacon's  New  yitalantis. 

J..  Here  and  there  ;  every  way  ;  circa. 
Up  role  the  gentle  virgin  from  her  place, 
And  looked  all  about,  if  (he  might  fpy 
Her  lovely  knight. 

Fairy  Sluecn,  b.  i.  cant.  'u.  Jlanx,  33. 

A  wolf  that  was  pad  labour,  in  his  old  age, 

borrows  a  habit,  and  (b  about  he  goes,  begging 

charity  from  door  to  door,  under  the  difguife  of  a 

pi'gfim.  L'E/lrange, 

5.  With  to  before  a  verb  ;  as,  about  to  fly, 
upon  the  point,  within  a  fmall  dirtance 

Thefe  dying  lovers,  and  their  floating  fons, 
Sufpend  the  fight,  and  filence  all  our  guns : 
Beauty  and  youth,  abjut  to  pcrilh,  finds 
Such  ncble  pity  in  brave  Englilh  minds.      Waller, 

6.  Round  ;  the  longeft  way,  in  oppofition 
to  the  Ihort  llraight  way. 

Gold  had  thefe  natures;  gieatnefs  of  weight; 
dofenefs  of  parts ;  fixation;  pliantncfs,  or  I'oft- 
ncfs ;  immunity  from  raft  ;  colour,  or  tindlure 
of  yellow:  Therefore  the  fure  way  (though  mod 
about)  to  make  golcl,>s  to  know  the  caulcs  of  the 
fevcral  natures  before  rehearftd. 

Baccn'i  Natural  Hift.  N"  yii. 
Spies  ot  the  Volfcians 
Held  me  ia  chacc,  that  i  was  forced  to  wheel 


A  B  R 

Three  or  faar  miles  aiout ;  elk  h«J  I,  Sir, 
Hall  an  hour  fince  brought  my  report. 

_  Sbakrfp,  Corklanu$, 

7.  To  bring  about ;  to  bring  to  the  point 
or  ftate  defired  ;  as,  he  has  brought  about 
his  furpofes, 

Wiiether  this  will  be  brought  aioof,  by  breaking 
his  Iiead,  I  very  much  queition.  Spfdanr. 

8.  To  come  about ;  to  ccjie  to  fbme  certain 
iiate  or  point.  It  has  commonly  the 
idea  of  revolution,  or  gyration. 

Wherefore  it  cime  to  pals,  when  the  time  was 
come  ahcu!,  alter  Hannah  had  conceived,  that  (he 
*>"«  '  fo"-  I  Snm.  i.  20. 

One  evening  it  befel,  that  looking  out, 
The  wind  they  long  had  wirtid  was  come  aio/,/ ; 
Well  pleas'd  they  went  to  reft ;  and  if  the  gale 
Till  morn  continu'd,  both  refolv'd  to  fall. 


9.  To  go  about ;  to  prepare  to  do  it. 

Did  not  Mofes  give  you  the  law,  and  yet  none 
o(  you  keepeth  the  law  ?    Why  go  ye  about  to  kill 

^^  •  y^b"t  vii.  19, 

In  common  language,   they  fay,   to 

come  about  a  man,  to  circum-vent  him. 
Some  of  thefe  phrafes  feem  to  derive 

their  original  from  the  French  a  bout  ; 

'veitir  a  bout  d'une  cho/e  ;  njcnir  a  bout  de 

A.  Bp.  for  Archbifhop  ;  which  fee. 
^BRACADA'BRJ.  A  fuperftitious  charm 

againft  agues. 
To  ABRA'DE.   v.  a.    [abrado,  Lat.]    To 

rub  off ;  to  wear  away  from  the  other 

parts ;  to  wafte  by  degrees. 

By  thi«  itieanj  there  may  be  a  continued  fap- 
ply  of  what  IS  lucccflively  ahradid  from  them  by 
dccurfinn  of  wale  t.  Hale. 

Abraham's  Balm.     The  name  of  an 

Abra'siom.  (I./    [See  Abrade.] 

1.  The  adl  of  abrading,  or  rubbiog  off. 

2.  [In  medicine.]  The  wearing  away  of 
the  natural  mucus,  which  covers  the 
membranes,  particularly  thofe  of  the 
ftomach  and  guts,  by  corrofive  or  Iharp 
medicines,  or  humours.  ^'>uincy. 

3.  The  matter  worn  off  by  the  attrition  of 

ABRE'AST.a^/t;.  [See  Breast.]  Side  by 
fide ;  in  fuch  a  pofition  that  the  breads 
may  bear  againft  the  fame  line. 

My  coufin  Suffolk, 
My  foul  (hall  thine  keep  company  to  hcav'n  ! 
Tarry,  fweet  foul,  for  mine,  then  fly  abrraft. 

_      .  Xhakrff.  H,nry  V. 

For  hon.iur  travels  in  a  Sreight  fo  narrow. 
Where  one  but  goes  abicajl, 

_,       .  Stakcff.TnUuiandCreJpJa. 

The  riders  rode  abrtaft,  and  one  his  (hielH, 
His  lance  of  cornel  wood  another  held. 

4.  _  Drydtn't  Fttla. 

ABRicoT.     See  Apricot. 

To  nRI'DGE.  -v.  a.  [abreger,  Fr.  abbre- 

•vio,  Lat.] 
I.  To  make  Ihorter  in   words,    keepine 

ftill  the  fame  fubftance. 

All  thefe  fayings,  being  declared  by  Jafm  of 
Cyrene  in  6ye  books,  we  will  effay  to  abridit  in 
one  volume.  i  Af^rr.ii.  23. 

3.  To  contraa,  to  diminifti,  to  cut  (hort. 

.  7,^'  determination  of  the  will,  upon  enouiry, 
IS  following  the  direftion  of  that  guide :  and  he, 
that  ha.  a  power  to  aO  or  not  to  aft,  according 
as  fuch  determination  direfls,  i.  free.  Such  de- 
termination abridga  not  that  power  wherein  li- 
berty confifts.  Loikc 

3.  To  deprive  of ;  to  W  off  from.     In" 
Vol.  I. 

A  B  R 

which  fenfe  it  is  followed  by  the  particle 
from,  or  of,  preceding  the  thing  uken 

I  have  difaWed  mine  eftate. 
By  (hewing  fomcthing  a  more  fwelling  poit. 
Than  my  faint  means  would  grant  continuance  ; 
Nor  do  I  now  make  moan  to  be  abridgd 
From  fuch  a  noble  rate. 

Shaktjpcare'i  Merchant  of  Venice. 
They  were  formerly,  by  the  common  law,  dif- 
charged  from  pontage  and  murage  j  but  this  pri- 
vilege has    been  abridrid  them  fince  by    fe>eral 
ftatutes.  Ayhfe~!  PaiergcK  Jurn  CwrMci 

AhKi  DGED  OF.  fa-t.    Deprived  of,  de- 
barred from,  cut  fliort, 
Abri'dger.  n.f. 

1.  He  that  abridges ;  a  Ihortener. 

2.  A  writer  of  compendiums  or  abridg- 

A B  R  i'd  G  M  E  N  T.  »./.  [abregcfnent,  French.] 

1.  The  epitome  of  a  larger  work  con- 
tradled  into  a  fmall  compafs  ;  a  com- 
pend  ;  a  fummary. 

Surely  this  commandment  containeth  the  law 
and  the  prophets;  and,  in  thi;  one  word,  is  the 
abridgment  of  alt  volumes  of  Icripture. 

Hookcry  b.  ii.  ^  5. 
Idolatry  is  certainly  the  firft-born  of  folly,  the 
great  and  leading  paradox  ;   nay,  the  very  abridg- 
ment and  fum  total  of  all  abfu.ditics. 

.  Soutb*s  Sermon:, 

2.  A  diminution  in  general. 

All  trying,  by  a  love  of  littlcncfs, 
To  make  abrid^menti,  and  to  draw  to  lefs. 
Even  that  nothing,  which  at  firft  wc  were. 
_^  .  Dcnne. 

3.  Contraction  ;  redudion. 

The  conftant  delire  of  happincfs,  and  the  con- 
ftraint  it  puts  upon  Us,  no  body,  I  think,  ac- 
counts an  abridgment  of  liberty,  or  at  lead  an 
abridgment  of  liberty  to  be  complained  of.      Locke. 

4.  Rertraint  from  any  thing  pleafing ; 
contraftion  of  any  thing  enjoyed. 

It  is  not  barely  a  man's  abridgment  in  his  ex- 
ternal accommodations  which  makes  him  mife- 
rable,  but  when  his  confcieoce  (hall  tell  him  that 
It  was  his  fin  and  his  folly  which  brought  him 
under  that  abridgment.  South. 

Abro'ach.  ad'i/.  [See  7"o  Broach.] 

1.  In  a  pofture  to  run  out,  or  yieltl  the 
liquor  contained;  properly  fpoken  of 

The  jars  of  genVous  wine 
He  fet  abroach,  and  for  the  fcaft  prepar'd. 

Dryd.  Virgil. 
TheTempler  fpnice,  while ev'ry  (foui'tabroach. 
Stays  till  'tis  fair,  jet  feems  to  call  a  coach. 

S-wifi't  Mifcel. 

2.  In  a  figurative  fenfe  ;  in  a  ftate  to  be 
diffufed  or  extended,  in  a  ftate  of  fuch 
beginning  as  promifes  a  progrefs. 

That  man,  that  fits  within  a  monarch's  heart. 
And  ripens  in  the  funlhinc  of  his  favour. 
Would  he  abufr  the  count'nance  of  the  king. 
Alack  !  what  mifchiefs  might  be  let  abroach. 
In  (hadow  of  fuch  greatncfs ! 

,  Shakefprari't  Henry  IV.p.W. 

Abroad,  adv.  [compounded  of  a  and 
broad.     See  Broad.] 

1.  Without  confinement;  widely;  at  large. 

Intermit  no  watch 
Againft  a  wakeful  foe,  while  I  abroad. 
Thro'  all  the  coafts  of  dark  dcrtruclion  feek 
Ucliverancp.      Mihon'i  Paradife  Loft,  b.  ii.  /.  463. 

Again,  the  lonely  fox  roams  (it  abroad. 
On  Itcret  rapine  bent,  and  midnight  fraud; 
Now  haunts  the  cli(r,  now  traver(es  the  lawn. 
And  flies  the  hated  neighbourhood  of  man.    Prior. 

2.  Out  of  the  houfe. 

Welcome,  Sir, 
This  cfU'«  my  coyrt ;  here  h»v«  I  few  attendants. 

A  B  R 

And  fubjefts  t\one  abroad.      Shaicfpeare'iTcmpeJl, 
Lady  —  walked  a  whole  hour  abroad,  with- 
out dying  after  it,  Pope's  Letters. 

3.  In  another  country. 

They  thought  it  better  to  be  fomewhat  hardly 
yoked  at  home,  than  for  ever  abroad,  and  difcre- 
dited.  Hooker,  Prrf. 

Whofoever  olTers  at  verbal  tranflatioii,  (hall 
have  the  misfortune  nf  that  young  traveller,  who 
loft  his  own  language  abroad,  md  brought  home 
no  other  inftead  of  it.  Sir  J.  Denham- 

What  learn  our  youth  abroad,  but  to  refine 
The  homely  vices  of  tlieir  native  land  ? 

Dryd.  Span.  Friar, 

He  who  fojoums  in  a  foreign  country,  relera 
what  he  krs  and  hears  abroad,  to  tlie  ftate  of 
things  at  home.    _  Atfrrb.  Serm. 

4.  In  all  dire<5lio!is,  this  way  and  that ; 
with  wide  expanfion. 

Full  in  the  midft  of  this  infernal  road. 
An  elm  difplays  her  dulky  arms  abroad, 

Dryd,  Virg,  Mh,  Tl. 

5.  Without,  not  within. 

Bodies  politic,  being  fubjcdl,  as  much  as  na- 
tural, to  dili'olurion,  by  divers  means,  there  are 
undoubtedly  more  ftatcs  overthrown  through  dif- 
oaiei  bred  within  themlelves,  than  through  vio- 
lence  from  abroad.  Hooker,  Dedication. 

To  A'BROGATE.i-.a.  [abrogo, La.t.]  Ta 
take  away  from  a  law  its  force ;  to  re- 
peaL;  to  annul. 

Laws  have  been  made  upon  fpecial  occafions, 
which  occailons  cealing,  laws  of  that  kind  do  ab~ 
rotate  themlelves.  Hooker,  b.  iv.  (j  14. 

The  negative  precepts  of  men  may  ccafe  by 
rnany  inftrumcnts,  by  contrary  cuftoms,  by  pub- 
lic difrelilh,  by  long  omiflion  :  but  the  negative 
precepts  of  CoJ  never  can  ceafe,  but  when  they 
are  exprefsly  abrogated  by  the  fame  authority. 

Taylor's  Rule  of  living  holy, 
Abro'gation.    n.f.    [abrogatio,    Lat.] 
The  ad  of  abrogating ;  the  repeal  of  S 

The  commi/Tionen  from  the  confederate  Ro. 
man  catholics,  demanded  the  ahregatioinnA  repeal 
or  all  thofe  laws,  which  were  in  force  againft  the 
exercife  of  the  Roman  religion.  Clarendon,  b.  viii. 
Ta  Abro'ok.  <v.  a.  [from  To  brook,  with 
^  fuperabundant,  a  word  not  in  ufe.] 
To  brook,  to  bear,  to  endure. 

Sweet  Nell,  ill  can  thy  noble  minJ  abrott 
The  abjcd  people  gazing  on  thy  face 
With  envious  looks,  ftill  laughing  at  thy  (hnme. 
Shake/peare's  Henry  VI.  p.  ii. 

ABRU'PT.  adj.   [abruftus,  Lat.  broke* 

1.  Broken,  craggy. 

Refiftlcls,  roaring,  dreadful,  down  it  come* 
From  the  rude  mountain,  and  the  mo4ry  wild. 
Tumbling  through  rocks  abrupt.      ThomJ.  fVintfr, 

2.  Divided,  without  any  thing  intervening. 

Or  fprcad  his  airy  flight. 
Upborn  wi^h  indefatigable  wings. 
Over  the  vaft  abrupt,  ere  he  arrive 
Tlic  happy  ide. 

Milton's  Paradife  Loft,  A  ii.  /.  409s 

3.  Sudden,  without  the  cuftomary  or  pro- 
per preparatives. 

My  lady  craves 
To  know  the  caufe  of  your  aira^r  departure. 


The  abrupt  and  unkind  breaking  off  the  two 

(irft  parliaments,  was  wholly  imputed  to  the  duke 

of  Buckingham.  Clarendon, 

Abrupt,  with  eagle-fpeed  (he  cut  th«  flcy  j 
Inftant  invifible  to  mortal  eye. 
Then  (irft  he  recognii'd  th'  ethereal  gueft. 

Pope's  Odyff.  b, !, 

4.  Unconnefted. 

The  abrupt  ftile,  which  hath  many  breache% 
and  doth  not  fccm  to  end  but  fall. 

Btn  Jonjon't  Difcoverj. 
C  AfiRv'pTeU. 

A  B  S 

Abhu'pteo.  aJj.  [ahruptui,  Lat.  a  word 
little  in  ufe.]     Broken  off  fuddenly. 

The  tffcCti  of  their  afl. .  ity  »r«  not  prccipi- 
toudy  atmftal,  but  grjdunlly  proceed  to  their 
ccfTitions.  Bntvii'i  Vulgar  F.rnurt,  h.  vi.  lo. 

Abru'ption.  »./[a^-«,v/(>,Lat.]  Break- 
ing ofF,  violent  and  fudden  reparation. 

Thofe  which  are  inclofcd  in  rtone,  marble,  or 
fuch  other  fdid  matter,  being  difficultly  feparable 
from  it,  becaufe  of  its  adhefion  to  all  fides  of 
them,  ba»e  commonly  fome  of  that  matter  ftill 
adhering  to  them,  or  at  leaft  marks  of  its  «i- 
npiiiti  from  them,  in  all  their  fides. 

H'rtil'aHird'i  Nal.  Uift.  p.  4- 

ABRu'pTLY.a/f.  [See  Abrupt.]  Haf- 
tily,  without  the  due  forms  of  prepara- 

The  fvreetnefs  of  virtue's  difpofition,  jealous 
nen  over  itfclf,  fuffered  her  not  to  enter  ahrufily 
into  queftions  of  Mufidorus.  Sidney,  h.W. 

Novn  miffing  from  their  joy  fo  lately  found, 
So  lately  found,  and  fo  abruptly  gone. 

Par.  Regained,  h,  il. 
They  both  of  them  punftually  obfervcd  the 
time  thus  agreed  upon,  and  that  in  whatever  com- 
pany or  bufinefs  they  were  engaged,  they  left  it 
atruplh,  as  foon  as  the  clock  warned  them  to 
retire.  yiddijoit,  Sfeflalor,  tt"  z^i. 

Abru'ptness.  »./   [from  airuft.] 
I.  An  abrupt  manner,  halle,  fuddennefs, 

ujitimely  vehemence. 
3.  The  ftate  of  an  abrupt  or  broken  thing ; 
roughncfs,  cragginefs ;  as  of  a  fragment 
violently  disjoined. 

The  cryftalliied  bodies  found  in  the  perpendi- 
cular intervals,  have  always  their  root,  as  the  jew- 
ellers call  it,  whicl\  is  only  tlie  airufrne/s,  at  ihc 
end  of  the  body  whereby  it  adhered  to  the  ftonc, 
or  fides  of  the  intervals;  which  ahruftne/i  is 
cauled  by  its  being  broke  off  from  the  faid  ftone. 
lymdiv.  Nat,  Hiji.f.  4. 

A'bscess.  »./.  [ahfceffui,  Lat.]  A  mor- 
bid cavity  in  the  body  ;  a  tumour  filled 
with  matter  ;  a  term  of  chirurgery. 

If  the  patient  is  not  relieved,  nor  dies  in  eight 
days,  the  inflammation  ends  in  a  fimpuration  and 
an  abjeeft  in  the  lungs,  and  fometimes  in  fome 
other  part  of  the  body.  Arbuth.  of  Diet. 

Lindanus  conjcfturcd  it  might  He  fome  hidden 
ebftefi  in  the  mefenlery,  which,  breaking  fome 
few  days  after,  was  difcovered  to  be  an  apoftem  of 
the  mcfentery.  Harvey  w  Confumptiom. 

To  Absci'nd.  oi.  a.  To  cut  off,  either 
in  a  natural  or  figurative  fenfe. 

ABSCrSSA.  [Lat.]  Part  of  the  diame- 
ter of  a  conic  fedion,  intercepted  be- 
tween the  vertex  and  a  femi -ordinate. 

Absci'ssion.  n.f.  \_abfc}JJio,  Lat.] 

I .  The  aft  of  cutting  off. 

Fabricius  ab  Aquipendente  renders  the  abfcif- 
Jim  of  them  difficult  enough,  and  not  without 
danger.  Hfifeman's  Surgery. 

X.  The  (late  of  being  cut  off. 

By  cefTation  of  oracle;,  with  Montacutius,  wc 
may  u.idcrfland  this  inteicilian,  not  ahfcij^m,  or 
confummate  defolaiion. 

Brown's  y^Igar  Errours,  h.  vi.  e.  it. 

To  ABSCCyND.  -v.n.  [ah/condo,  Lat.]  To 
hide  one's  felf  ;  to  retire  from  the  pub- 
lic view :  generally  nfed  of  perfons  in 
debt,  or  criminals  iluding  the  law. 

The  macrootte  or  mas  alpinut,  w'.iich  ahfcindt  all 
winter,  liv-:"  on  its  own  Ut ;  for  ia  autumn,  when 
it  fhbU  itfelf  up  in  iu  hole,  it  is  very  fa:;  hit 
in  the  fprlog-time,  when  it  cumes  forth  again,  very 
lean.  Ray  on  the  Creation. 

Absco'nder.  n./.  [£.-osa at/conJ.]    The 

perfon  that  abfconds. 
A'ssENCk.  «./  [Sec  Absent.] 

A  B  S 

1.  The  Rate  of  being  abfettt,  oppofed  to 

Sir,  'tis  fit 
You  hxve  ftrong  party  to  detend  yourfelf 
By  calmuefs,  or  by  abfence:  all's  in  danger. 

Sbakcjpeare^  i  Coriolanut* 
His  friends  beheld,  and  pity'd  him  in  vain. 
For  what  advice  can  eafe  a  lover's  pain  ? 
Ahjtnte,  the  belt  enpedient  they  c^iuld  find. 
Might  bve  the  fortune,  if  not  cure  the  mind. 


You  have  given  no  dilTertation  upon  the  ab- 

feme  of  lovers,  nor  laid  down  any  methods  how 

they  diould  fupport  theinfelves  under  thofe  fcpa- 

rations.  j-lMiifon,  Spe^atcr,  t^°  ztyi. 

2.  Want  of  appearance,  in  the  legal  fenfe. 

MJence  is  of  a  fourfold  kinji  or  fpccies.  The 
firft  is  a  neccflTary  abfence,  as  in  baniihed  pcifons ; 
this  is  entirely  neceffary.  A  fccond,  neceflary 
and  voluntary  ;  as,  upon  the  account  of  the  com- 
monwealth, or  in  the  fervice  of  the  church. 
The  third  kind  the  civilians  call  a  probable  ab- 
fence; as,  that  of  Undents  on  the  fcore  of  ftudy. 
And  the  fourth,  an  ai/<rnf«  entirely  voluntary  ;  as, 
on  the  account  of  trade,  merchandife,  and  the 
like.  Some  add  a  fifth  kind  of  abfence,  which  is 
committed  cum  dolo  fif  culpa,  by  a  man's  non- 
appearance on  a  citation  ;  as,  in  a  contumacious 
perfon,  who,  in  hatred  to  his  contumacy,  is,  by 
the  law,  in  fome  refpe^s,  reputed  as  a  perfon  pre- 
fcnt.  Ayl'tffc's  Parergon  Juris  Canonici. 

3.  Inattention,  heedleffnefs,  negleft  of  the 
prefent  objeft. 

I  continued  my  walk,  rcfleSing  on  the  I'ttle 
abfences  and  diftradlions  of  mankind. 

Addifon,  SpeSiator,  N°  77. 

4.  It  is  ufed  with  the  particle/rom. 

His  abjence  from  his  mjther  oft  he'll  mourn. 
And,  with  his  eyes,  look  wifhes  to  return. 

Dryd.  Juv.  Sat.  ii. 

A'BSENT.  fl^-.  [a/5>/,  Lat.] 

1.  Not  prefent:    ufed  with   the   particle 

In  fpring  the  fields,  in  autumn  hills  I  love ; 
At  morn  the  plains,  at  noon  the  fhady  grove ; 
But  Delia  always  :  abfentfrom  her  fight. 
Nor  plains  at  morn,  nor  groves  at  noon  delight. 


Where  there  is  advantage  to  be  given. 
Both  more  and  lefs  have  given  him  the  revolt ; 
And  none  fervc  with  him  but  conftraincJ  things, 
Whofe  hearts  are  abjent  too.        Stake/p.  Macbeth. 

Whether  they  were  abfcnt  or  prefent,  they  were 
vexed  alike.  If^fJ.  xi.  11. 

2.  Abfent  in  mind,  inattentive ;  regard- 
lefs  of  the  prefent  objeft. 

I  diftinguifh  a  min  that  is  abfcnt,  becaufe  he 
thinks  of  fomething  clfe,  from  him  that  is  aijeni, 
becaufe  he  thinks  of  nothing. 

Mdifon,  SpeHator,  N°  77. 

To  Abse'nt.  v.  a.  To  withdraw,  to  for- 
bear to  come  into  prefence. 

If  thoa  didft  ever  hold  me  in  thy  heart, 
Mjtnt  thee  from  felicity  a  while. 
And  in  this  harfli  world  draw  thy  breath  in  pain. 
To  tell  my  tale.  Shakejpenre  i  Hamlet, 

Co.— for  thy  ftay,  not  free,  abfenis  thee  more. 

Ml/ton  I  Paradife  Loft,  b.\x.  I.  372. 
Tho'  I  am  forc'd  thus  to  a!>frnt  myfelf 
From  all  I  love,  I  Qiall  contrive  fome  means. 
Some  friendly  intervals,  to  vifit  thee. 

Southern's  Spartan  Dame, 

The  ^engo  it  ftlll  called  together  in  cafes  of 

important;    and    if,    after   due   fummons,    any 

member  ahfenis  himfelf,  he  is  to  be  fined  to  the 

'  value  of  about  a  penny  Engtith. 

Addifon's  Remarks  on  Italy, 

Absent a'neous.  aJj,  Relating  to  ab- 
fence ;  abfent.  Did. 

Ausente'e.  It./.  He  that  is  abfent  from 
his  llation  or  employment,  or  country. 
A  word  ufed  commonly  with  regard  to 
IriQimen  living  out  of  their  country. 

A  B  S 

Then  w»l  the  firft  ftatute  made  agaioft  ahfmttei, 
commanding  all  fuch  as  had  land  in  Ireland,  to 
return  and  refide  tlie«upon. 

S:r  yobn  Davies  en  Irelard* 
A  f  real  part  of  ellaDes  io  Ireland  are  ownei  by 
abfeniat,  and  fuch  as  draw  over  the  profits  raifed 
out  of  Irrland,  refunding  notlung. 

Child's  Di/coarfe  en  Trade, , 
Absi'nthi  ATED.  fart,  [(rova  ai/iiilhitim, 
Lat.  wormwood.]    Imbittercd,  impreg- 
nated with  wormwood.  DUi, 
To  Absi'st.  nj.  It.  [aifi/o,  L^t.]  To  Hand 
off,  to  leave  off.                               />'<*• 
To  ABSCLVE.  i).  a.  [ab/olvo,  Lat.] 

1.  To  clear,  to  acquit  of  a  crime  in  a  ju- 
dicial fenfe. 

Your  great  goodnefs,  out  of  holy  pity, 
Abjulv'd  him  with  an  axe.     Shakrjp,  Henry  VIII. 

Our  vidlort,  bleftin  peace,  forget  their  wars. 
Enjoy  pad  dangers,  and  abfilve  the  ftars.     Tickell. 

As  he  hopes,  and  gives  out,  by  the  influence  of 
his  wealth,  to  be  here  abfil-ved ;  in  condemning 
tliis  man,  you  have  an  opportunity  of  belying 
that  general  fcandal,  of  rediiiir.lng  the  cr-dit  loli 
by  former  judgments.  Stvift's  Mifelltmej. 

2.  To  fet  free  from   an   engagement  or 

Compell'd  by  thrratJ  to  take  that  bloody  oath. 
And  the  aft  ill,  I  am  abfoh'd  by  both. 

IVatlers  Maid's  Tragedy, 
This  command,  which  muft  neceffarily  com- 
prehend the  perfons  of  our  natural  fathers,  muft 
mean  a  duty  we  owe  them,  diHinft  from  our  obe- 
'  dience  to  the  magiflrate,  and  from  which  the 
mjft  abfolute  power  of  princes  cannot  ahfolvt 
us.  .  .  Laete. 

3.  To  pronounce  fin  remitted,  in  the  ec- 
clefiaftical  fenfe. 

But  all  is  calm  in  this  eternal  fleep  ; 
Here  grief  forgets  to  groan,  and  love  to  weep  ; 
Ev'n  fupcrftition  lofes  ev'ry  fear  ; 
For  God,  not  man,  abfohes  our  frailties  here. 

Pope's  Eloifa  to  Aitlari, 

4.  To  finilh,   to  complete.     This  ufe  is 
not  common. 

What  caiife 
MoT'd  the  Creator,  in  his  holy  reft 
Through  all  eternity,  fo  late  to  build 
In  chaos ;  and  the  work  begun,  how  foon 
Ahjolv'd,  Milton's  Paradije  LoH,  b.  vii.  /.  94. 

If  that  which  is  fo  fuppoled  infinitely  dillant 
from  what  is  now  current,  is  d'ftant  from  us  by 
a  finite  interval,  and  not  infinitely,  then  that  on* 
circulation  wiiich  preceded  it,  muft  necelTarily  be 
like  ours,  and  confcquently  abjolved  in  the  fpace 
of  twenty-four  hours.  Hale's  Origin  of  Mankind, 
A'bsolute.  ezif/,   [ahfolutus,  Lat.] 

1.  Complete;  applied  as  well  to  perfons 
as  things. 

Beciule  the  things  that  proceed  from  him  art 
perfedl,  without  any  manner  of  defeft  or  maim  ; 
it  cannot  be  but  that  the  words  oi  his  mouth  ate 
alfolute,  and  lack  nothing  which  they  fliouid  have, 
for  performance  of  that  thing  whrreunto  they 
tend.  Hcokcr,  i.  ii.  ^  6. 

What  is  his  ftrength  by  land  ? — 
—Great  and  increafing  :  but  by  fea 
He  is  an  aiflule  miftcr.  ' 

Shakefpeare's  Antony  and  Cleopatra, 

2.  Unconditional ;  as,  an  abfolute  promife: 

Although  it  runs  in  forms  alf'uie,  yet  it  ij 
indeed  conditional,  as  depending  upon  the  qualifi- 
cation of  the  perfon  to  whom  it  is  pronounced. 

S'Mth'i  Sermmi, 

3.  Not  relative  ;  as,  abfolute  fpace. 

I  fee  ftill  the  diftinQions  of  fovert'ign  and  in- 
ferior, of  abhlute  and  relative  worlhip,  will  bear 
any  man  out  in  the  worrtiip  of  any  creature  with 
rcfpcfl  to  Cod,  as  well  at  leaft  as  ic  doth  in  the 
worlhip  of  images. 

HiiHingf.  Def,  of  Dife.  m  Rom,  Idol, 

An  abfolute  mode  is  that  which  belongs  to  ic« 

fubjeil,  without  rcfpeft  to  any  other  biings  what'. 

locvet  J 

A  B  S 

ftntr;  but  >  relative  mode  is  derived  from  the 
regird  that  one  being  has  to  othert. 

fKitts's  Lsgici, 

In  this  fenfe  we  fpeak  of  the  ablative 
cafe  ahfoiute  in  grammar. 

4.  Not  limited  ;  as,  ahfohite  power. 

My  crown  is  ahj(^viey  a^  holds  of  none; 
I  cannot  in  a  bale  fubjeftion  live. 
Nor  fuffcr  you  to  take,  tho'  I  would  give. 

Dryd,  Ud.  Emp. 

5.  Pofitive  ;  certain ;  without  any  hefita- 
tion.     In  this  fenfe  it  rarely  occurs. 

Long  is  it  fince  I  faw  him, 
But  time  hath  nothing  blurr'd  thofc  lines  of  favour, 
Which  then  he  w.:re;  the  fnatches  in  his  voice. 
And  burtl  of  fpcaking,  were  as  his  :  I'm  ahfoiute, 
'Twas  very  Cl<iten,  Shakeflieare^i  Cymbefwe. 

A'bsolutei.y.  aJ'v.  [from  abfoluteJ] 
1.  Completely,  without  reftriftion. 

All  the  conirad^^ions  which  grow  in  thofe 
mind-:,  that  neither  cbfoiutely  climb  the  roclc  oi 
Ttrtue,  nor  freely  Gnlc  into  the  fea  of  vanity. 


What  merit  they  can  build  upon  having  joined 
with  a  proteliant  army,  under  a  king  they  ac- 
knowledge, to  defend  their  own  liberties  and  pro- 
perties, !»,  to  me,  ahJrJvtety  inconceivable  ;  and, 
1  believe,  will  equally  be  fo  i^r  ever. 

Sic'iji's  Vrijh.  Plea. 

z.  Without  relation  ;    in  a  ftate  uncon- 

Alj'Auuly  we  cannot  difcommend,  we  cannot 
abjr)iutely  approve  either  willingnefs  to  live,  or  for- 
wardncfs  to  die,  hooker,  b,  v. 

Thefe  then  being  the  perpetual  caufes  of  leal  ; 
the  grejtcft  good,  or  th-:  grcateft  evil;  cither  o^- 
fblu'ely  fo  in  th^mtelvc,  or  relatively  fo  to  usj  it 
is  theieforeg'vd  to  bezealoully  aSe^ed  for  the  one 
agiinft  the  titlicr.  Sfrofs  Sermoai. 

■No  fenfible  quality,  as  light,  and  colour,  and 
heat,  and  found,  can  be  lublilrent  in  the  bodies 
themfelves,  uhjolutely  coadticred,  wirhouta  relation 
to  our  eyes  and  ears,  and  other  orgini  of  fenle. 
Thefe  qualities  are  only  the  efiedls  of  our  fenfa- 
tlor,  which  ariic  from  the  different  motions,  upon 
our  nervcv  from  ol.jefts  without,  according  to 
•heir  various  modiiicationa  and  pofitions. 

Ecntley^i  Sermonu 

3.  Without  limits  or  dependance. 

The  prnvc  long  time  bad  courted  fortune's  love, 
But,  once  puli(!.i'd,  did  jbfclurely  reign  : 
Thus,  with  their  Arnazons,  the  heroes  drove. 
And  coiT^uer'd  fiill  thofe  beauties  they  would  gain. 
Drydm'i  jliiTtut  M:rabilii. 

4.  Without  condition. 

And  of  that  nature,  for  the  mnft  part,  are 
things  abfilutely  anto  all  men's  filvation  neccffary, 
either  to  be  held  or  denied,  either  to  be  done  01 
avoided.  Jlccier'i  Preface. 

5.  Peremptorily;  pofitively. 

Being  as  I  am,  why  didll  not  thoa 
Command  me  abj^lutrly  not  to  go, 
Going  into  fuch  danger,  as  thou  fiidft  } 

Farad.  X-c^,  h.  Ix. 
A'bsoluteness.  n.f.\^\om.abfjMt.'\ 

1.  Completenefs. 

2.  Freedom  from  dep£ndance,  or  limits. 

The  abjotuttneji  and  illimitednefs  of  his  com- 
irJlTiun  was  generally  much  fpoken  of. 

Clarendon,  b.  viii. 

There  is  nothing  that  can  raife  a  man  to  that 
generous  abfo'utinejt  of  condition,  as  neither  to 
ctingc,  to  fawn,  or  to  depend  meinly  ;  but  that 
wbich  gives  hiin  that  happinefs  within  himfelf,  for 
which  men  depend  upon  othersi         Seulb'i  Serm. 

3.  Defpoticifm. 

He  kept  a  ftrait  hand  on  his  nobility,  and  chofe 
rather  to  ailvance  clergymen  and  lawyers,  which 
were  more  obfcquinus  to  him,  but  had  lefs  inti.-eft 
in  the  people ;  which  made  for  his  abjotuieneft,  but 
not  for  his  fafety.  Bacon'i  Henry  VII 

They  dref?  up  ^ower  with  all  the  fplendor  and 
temptation  abfilutrr-js  can  add  to  it.  Lo  it. 

Absolu'tion.  «./  [ai/hlulie,  Lat.] 

A  B  S 

1.  Acquittal. 

jibjohithn,  in  the  civil  law,  imports  a  full  ac- 
quittal of  a  perfon  by  fome  final  fenience  of  law  ; 
alfo,  a  temporary  difchargc  of  his  farther  atten 
dance  upon  a  mefne  procefs,  though  a  failure  or 
defeft  in  pleading  j  as  it  does  likewifc  in  the  canon 
law,  where,  and  among  divines,  it  likcwife  figni- 
fies  a  relaxation  of  him  from  the  obligation  of 
fome  fentence  pronounced  either  in  a  court  of  l.iw, 
or  eife  \nforo paemteniiol'i.  Thus  there  is,  in  this 
kind  of  law,  one  kind  of  ahjohuton,  termed  ju- 
dicial, and  another,  ftyled  a  declaratory  or  extra- 
judicial abjotution^ 

Ayliffe'i  Parergon  Jur'n  Canor.ici. 

2.  The  remiflion  of  fins,  or  penance,  de- 
clared by  ecclefiaftical  authority. 

The  abjalutkji  pronounced  by  a  prieit,  whether 
papiftor  proicftant,  is  nota  certain  infallible  ground 
to  give  the  perfnn,  fo  abfolved,  confidence  towards 
God.  Soutb't  Sermons. 

A'bsolutory.  eie/J.  [ab/olutorius ,  Lat.], 
That  which  abfolves. 

Though  an  abfoiiit'.ry  fentence  (hould  be  pro- 
nounced in  favour  of  the  perlons,  upon  the  ac- 
count of  nearnefs  of  blood  ;  yet,  if  adultery  fliall 
afterwards  be  truly  proved,  he  may  be  ajain  pro- 
ceeded againll  as  an  adulterer.    A\!\^e'i  Ptrergon. 

^ nQfi f,i>T . adj .  [SeeAssoNOus.]  Con- 
trary to  reafon,  wide  from  the  purpofe. 

A'bsbnous.  adj.  [ai/oims,  Lzt.  ill-found- 
ing.] Abfurd,  contrary  to  reaibn.  It 
is  not  much  in  ufe,  and  it  may  be 
doubted  whether  it  fhould  be  followed 
by  to  or_/rj«. 

To  fuppofe  an  uniter  of  a  middle  conltitution, 
that  Ihculd  partake  of  fome  of  the  qualities  ot 
both,  is  unwarranted  by  any  of  our  faculties  j  yea, 
moft  abjorous  to  our  reafon. 

Clanx'iile't  Scepjis  Siientijtea,  c-  4. 

To  Abso'rb.  f .  a.  \ahforbeo,  Lat.  preter. 

abjorbed;  part.   pret.  abjorbed,   or  ab- 

I .  To  fwallow  up. 

Mofes  imputed  the  deluge  to  the  difiuption  of 
the  abyfs  ;  and  St.  Peter  to  the  particular  conltitu- 
tion of  that  earth,  which  made  it  obnoxious  to  be 
abftrpt  in  water.  Burn.  Tbeory. 

Some  tokens  fliew 
Of  fearlefs  friendftirp,  and  their  finking  mates 
Sullain  ;  vain  love,  tho"  laudable,  al.j'.rft 
By  a  fierce  eddy,  they  together  found 
The  vaft  profundity.  Pbillift. 

z.  To  fuck  up.     See  Absorbfnt. 

The  evils  that  come  of  rxercife  are  that  it  doth 
abforb  and  attenuate  the  moillurc  of  the  body. 

Suppofing  theforementinnedconfumption  fliould 
prove  fo  durable,  as  to  abforb  and  extenuate  the 
faid  fanguine  parts  to  an  extreme  degree,  it  ii 
evident,  that  the  fundamental  parts  mu^  necclfa- 
riiy  come  into  danger.  Hanvey  on  Confum/nhni. 
While  we  perfpire,  we  abforb  the  outward  air. 

Abso'rbent.  »./.  \abforbem,  Lat.] 

A  medicine  that,  by  the  foftnefs  or 
porofity  of  its  parts,  either  cafes  the 
afperities  of  pungent  humours,  or  dries 
away  fupcrfluous  moillure  in  the  body. 

There  is  a  third  dafs  of  fubftances,  commonly 
called  abforbentt  ;  as,  the  various  kinds  ai  (hell-, 
coral,  chalk,  crabi  eyes,  feft.  which  likewife  laUc 
an  etftrvefccnce  with  aclds,and  are  therefore  called 
alkalis,  though  not  fo  properly,  for  they  are  not 
f-ilts.  Arbuthnot  on  Altmenti. 

Abso'rpt. /«»-/.  [{rom  ab/orb.]  Swallow- 
ed up  ;  ufed  as  well,  in  a  figurative 
fenfe,  of  perfons,  as,  in  the  primitive, 
of  things. 

W^iiat  can  you  cxpe£l  from  a  man,  who  has  not 
talked  thefe  five  days?  wb»  is  withdrawiog  his 

A  B  9 

thoughts,  as  far  as  he  can,  from  all  thi  preftnt 

wjild,  its  cuftoms  and   its  manners,  to  be  fully 
poffiilVed  and  abforft  in  the  part.         Pope's  Letters, 

Abso'rption.  )',yi  [from  fl^''"'^-]     "^^^ 
&&.  of  fwallowing  up. 

It. was  belowtlie  dignity  of  thofe  facred  penmen, 
or  the  Spirit  of  God  that  direQed  them,  to  fliew 
us  the  caufes  of  this  difruption,  or  of  this  abfrp- 
tion  J  this  is  left  to  the  enquiries  of  men. 

Burnet's  Theory  of  the  Earth. 
To  ABSTA'IN.  t;.  r.  [abjiineo,  Lat.]   To 
forbear,  to  deny  one's  felf  any  gratifi- 
cation ;  with  the  particle_/ro/». 

If  thou  judge  it  hard  and  difficult, 
Converfing,  looking,  loving,  to  abflain 
Friminvc's  due  rites,  nuptial  embraces  fweet; 
And,  with  defires,  to  languiih  without  hope. 

Miilon's  Paradife  Loft,  b.  I.  /.  993. 

To  be  perpetually  lonjing,  and  impatiently  dc- 

firous  of  any  thing,  fo  that  a  man  cannot  abftam 

from  it,  is  to  lofe  a  man's  liberty,  and  to  become 

a  fervant  of  meat  and  drink,  or  fmoke. 

'Taylor  s  Rule  of  Iwing  bolyt 
Even  then  the  doubtful  b;ilows  fcarce  abfiain 
From  the  tofs'd  vcflel  on  the  troubled  main. 

.    Drydens  Vtrgil. 

ABSTE'MIOUS.  adj.  {abjiemius,  Lat.] 
Temperate,  fober,  abftinent,  refrain- 
ing from  excels  or  pleafur^s.  It  is  ufed 
of  perfons  ;  as,  an  abjitmious  hermit: 
and  of  thiivgs  ;  as,  an  abjiemhus  diet. 
It  is  fpoken  likewife  of  things  that  caufc 

The  inllances  of  longevity  are  chiefly  amongft 
the  abfiemious.  Abftinencc  in  extremity  will  prove 
a  mortal  dileafe;  but  the  experiments  of  it  ate 
very  rare.  Arbuthnot  on  Aliments. 

Clytorean  ftreams  the  love  of  wine  expel, 
(Such  is  the  virtue  of  th'^ wk-W) 
Whether  the  colder  nymph  that  rules  the  flood, 
Extinguiflies,  and  balks  the  drunken  god  : 
Or  that  Mclampus  (fo  have  fome  alfur'd) 
When  the  maJ  Pi.-etides  with  charms  he  cur'd, 
And  pow'rful  lierba,  both  charms  and  fimples  call 
Into  the  fober  fpring,  where  itill  their  virtues  laft. 
Drydens  Fables. 

Abste'miously.  adv.  [from  abjlemious.^ 
Temperately,  foberly,  without  indul- 
Abste'miousness.  n.  f.  [See  Abste- 
mious.] The  quality  of  being  ablle- 
Abste'ntion.  n.f.  [fromab/fitteo,  Lat.] 
The  ad  of  holding  off,  or  reftraining  ; 
rellraint.  Z>;V?, 

To   ABSTE'RGE.  'V.  a.    [abjlergo,  Lat.] 

To  cleanfe  by  wiping  ;   to  wipe. 
Abste'rcient.  adj.   Cleanfing;   having 

a  cleanfing  quality. 
To  Abste'rse.    [See  Absterg-e.]     To 
cleanfe,  to  purify ;  a  word  very  little 
in  ufe,  and  lefs  analogical  than  abjierge. 
Nor  will  \vc  affirm,  that  iron  receivcth,  in  ths 
ftomach  of  the  oftrich,  no  alteration  j  but  we  fuf- 
peit  tills  effeil  rather  from  corrofion  than  digeA 
tion  J  not  any  tendence  to  chilification  by  the  na- 
tural heat,  but  rather  fome  attrition  from  an  acid 
and"  vitriolous   humidity  in   the   ftomach,  which 
may  abflerfe  and  ihavc  the  fcorious  parts  thereof. 
Br'jtvns  Vulgar  Errours,  b.  iii. 

Abste'rsion.  11. j'.  [abjlerjio,  Lat.]   The 
aft  of  cleanfing.     See  Absterge. 

Ahjlerfian  is  plainly  a  fcouring  off,  or  incifion  of 
the  more  vifcous  humours,  and  making  the  hu- 
mours more  fluid,  and  cutting  between  them  and 
the  part;  as  is  found  in  nitrous  water,  whicb' 
fcoureth  linen  cloth  fpcedily  from  the  foulnefs. 

Baccn's  Natural  Hifiory,  N"  42, 

Abstb'rsive.  a<^'.  [_(tQm  abjltr^«.'\  That 
C  2  hu 

A  B  S 

has  the  quality  of  abllerging  or  cleanf- 

It  is  good,  aftfr  purging,  to  uTe  apozrmes  ana 
brothi,  not  (o  much  opening  as  thofe  ufed  before 
purging  i  but  atfierfivt  and  mundiTving  clyfttrs 
alfo  are  good  to  conclude  wkh,  Co  draw  awajr  the 
reliquct  of  the  humuuri> 

Bacon's  Natural  Hifttry. 
A  tablet  fttwd  of  that  ahftirfi-ve  tree. 
Where  /Ethiopi'  fwarthy  bird  did  build  to  ned. 

Sir  Jihn  Dinbam, 
There,  many  a  flow'r  ahjitrftyt  grew. 
Thy  fav'rite  flow'rs  of  yellow  hue.  S%vifi't  MifccU 
A'bstinence.  «./  [abfiinentia,  Lat.] 

1.  Forbearance  of  any  thing;  with  the 
particle  _/r6«i. 

Becaufe  the  ahjlinttice  frcm  a  prefcnt  pleafurc, 
that  offers  itfelf,  is  a  pain,  nay,  otti-ntimcs  a  ver) 
great  one  :  it  is  no  wonder  that  that  operates  after 
the  fame  manner  pain  does,  and  lefl'cns,  in  our 
thoughts,  what  is  future  ;  and  fo  forces  us,  as  it 
were,  blindfold  into  its  embraces.  Locke. 

2.  Fading,  or  forbearance  of  nec«nary 
food.  It  is  generally  diftinguifhed  from 
temperance,  as  the  greater  degree  from 
the  lefj ;  fometimes  as  fingle  perform- 
ances from  habits  ;  as,  a  day  of  aifii- 
nrnct,  and  a  Life  of  temperance. 

Say,  can  you  fall  ?  your  llomadu  are  too  young : 
And  abfi'mcnce  ingenders  maladifel. 

Shakefpeare's  Lovis  Labour  Lop. 
And  the  faces  of  tiiem,  which  have  ufed  ah- 
Jlirnce,  Ihall  &ine  above  the  ftars  j  whereas  our 
Ijces  ihall  be  blacker  than  darkncfs. 

1  EfJras,  v'li.  55. 
Religious  men,  who  hither  mull  be  fent 
A^  awful  guides  of  heavenly  government ; 
To  teach  you  penance,  falls,  and  abJi'mtMtf 
la  punifli  bodies  for  the  foul's  ollence. 

Drydms  Indian  Emf. 

A'bstinency.  n./.  The  fame  with  Ab- 


Were  our  rewards  for  the  ahfiinencin,  or  riots, 
of  this  prefent  life,  under  the  prejudices  of  Ihort 
or  fioite,  the  promifcs  and  threats  of  Chrifl  would 
lofe  much  of  their  virtue  and  energy. 

Hammond^ I  Fundam. 
A'bstinenT.  at//.  \_abJHnens,  Lat.]  That 
ufes  abftinence,  in  oppofition  to  covet- 
ous, rapacious,  or  luxurious.     It  is  ufed 
chiefly  of  perfons. 
Absto'rt E D .  adj.  \abJ{ortus,'L^X..'\  Forced 
•  away,    wrung    from    another   by  vio- 
lence. DiS. 
Te  ABSTRA'CT.  v.  a.  [abjlraho,  Lat.] 

1.  To  take  one  thing  from  another. 

Could  we  abfiraB  from  thcfc  pernicious  efftfts, 
and  fuppofc  this  were  innocent,  it  would  be  too 
light  to  be  matter  of  praile.  Dtcay  of  Ficty. 

2.  To  feparate  by  didillation. 

Having  dephlegmed  fpirit  of  fait,  and  gently  ab- 
frarlcd  the  whole  fpirit,  there  remaincth  in  the 
retort  a  ftyptical  fubftance.  Soyii. 

3.  To  feparate  ideas. 

Thofe  who  cannot  dillinguifli,  compaie,  and 
ahjirafi,  would  hardly  be  able  to  undcrlland  and 
make  ufe  of  language,  or  judge  or  reafon  to  any 
tolerab't  degree.  Locke. 

4.  To  reduce  to  an  epitome. 

If  wc  Mfould  fix  in  the  memory  the  difcourfcs 

we  hear,  or  what  we  defign  to  fpcak,  let  us  ab- 

firad  them  into  brief  comprnds,  and  review  them 

often.  H-'aitt'tlmp.ofibcMind. 

A'bstract.  adj.    [abjlraaus.  Lit.     See 

the  verb  To  Abstract.] _ 
I.  Separated  from  fomething  elfe  ;  gene- 
rally ufed  with  relation  to  mental  per 
ceptions  ;  as,  abJiraH  mathematics,  ab- 
firaH  terms,  in  oppofition  to  concrete. 

A  B  S 

Mathismatics,  in  its  latitude,  li  ufualty  divided 
Into  pure  and  mixed.  And  though  the  pure  do 
handle  only  abfiraB  quantity  in  general,  as  geo- 
metry, arithmetic  j  yet  that  which  is  mixed,  doth 
confider  the  quantity  of  fome  particular  determi- 
nate fubjefl.  So  allionomy  handles  the  qumtity 
of  heavenly  motions,  mulic  of  founds,  and  me- 
chanics of  weights  and  puArrs. 

tVilkxnii  Malttmatical  Magick. 

jlbjirali  terms  fignify  the  mode  or  quality  of 
a  being,  without  any  regard  to  the  fubjc^l  in 
which  it  is  ;  as,  whitcnei's,  roundnefs,  length, 
breadth,  wifdom,  mortality,  life,  death. 


z.  With  the  particle//»»f. 

Another  fruit  from  the  confidering  things  in 
themfelves,  ahjlraft  from  our  opinions,  and  other 
men's  notions  and  difcourfcs  on  them,  will  be, 
that  each  man  will  purfue  his  thoughts  in  that 
method,  which  will  be  mod  agreeable  to  the  na- 
ture of  the  thing,  and  to  his  apprehcnlion  of  what 
it  fuggells  to  him.  Locke. 

A'bsthact.  n./  [from  the  verb.] 
I.  A  fmaller  quantity, containing  the  vir- 
tue or  power  of  a  greater. 

You  (hall  there  find  a  man,  who  is  the  abftraH 
of  all  faults  all  men  follow. 

Shakefpearc' t  Antony  and  Cleopatra. 

If  you  are  falfe,  thefe  epithets  are  fmall ; 
You're  then  the  things,  and  abfiraB  of  them  all. 

Drydcn'i  Aur. 

2.  An  epitome  made  by  taking  out  the 
principal  parts. 

When  Miiemon  came  to  the  end  of  a  chapter, 
he  recollefled  the  fentiments  he  had  remarked  j 
fo  that  he  could  give  a  tolerable  analyfis  and  ab- 
firaB of  every  tteatife  he  had  read,  juft  after  he 
had  finiflied  it.  IVattCs  Imp.  of  the  Mind. 

3.  The  ftate  of  being  abftrafted,  or  dif- 

The  hearts  of  great  princes,  if  they  be  confi- 
dcred,  as  it  were  in  abfiraB,  without  the  neccf- 
fity  of  dates,  and  circun3(lanc«  of  time,  can 
take  no  full  and  proportional  pleafure  in  the  ex- 
ercife  of  any  narrow  bounty.  H^otton. 

.^BSTR  a'xted.  part.  adj.  [itomabjiracl.^ 

1.  Separated;  disjoined. 

That  fpace  the  evil  one  abfiroBcd  ftood 
From  his  own  evil,  and  for  the  time  remain'd 
Stupidly  good.  Milton, 

2.  Refined,  purified. 
AbfiraBcd  fpiritva)  love,  they  like 

Their  fouls  exhal'd.  Donne. 

3.  Abftrufe  ;  difficult. 

4.  Abfent  of  mind,  inattentive  to  prefent 
objefts  ;  as,  an  ahjiraaed  fcholar. 

Abstra'ctedly.  ad'v.  With  abftrac- 
tion,  fimply,  feparately  from  all  con- 
tingent circumftances. 

Or  whether  more  ohfiraBedly  we  look. 
Or  on  the  writers,  or  the  written  book  : 
Whence,  but  from  heav'n,  could  men  unlkill'd  in 

In  fevcral  ages  born,  in  fi!veral  parts. 
Weave  fuch  agreeing  truths  ?  or  how,  or  why 
Should  all  confpire  to  cheat  us  with  a  lie  ? 
Unaik'd  their  paios,  ungrateful  their  advice. 
Starving  tiwir  gain,  and  martyrdom  their  price. 

DtytUns  Religio  Laid. 

Abstr a'ction.  »._/!  [abfiraSio,  Lat.] 
1 .  The  aft  of  abftrafting. 

The  word  alfiraBitn  lignifies  a  withdrawing 
fome  part  of  an  idea  from  other  parts  of  it ;  by 
which  means  fuch  abftraOed  ideas  are  formed, 
as  neither  reprefent  any  thing  corporeal  or  fpi- 
ritual  ;  that  is,  any  thing  peculiar  or  proper  to 
mind  or  body.  fKo.-rj'j  Logick. 

z.  The  ftate  of  being  abftrafted. 
5.  Abfence  of  mind  ;  inattention. 
+1  Difregard  of  worldly  objefts. 

4  hecmit  wiiltet  to  be  praifed  for  his  ahfiraBion. 
Vopt't  Lctttn. 

A  B  S 

ing  the  power  or  quality  of  abftrafting. 

Abstra'ctly.  adv.  [from  ab/lraS.]  In 
an  abllraft  manner,  abfolutely,  without 
reference  to  any  thing  elfe. 

MitKr abfiraBly  and  abfolutely  confidered,  can- 
not have  born  aa  infinite  durition  now  pail  and 
expired.  Bentley's  Sermon* 

Abstr a'ctness.  n. /.  [from  ab/fraff.^ 
Subtilty  ;  feparation  from  all  matter  or 
common  notion. 

I  have  taken  fome  pains  to  make  plain  and  fa- 
miliar to  your  thoughts,  truths,  which  edablilhcd 
prejudice,  or  the  abfiraBnefi  of  the  ideas  themfelves, 
mijjht  render  difficult.  Licke* 

Abstri'cted. part. adj.  [abftri3ut,  Lat.] 
Unbound.  Dia^ 

To  Abstri'nce.  v. a.  Tounbind.  Di3. 

To  ABSTRU'DE.  -v.  a.  [abjirudo,  Lat.] 
To  thruft  off,  or  pull  away.  Z);<3. 

Abstru'se.  adj.  \abjirufus,  Lat.  thruit 
out  of  fight.] 

1.  Hidden. 

Th'  eternal  eye,  whofe  fight  difcerns 
Abfirufefi  thoughts,  from  forth  his  holy  mount, 
And  from  within  the  golden  lamps  that  burn 
Nightly  before  him,  faw,  without  their  light. 
Rebellion  riling. 

Milton'i  ParadifeLtfi,  h.y,  I.  71a. 

2.  Difficult ;  remote  from  conception  or 
apprehenfion.  It  is  oppofed  to  obvious 
and  eajy. 

S'jfpakeour  Sire,  and  by  his  countenance  feem'd 
Ent'ring  on  lludious  thoughts  abfiruje. 

Paradtfe  Lofi,  b.  viii. 
The  motions  and  figures  within  the  mouth  are 
abfirufc,  and  not  cafy  to  be  didinguiflied,  efpecially 
thofe  of  the  tongue,  which  is  moved  through  the 
help  of  many  mufcles,  fo  eafily,  and  habitually, 
and  varioully,  that  we  arc  fcarce  able  to  give  a 
judgment  of  motions  and  figures  thereby  framed. 

No  man  could  give  a  rule  of  the  greatell  beau- 
ties,  and  the  knowledge  of  them  w.^s  fa  abfiruje, 
that  there  was  no  manner  of  fpeaking  which  could 
exprefs  them.  '  Dryden'i  Dufnfnoy. 

Abstru'sely.  adv.  In  an  abllrufe  man- 
ner ;  obfcurely,  not  plainly,  or  obvi- 
Abstru'se  NESS.  n.f.  [from  abfiru/e.']  Th« 
quality  of  being  abftrufe  ;  difficulty, 

It  is  not  oftentimes  fo  much  what  the  fcripture 
fays,  as  what  fome  men  perfuade  others  it  fays, 
that  makes  it  feem  obfcutv,  and  that  as  to  fome 
other  palTages  that  are  fo  indeed,  ftnce  it  is  the 
aifirufenejs  of  what  is  taught  in  them,  that  makes 
them  almoft  inevitably  fo  ;  it  is  little  lefs  faucy, 
upon  fuch  a  fcorc,  to  find  fault  with  <hc  dyle  of 
the  fcripture,  than  to  do  fo  with  the  author  for 
making  us  but  men.  Boyle  on  the  Scripture* 

.Abstru'sity.  >t./.  [from  abjlru/e.'] 

1.  Abftrufenefs. 

2.  That  which  is  abftrufe.  A  word  feldom 

Authors  are  alfo  fufpicious,  nor  greedily  to  be 
fwallowed,  who  pretend  to  write  of  fecrets,  to  de- 
liver antipathies,  fympathies,  and  the  occult  ab.. 
finijitici  of  things.  Brvivn'' i  Vulgar  Errotin. 

7e  Ab  su'  M  E .  I",  a.  [abfumo,  Lat.  J  To  bring 
to  an  end  by  a  gradual  walte ;  to  eat  up. 
An  uncommon  word. 

That  which  had  been  burning  an  infinite  time 

could  never  be  burnt,  no  not  (a  much  as  any  part 

of  it ;  for  if  it  had  burned   part  after  part,  the 

whole  mull  needs  be  ab/umed  in  a  portion  of  time. 

Hale's  Origin  of  Mankind. 

ABSU'RD.  adj.  [ab/urdus,  Lat.] 

I.  Unreafonable  ;  without  judgment,   at 

,      ufed  of  men. 



_  Seeming  wife  men  may  make  fliift  to  get  apj. 
■»ion  i  but  let  no  man  chuie  them  for  employment; 
for  certainly  ^ou  had  better  take  forbuCnefi  a  man 
fomewhat  ehjfurj,  than  over  formal.  Bacon, 

A  man,  who  cannot  write  with  wit  on  a  proper 
fubjeft,  is  dull  and  ftupid  ;  but  one,  who  {hews  it 
in  an  improper  place,  is  as  irnpeitinent  and  ai- 
furd.  Mdijin,  Spiaater,  N°  zgu 

2.  Inconfiftent,  contrary  to  reafon,  ufed  of 
fentiments  or  pradices. 

The  thing  itlelf  appeared  defirable  to  him,  and 
accordingly  he  could  not  but  like  and  defire  it  • 
but  then,  it  was  after  a  very  irrational  ai/urd  way, 
and  contrary  to  all  the  methods  and  principles  of 
a  rational  agent;  which  ne%er  wills  a  thing  really 
and  properly,  but  it  applies  to  the  means,  by  which 
it  is  to  be  acquired.  Saatb's  Sermtni. 

But  grant  that  thofe  can  conquer,  thefc  can  cheat, 
'Tis  phrafe  ahjuri  to  call  a  villain  great : 
Who  wickedly  is  wife,  or  madly  brave. 
Is  but  the  more  a  fool,  the  more  a  knave. 

^  Pofe't  Effay  m  Man. 

Absu  RDiTT.  n./.  [from  ah/urd]. 

1,  The  quality  of  being  abfurd ;  want  of 
judgment,  applied  to  men;  want  of 
propriety,  applied  to  things. 

How  clear  foever  this  idea  of  the  infinity  of 
number  be,  there  is  nothing  more  evident  than 
the  ahfurdliy  of  the  afluaj  idea  of  an  infinite 
number.  io^^, 

2.  That  which  is  abfurd;  as,  his  travels 
were  full  of  abfurditits.  In  which  fenfe 
it  has  a  plural. 

That  fatisfadtion  we  receive  from  the  opinion  of 
fome  pre-eminence  in  ourfelves,  when  we  fee  the 
atfurdiiiis  of  another,  or  when  we  reflea  on  any 
part  <ii/Br</m«  of  our  own.  Addihtj. 

Absu'rdly.  adv.  [from  ai/urd."]  After 
an  abfurd  manner  ;  improperly ;  unrea- 

But  man  we  find  the  only  creature, 
Who,  led  by  folly,  combats  nature ; 
Who,  when  (he  loudly  cries.  Forbear, 
With  obftinacy  fires  there ; 
And  where  his  genius  leaft  inclines, 
Ji/urdly  bends  his  whole  defigns.     Sicift't  Afifttl. 
We  may  proceed  yet  further  with  the  atheill, 
and  convince  him,  that  not  only  his  principle  is 
abfurd,  but  his  confequences  alfo  as  abfurdly  de- 
duced from  it.  B'niity't  Scrmcni. 
Absu'udwess.  n.f.  [hom  ah/urd.]    The 
quality  of  being  abfurd  ;    injudiciouf- 
nefs ;  impropriety.    Sec  Absurditv  ; 
which  is  more  frequently  ufed. 
Abu'ndance.  n.f.   [aiondance,  Fr.] 
1.  Plenty  ;  a  fenfe  chiefly  poetical. 

At  the  whifper  of  thy  word, 
Crown'd  abundance  fpreads  my  board.        Crajhaw. 

The  doubled  charge  his  fubjefts'  love  fupplies. 
Who,  in  that  bounty,  to  themfelves  are  kind  j 

So  glad  Egyptians  fee  their  Nilus  rife. 
And,  in  hii  plenty,  their  abundance  find. 

Drjd.  Aniu  Mir. 

i.  Great  numbers. 

The  river  Inn  is  fliut  up  between  mountains, 
covered  with  woods  of  fir-trees.  Abundance  of 
peafants  are  employed  in  hewing  down  the  largcft 
of  thefe  tree*,  that,  after  they  arc  barked  and  cut 
into  (hapr,  are  tumbled  down.        Add'ijun  on  Italy. 

J.  A  great  quantity. 

Their  chief  entcrprize  was  the  recovery  of  the 
Holy  Land  ;  in  which  worthy,  but  extremely  dif- 
ficult, ailion,  it  IS  lamentable  to  remember  what 
abundance  of  noble  blood  hath  been  flied,  with  very 
fmall  benefit  unto  the.Chri(lian  ftate. 

Sir  IValiir  Raleigb'i  £j/ayi. 

4.  Exuberance,  more  than  enough. 

For  w.ll  I  wot,  moi»  mighty  fovereign. 
That  all  thii  fan.ous  antique  hiftory. 
Of  fome,  th'  abundance  ri  an  idle  brain. 
Will  judged  be,  and  painted  forgery.  Sfenfer. 

Aiv'uDKHT.adJ.  {abundant JLiX.1 


I.  Plentiful. 

Good,  the  more 
Communicated,  more  abundant  grows ; 
The  author  not  impair'd,  but  honour'd  more. 

Paradiji  Laji,  b.  v. 

2.  Exuberant. 

If  the  veffels  are  in  a  ftate  of  too  great  rigidity, 
fu  as  not  to  yield,  a  ftrong  projcaile  motion  occa- 
fions  their  rupture,  and  haemorrhages  ;  efpecially 
in  the  lungs,  where  the  blood  is  abundant. 

Arbutbnitt  an  Aliments. 

3.  Fully  ftored.    It  is  followed  fometimes 
by  in,  commonly  by  tvitJb. 

The  world  began  but  fome  ages  before  thefe  were 
found  out,  and  was  abundant  -with  all  things  at 
firft  ;  and  men  not  ver)-  numerous  ;  and  therefore 
were  not  put  fo  much  to  the  ufe  of  their  wits,  to 
find  out  wain  for  living  commodioufly.        Burmt. 

4.  It  is  applied  generally  to  things,  fome- 
times to  perfons. 

The  Lord,  the  Lord  God,  merciful  and  gracious, 
long-fuffering  and  abundant  in  goodnefs  and  truth. 
Exod.  xxxiv.  6. 
Abu'ndaktly.  ay-i;.  [iiom  abundant.] 

1 .  In  plenty. 

Let  the  waters  bring  forth  abundantly  the  moving 
creature  that  hath  life.  Genrfs,  i.  20. 

God  on  thee 
Abundantly  his  gifts  hath  alfo  pour'd ; 
Inward  and  outward  both,  his  image  fair. 

Paradife  Lafl,  b.vm. 

2.  Amply,  liberally,  more  than  fufficiently. 

Ye  faw  the  French  tongue  abundantly  purified. 

XI       •  sprat. 

Heroic  poetry  has  ever  been  efteemed  thegreatelt 
work  of  human  nature.  In  that  rank  has  Ariftotle 
placed  it;  and  Longinus  is  fo  full  of  the  like  ex- 
prcfTions,  that  he  abundantly  confirms  the  other's 
teftimony.         .    Drydcns  State  0/  Innocence,  Pref. 

What  the  example  of  our  equals  wants  of  au- 
thority, is  abundantly  fupplied  in  the  imaginations 
of  friendfliip,  and  the  repeated  influences  of  a 
conftant  converfation.  Rogers',  Serm. 

To  ABU'SE,  'V.  a.  [abutor,  abufui,  Lat.] 
In  abu/e,  the  verb,  /  has  the  found  of 
X  ;  in 'the  noun,  the  common  found. 

1 .  To  make  an  ill  ufe  of. 

They  that  ufe  this  world,  as  not  abufng  it;  for 
the  fafliion  of  this  world  paffeth  away. 

_,    ,        .  I  Cor,  vii.  31, 

He  has  fixed  and  determined  the  time  for  our 
repentance,  beyond  which  he  will  no  longer  await 
the  perverfenefs  of  men,  no  longer  fufter  his  com- 
panion to  be  abujed.  Rogers',  Sermons. 

2.  To  violate  ;  to  defile. 

Arachnc  figured  how  Jove  did  abuji 
Europa  like  a  bull,  and  on  his  back 
Her  through  the  fea  did  bear.  Spenjer. 

3.  To  deceive  ;  to  impofe  upon. 

He  perhaps. 
Out  of  my  weaknefs  and  my  melancholy. 
As  he  is  very  potent  with  fuch  fpirits, 
Abujes  me  to  damn  me.  Shakefpeare's  Hamlet. 

The  world  hath  been  much  abufed  by  the  opinion 
of  making  gold  :  the  work  itfelf  I  judge  to  be 
poflible  ;  but  the  means  hitherto  propounded,  are, 
in  the  pradlicc,  full  of  error. 

Bacon's  Natural  Hiftory,  N"  ji6. 

It  imports  the  mifreprefentation  of  the  qualities 
of  things  and  aflions,  to  the  common  apprehen- 
fions  of  men,  abufing  their  minds  with  falfe  no- 
tions ;  and  fo,  by  this  artifice,  making  evil  pafi 
for  good,  and  good  for  evil,  in  all  the^reat  concerns 

ii"'K-     -l.    „    L,  South- s  Sermons. 

Nor  be  with  all  thefe  tempting  words  abus'd; 
Thefe  tempting  words  were  all  to  Sappho  us'd. 

4.  To  treat  with  rudenefs ;  to  reproach. 

I  am  no  ftrumpel,  but  of  life  as  honed 
As  you  that  thus  abuje  me.  Shakefp.  Othello. 

But  he  mocked  them,  and  lauglied  at  them, 
and  <ii»/<i  them  Ihamcfully,  and  fpake  proudly. 

]  Mac,  vii.  34. 


Some  praife  at  morning  what  they  blame  atnighl^ 
But  always  think  the  laft  opinion  right. 
A  mufe  by  thefe  is  like  a  mirtrefs  us'd. 
This  hour  /he's  idolii'd,  the  next  abus'd. 

Pope's  EJfmy  on  Criticifm^ 

The  next  criticifm  feems  to  be  introduced  for 
no  other  reafon,  but  to  mention  Mr.  BickerftafF, 
whom  the  author  every  where  endeavours  to  imi- 
tate and  abufe.  Addjfoit. 

Abu'se.  «.'/.  [from  the  verbal//?.] 

1 .  The  ill  ufe  of  any  thing. 

The  calling  away  things  proHtable  for  the  fufte- 
nance  of  man's  life,  is  an  unthankful  abufe  of  the 
fruits  of  God's  good  providence  towards  mankind. 
Hooker,  b.  v.  §  ^* 
Little  knows 
Any,  but  God  alone,  to  value  right 
"The  good  before  him,  but  perverts  belt  things 
To  worft  abufe,  or  to  their  meaneft  ufe.  ^ 

Paradife  Loft,  b.  iy* 

2.  A  corirupt  pradtice,  bad  cuftom. 

The  natune  of  things  is  fuch,  that,  if  abufes  be 
not  remedied,  they  will  certainly  encreafe. 

Stuiftfor  Advancement  of  Relig'um^ 

3.  Seducement. 

Was  it  not  enough  forhim-to  have  deceived  me»^ 
and,  through  the  deceit  abufed  me,  and,  after  the 
abufe,  forfaken  me,  but  that  he  muft  now,  of  all 
the  company,  and  before  all  the  company,  lay 
want  of  beauty  to  my  charge.  Sidney,  b.  ii. 

4.  Unjuft  cenfure,   rude  reproach,   com- 

I  dark  in  light,  expos'd 
To  daily  fraud,,  contempt,  abufe,  and  wrong. 

Samfon  Agoniflciw 

Abu'se  R,  »./.  [from  the  verb  «^«/f,]; 

1.  He  that  makes  an  ill  ufe. 

2.  He  that  deceives. 

Next  thou,  the  abufer  of  thy  prince's  ear. 

Denham't  Sofhlf*- 

3.  He  that  reproaches  with  rudenefs. 

4.  -A.  ravifher,  a  violater. 
Abu'sive,  ad/',  [hoai  abu/e.] 

1 .  Praftifmg  abufe. 

The  tongue  mov'd  gently  firft^nd  fpeech  was  low^ 
Till  wrangling  fcicnce  taught  it  noife  and  (how. 
And  wicked  wit  arofe,  thy  moft  ahufive  foe. 

Pope's  Mifullaniu^ 

Dame  Nature,  as  the  learned  (liow. 
Provides  each  animal  its-  foe ; 
Hounds  hunt  the  hare,  the  wily,  fox 
Devours  your  geefe,  the  wolf  your  flbcks. 
Thus  envy  pleads  a  natural  claim. 
To  prrfecute  the  mufe's  fame. 
On  poets  in  all  times  abuji've. 
From  Homer  down  to  Popeindufive.  Stvi/t'sMifccL 

2.  Containing  abufe;  a«,  an  abn^-ve  lam-  ■ 

Next,  Comedy  appcar'd  with  great  applaufe, 
Till  her  licentious  and  abufive  tongue 
Waken'd  the  magilhates  coercive  power.     Rofcom. 

3.  Deceitful;  a  fenfe  little  ufed,  yet  not 

It  is  verified  by  a  number  of  examples,  that 
whatfoever  is  gained  by  an  abujive  treaty,  ought 
to  be  rcfVired  in  'integrum. 

Bacon's  Conjidc'ralicns  on  H'ar  with  Spain, 

Abu'sivsly.  ad-v.  [from  abuje.] 

1.  Improperly,  by  a  wrong  ufe. 

The  oil,  ahuf-vely  called  ipirit,  of  rofes,  fwlms  at 
the  top  of  the  water,  in  the  firm  of  a  white  butter; 
wh'ch  1  remember  not  to  haveobfcrved  in  any  other 
oil  drawn  in  any  limbeck.  Boyle's  Sceptical Ciym'i/k. 

2.  Reproachfully. 

Abo'siveness.  «./.  [from  abu/e.]  Th* 
quality  of  being  abufive  ;  fbulnefs  of 

Pick  out  of  mirth,  like  ftonescatof  thy  ground,. 
Profancncfs,  filthinefs,  abufivenefs. 

Thefe  are  the  fcum,with  which  coarfe  wi  ts  abound  t 
The  fine  may  fpare  thefe  well,  yet  not  go  Icfs. 


A  C  A 

f»  ABUT.  V.  n.  obfelete.[fl^fl»//V,to  touch 
at  the  end,  Fr.]  To  end  at,  to  border 
upon  ;  to  meet,  or  approach  to,  with  the 
particle  upoa. 

Two  mighty  monarcliies, 
Whofe  high  uprcared  and  abutting  fronts 
The  narrow  perilous  occun  parts  afunder* 

Shakcjptare  I  lltnry  V. 

The  Lo(>«i  are  two  fcveral  corporations,  diOin- 

goilhed  by  the  addition  or  eaft  and  weft,  aiuiiing 

u'fM  a  navigable  creek,  and  joined  by  a  fair  bridge 

ot"  many  arches.  Cttrnv. 

Abu'tment.w./  [fr«ma^K/.]  That  which 
abuts,  or  borders  upon  another. 

Abu'tta!..  n.f.  [from  abut.'\.  The  but- 
ting or  boundaries  of  any  land.  A  wri- 
ting declaring  on  what  lands,  highways, 
or  other  places,  it  does  abut.  Difl. 

Aby'sm.  n.f.  [a^jy»»<,  old  Fr.  now  writ- 
ten contrafledly  abiine.'\  A  gulf;  the 
fame  with  ahy/s. 

My  good  ftars,  that  were  my  former  guides. 
Have  empty  left  their  orbs,  and  fliot  their  fires 
Into  the  ahyfm  of  he!l. 

Stakcfpeare^s  Antcry  and  Cleopatra* 

Abv'ss.  n.f.    \abyffus,  Lat.   aS>vaa^,  bot 
tomtefs,  Gr.] 

X.  A  depth  without  bottom. 

Who  /hall  tempt  with  wandVing  feet 
The  dark,  unbottom'd,,  inBnite  aliyjs. 
And,  through  the  palpable  obfcure,  find  out 
This  uncouth  way. 

M./tcn't  ParaJ'iJe  LoJI,  b.  ii.  /.  405. 

Thy  throne  is  darknefs  in  th'  abyfi  of  light, 
A  blaze  of  glory  that  forbids  the  fight; 
O  teach  me  to  biiic\c  tliee  thus  conceai'd, 
And  fearch  no  farther  than  thyfclf  reveal'd. 

Tore  was  not  more  pleased 
With  infant  nature,  when  his  fpacious  hand 
Had  rounded  this  huge  ball  of  earth  and  feas 
To  give  it  the  firft  pulh,  and  fee  it  roll 
Along  the  vaft  abyj'i.       Mdijcn,  Guard.  No  no. 

s.  A  great  depth,  a  gulf;  hyperbolical!  y. 

The  yawning  earth  difclos*d  th*  tf/»>yi  of  hell. 

Dryiieni  l^ir^  Gtorg,  i. 

3.  In  a  figurative  fenfe,  that  in  which  any 
thing  is  loft. 

for  fepulchres  themfelves  muft  crumbling  fall 
In  Umc^saby/tj  the  common  grave  of  all.  ^ 

Drydens  jfwvenalj  Sal,  x. 

If,  difcovering  how  far  we  have  clear  and  diftindt 
ideas,  we  confine  our  thoughts  within  the  contem- 
plation of  thofe  things  that  are  within  the  reach  of 
our  underllandings,  and  lavmch  not  out  into  that 
thyji  of  darknefs,  out  of  a  prcfumption  that  no- 
thi'ig  is  beyond  our  comprehenfion.  Locke. 

4.  The  body  of  waters  fuppofed  at  the 
centre  of  the  earth. 

We  are  here  to  confider  what  is  generally  under- 
ftood  by  the  great  atyft,  in  the  common  explication 
«f  the  deluge;  and  'tis  commonly  interpreted  either 
to  be  the  fea,  or  fubterraneous  waters  hid  in  the 
bowels  of  the  earth.  Burmt't  thimy. 

5.  In  the  language  of  divines,  hell. 

From  that  infatiable  ahyjs. 
Where  flames  devour,  and  ferpcnts  hifa, 
Promote  me  to  thy  feat  of  blifs.  Rijcimmtn. 

Ac,  Ak,  or  Ake. 

Being  initials  in  the  names  of  places,  as  j^San, 
fignify  an  oak,  from  the  Saxon  ac,  an  uak. 

Oibji/n't  Camden, 

ACACJA.n,;,  [Lat.] 

I.  A  drug  brought  from  Egypt,  which, 

being  fuppofed  the  infpiflated  juice  of  a 

tree,  is   imitated   by  the  juice  of  floes, 

boiled  to  the  fame  confiftence. 

Diiiionaire  de  Comm,  Sazrary.  Trevoux. 

X.  A  tree  commonly  fo  called  here,  though 

different  from  that  which  produces  toe 

A  C  C 

trne  afada  ;  and  therefore  termed  f>/eii- 
Jocacia,  or  Virginian  acacia.  Miller. 

Acade'mi Ai..  a<^.  \ixom  academy. '\  Re- 
lating to  an  academy,  belonging  to  an 

AcADfc'MiAN.  n.f.  [from  acad(my.'\  A 
fcholar  of  an  academy  or  univerfity  ;  a 
member  of  an  univerfity.  ff'ood,  in  his 
Athetitr  Oxonienfes,  mentions  a  great 
fcaft  made  for  the  academians. 

Acade'mical,  cdj.  [academicus,  Lat.] 
Belonging  to  an  univerfity. 

He  drew  him  firft  into  the  fatal  circle,  from  a 
kind  of  refolved  privatcnefs;  where,  after  the  aca- 
demical life,  he  had  taken  fuch  a  taftc  of  the  rural, 
as  1  have  heard  him  fay,  that  he  could  well  have 
bent  his  mind  to  a  retired  courfe.  fyott^n. 

Academi'cian.  «. /.  [academician,  Fr.] 
The  member  of  an  academy.  It  is  ge- 
nerally ufed  in  fpeaking  of  the  profeflbrs 
in  the  academies  of  France. 

Acade'mick.  «./.  [from academy.}  A  ftu- 
dent  of  an  univerfity. 

A  young  academic  fiiall  dwell  upon  a  journal  that 
treats  of  trade,  and  be  lavilh  in  the  piaife  of  the 
author ;  while  perfons  fkilled  in  thofe  fubjefts, 
hear  the  tattle  with  contempt. 

IValit'i  Imprcmemcnt  of  ike  Mind. 
Acade'mick.  a^.  [academicus,  hzx-l  Re- 
lating to  an  univerfity. 

While  through  poetic  Icenes  the  genius  roves. 
Or  wanders  wild  in  academic  groves. 

Dunciad,h.\v.  !.  481 

Aca'demist.  n.f.  [from  academy. "}  The 
member  of  an  academy.  This  is  not 
often  uied. 

It  is  obferved   by  the  Parifian  acadcmtfti,  that 

fome  amphibious  quadrupeds,  particularly  the  fea- 

calf  or  feal,  hath  his  epiglottis  extraordinarily  large. 

Ray  on  the  Creation. 

A'CADEMY.  n.  f.  [anciently,  and  pro- 
perly, with  the  accent  on  the  firft  fyl- 
lable,  now  frequently  on  the  fecond. 
Acadimia,  Lat.  from  Academus  of  Athens, 
whofe  houie  was  turned  into  a  fchool, 
from  whom  the  Groves  of  Academe  in 

I .  An  alTembly  or  fociety  of  men,  uniting 
for  the  promotion  of  fome  art. 

Our  cou:'C  fhall  be  a  little  academy. 
Still  and  contemplative  in  living  arts. 

Stakefpcare^i  Lct/r'j  Labour  Loft. 

z.  The  place  where  (ciences  are  taught. 

Amongft  the  acadimiei,  which  were  compofed  by 
the  rare  genius  of  thofe  great  men,  thcfe  four  are 
reckoned  as  the  principal ;  namely,  the  Athenian 
fchool,  that  of  Sicyon,  that  of  Rhodes,  and  that 
of  Corinth.  Dryden'i  Dufrefiuy. 

3.  An  univerfity. 

4.  A  place  of  education,  in  contradiftinc- 
tion  to  the  univerfities  or  public  fchools. 
The  thing,  and  therefore  the  name,  is 

ACANTHUS,  n.f  [Lat.]  The  name  of 
,the  herb  bears-breech,  remarkable  for 
being  the  model  of  the  foliage  on  the 
Corinthian  chapiter. 

On  cither  Mc 
Acanliu!,  and  each  od'rous  bulhy  fhrub, 
Fenc'd  up  the  verdant  wall. 

Mill.  Parad.  Loftf  b.  iv.  /.  696. 

AcaTALe'ctIC.»._/.'  [axaxaXrifli*®-, Gr."] 

A  verfe  whidi  has  the  complete  number 

of  fyllables,  without  defedl  or  fuperfluity. 

TiACCE'DE.  'V.  n.  [accede, 'Lzx.'l  To  be 

added  to,  to  come  to ;  generally  ufed 

A  C  C 

in  political  accounts ;  as,  another  power 
\i3L%  acceded  to   the   treaty;  that  is,  hst 
become  a  party. 
To  ACCE'LERATE,  'v.a.  [accelere,  Lat.] 

1.  To  make  quick,  to  liaften,  to  quicken 
motion  ;  to  give  a  continual  impulfe  to 
motion,  fo  as  perpetually  to  increafe. 

Take  new  beer,  and  put  in  fome  quantity  of 
ftale  beer  into  it ;  and  fee  whether  it  will  not  acce- 
Itrjte  the  clarification,  by  opening  the  body  of  the 
beer,  whereby  the  grolfer  parts  may  fall  down  into 
Ices.  Bacon's  Natural  Hifttry,  N°  307. 

By  a  fkilful  application  of  thofe  notices,  may  be 
gained  the  accelerating  and  bettering  of  fruits,  and 
the  emptying  of  mines,  at  much  more  eafy  ratet 
than  by  the  common  methods.     Glanvil/e^Scepftt, 

If  the  rays  endeavour  to  recede  from  the  denleft 
part  of  the  vibration,  they  may  be  alternately  acce- 
lerated and  retarded  by  the  vibrations  overtaking 
them.  Nenjjtons  Of  tics. 

Spices  quicken  the  pulfe,  and  accelerate  the  mo- 
tion of  the  blood,  and  difiipate  the  fluids  ;  from 
whence  teannefs,  pains  in  the  ftomach,  loathing;, 
and  fevers.  Arbutknot  on  Aliments* 

Lo  I  from  the  dread  immenfity  of  fpace 
Returning,  with  accelerated  courfe. 
The  rufhing  comet  to  the  fun  defcends. 

tbomf.  Sum.  I,  1 690. 

2.  It  is  generally  applied  to  matter,  and 
ufed  chiefly  in  philofophical  language  ; 
but  it  is  fometimes  ufed  on  other  occafions. 

In  which  council  the  king  himfelf,  whofe  con- 
tinual vigilarcy  did  fuck  in  fometimes  caufelefs 
fufpicions,  which  few  eife  knew,  inclined  to  the 
-  accelerating  a  battle.  Bacon's  Henry  Vll. 

Perhaps  it  may  point  out  to  a  ftudenc  now  and 
then,  what  may  employ  the  moft  vifcful  labours  of 
his  thoughts,  and  accelerate  his  diligence  in  the  moft 
momentous  enquiries.  iVatts, 

AccEl. ER a'tion.  n.f  [acceleralio,  Lat.] 

1.  The  aft  of  quickening  motion. 

The  law  o{  the  acceleration  of  falling  bodies,  dif- 
covered  firil  by  Galileo,  is,  that  the  velocities  ac- 
quired by  falling,  being  as  the  time  in  which  the 
body  falls,  the  fpaces  through  which  it  palTes  will 
be  as  the  fquares  of  the  velocities,  and  the  velocity 
and  time  taken  together,  as  in  a  quadruplicate  rati>) 
of  the  fpaces. 

2.  The  fiate  of  the  body  accelerated,  or 
quickened  in  its  motion. 

The  dejirees  o(  acceleraiisn  oi  motion,  the  gravi-. 
tatien  of  the  air,  the  exiftence  or  non-exiltence  of 
empty  fpaces,  either  coacervate  or  interfperfed,  and 
many  the  like,  have  taken  up  the  thoughts  and 
times  of  men  in  difpules  concerning  them. 

HaU^s  Origin  of  MankineU 

3.  The  att  of  haftening. 

Confidcring  the  languor  enfuing  that  a^ion  in 
fome,  and  the  vifible  acceleration  it  maketh  of  age 
in  moft,  we  cannot  but  think  venery  much  abridg- 
eth  our  days.  Broivn, 

To  ACCE'ND.  -v.  a.  [acceudo,  Lat.]  'I'o 
kindle,  to  fet  on  fire ;  a  word  very 
rarely  ufed. 

Our  devotion,  if  fuHiciently  acetnded,  would,  as 
theirs,  burn  up  innumerable  books  of  this  fort. 

Decay  of  Piety. 
Acce'nsion.  n.f  [acccttfo,  Lat.]     The 
aft  of  kindling,  or  the  ftate  of  being, 

Tile  fulminating  damp  will  take  fire  at  a  candle, 
or  other  flame,  and,  upon  its  accenfion,  gives  a 
crack  or  report,  like  the  difcharge  of  z.  gun,  and 
makes  an  cxplofion  fo  f.ircibi;  as  fometimes  to  kill 
the  miners,  ihake  the  earth,  and  force  bodies,  of 
great  weight  and  bulk,  from  the  bottom  oi  the  pic 
or  mine.  WsoJivard' s  Natural  Hiftory, 

A'CCENT.  n.f   [accentus,  Lat.] 
1 .  The   manner  of  fpeaking  or  pronoun- 
cing, with  regard  either  to  force  or  ele- 

I  know. 

A  C  C 

I  know.  Sir,  I  am  no  flatterer;  he  that  be. 
guited  you  in  a  plain  accent  was  a  plain  knave  3 
which,  for  my  pJrt,  I  will  not  be. ' 

Sbakefpeare's  King  hear, 

2.  The  found  given  to  the  fyllable  pro- 

Your  accent  is  fomething  finer  than  ycu  could 
purchafe  in  lb  removed  a  dwelling. 

Sbalb^eare^s  Asyou  like  it. 

3.  In  grammar,  the  marks  made  upon  fyl- 
lables,  to  regulate  their  pronunciation. 

Accent f  as  in  the  Greek  names  and  ufage,  feems 
to  have  regardeJ  the  tune  o^  the  voice  ;  the  acute 
accent  raifing  the  voice  in  fome  certain  fyllables  to 
a  higher,  i.  e,  more  acute  pitch  or  tone,  and  the 
grave  deorefling  it  lower,  and  both  having  fome  em 
phafts,  i.  e*  more  vigorous  pronunciation.    Holder. 

4.  Poetically,  language  or  words. 

How  many  ages  hence 
Shall  this  our  lofty  fcene  be  a£led  o'er. 
In  Hates  unborn,  and  accintsyex.  unknown. 

Sbahjpeare' i  jfuliui  Cafar. 
Winds  on  your  wings  to  heav'n  her  accents  bear ; 
Such  words  as  heav'n  alone  is  fit  to  hear. 

DtyJ.  Virg.  Paji.  3. 

5.  A  modification  of  the  voice,  expreffive 
of  the  paflions  or  fentiments. 

The  tender  accent  of  a  woman's  cry 
Will  pafs  unheard,  will  unregarded  die ; 
When  the  rough  feaman's  louder  fliouts  prevail, 
When  fair  occafion  (hews  the  fpringing  gale.  Prior. 

?«  A'ccENT.  -v.  a.  [from  accentus,  Lat.] 
formerly  elevated  at  the  fecondfyllable, 
now  at  the  firft. 

1.  To  pronounce,  to  fpeak  words  with 
particular  regard  to  the  grammatical 
marks  or  rules. 

Having  got  fomebody  to  mark  the  laft  fylhblc 
but  one,  where  it  is  long,  in  words  above  two  fyl- 
lables (which  is  enough  to  r"gi!a;e  her  pronuncia- 
tion, and  accenting  the  words ,  let  her  read  daily  in 
the  gofpeis,  and  avoid  underrt.mdirjj  them  in  La- 
tin, if  rtic  can.  hjcke  on  Edu:amny  ^  177. 

2.  In  poetry  ;  to  pronounce  or  utter  in  ge- 

O  my  unhappy  lines  !   you  that  before 
Have  fcrv'd  my  youth  to  vent  fome  wanton  cries. 

And,  now  congeal'd  with  grief,  can  fcare  implore 
Strength  to  accent.  Here  my  Albertus  lies  1  fftinn. 

3.  To  write  or  note  the  accents. 

Ti  Acce'ntu  ATE.  f.  a.  [accentuer,  Fr.] 
To  place  the  proper  accents  over  the 

Accentua'tion.  n,/.  [^(xoxa accent uate.'\ 

i .  The  a£l  of  placing  the  accent  in  pro- 

2.  Marking  the  accent  in  writing. 

7»  ACCE'PT.  1).  a.  [accipio,  Lat.  accepter, 

1.  To  take  with  pleafure  ;  to  receive 
kindly  ;  to  admit  with  approbation. 
It  is  diflinguilhed  from  recei've,  iisype- 
afic  from  general  ;  noting  a  particular 
manner  of  receiving. 

Neitlierdo  ye  kindle  fire  on  my  altar  for  nought. 
I  have  no  pleafure  in  you,  faith  the  Lord  of  hofts, 
neither  will  1  accept  an  offering  at  your  hand. 

Mclachi,  i.  10. 

God  is  no  relpeOer  of  perfons  :  but,  in  evfrj 
nation,  he  that  feareth  him,  and  worketh  rlghte- 
oufnefs,  is  accrf,ieii  ivith  him.         Afli,  x.  34,  35. 

You  have  been  gracicuHy  pleafed  to  accept  this 
tender  of  my  duty. 

Dryden'i  Dedicatinn  f)  hit  FaLlet. 

Charm  by  acc^ting,  by  fubmitting  fway. 
Vet  have  your  hjmourmoft  whf^n  you  nbcy.  Pope. 

2.  It  is  ufed  in  a  kind  of  juridical  fenle  ; 
as,  to  accept  terms,  accept  a  treaty. 

They  flaughter'd  many  of  the  gentry,  for  whom 
BO  fcx  or  age  could  be  aceifieJ  for  excuf:.  S'lttney. 

A  C  C 

His  promife  Palamon  accepts,  but  pray'd 
To  keep  it  better  than  the  firft  he  made. 

Dry  den's  Tables. 

Thofe  who  have  defended  the  proceedings  of 
our  negociators  at  the  treaty  of  Gertruydenburgh, 
dwell  upon  their  zeal  and  patience  in  endeavouring 
to  work  the  French  up  to  their  demands,  but  fay 
nothing  of  the  probability  that  France  would  ever 
accept  them.  Stvift, 

3.  In  the  language  of  the  Bible,  to  accept 
perfons,  is  to  aft  with  perional  and  par- 
tial regard. 

He  will  furcly  reprove  you,  if  ye  do  fccretly  ar- 

rc/r  perfons.      _  ^oi,  xiii.  10. 

4.  It  is  fometimes  ufed  with  the  particle 

I  will  appeafe  him  with  the  prefcnt  that  goeth 

before  me,  and  afterward  1  will  fee  his  face:    per- 

adventure  he  will  accept  of  mz.    Gencjis,x%xn.  2.0. 

AccEPTABi'i-iTY.  n.f.     Thc  quality  of 

being  acceptable.   See  Acceptable. 

He  hath  given  us  his  natural  blood  to  be  flied, 
for  the  remiflion  of  our  fins,  and  for  the  obtaining 
the  grace  and  acceptability  of  repentance. 

Tayhr's  tVcrthy  Ccmmumcant. 
Acce'ptable.  adj.  {acceptable,  Fr.  from 
the  Latin.]  It  is  pronounced  by  fome 
with  the  accent  on  the  firlb  fyllable,  as 
by  Milton  ;  by  others,  with  the  accent 
on  the  fecond,  which  is  more  analogical. 
I.  That  which  is  likely  to  be  accepted  ; 
grateful  ;  pleafing.  It  is  ufed  with  the 
particle  to  before  the  perfon  accepting. 

Thi:i  wuman,  whom  thou  niad'fl  :o  be  my  help. 
And  gav'rt  me  as  thy  perfefl  gift,  fo  good. 
So  fit,  fo  acceptable,  fo  divine. 
That  fiom  her  hand  I  could  expefi  no  ill. 

Paradife  LciJ},  b.  ii. 
I  do  not  fee  any  other  method  left  for  men  of 
that  funftion    to   take,  in    order  to   reform    the 
world,  than  by  ufing  all  honell  arts  to  make  them- 
fclves  acceptable  to  the  laity.  Sivi/t. 

After  he  had  made  a  peace  fo  acceptable  to  the 
church,  and  fo  honourable  to  himfelf,  he  died  with 
an  extraordinary  reputation  of  fan3ity. 

Addifon  on  Italy. 

Acce'ptableness.  n.f.   [from    accepi- 

able.'\  The  quality  of  being  acceptable. 

Itwill  thereby  take  ivmy  the acceflaileneji of  thut 

coijun£lion.      Crew'' s  Ccfmologia Sacra,  b<  ii.  c.  2. 

Acce'ptably.  ai/'u.  [from  acceptai/e.] 
In  an  acceptable  manner ;  fo  as  to 
pleafe  ;  with  the  particle  to.  For  the 
accent,  fee  Acceptable. 

Do  not  omit  thy  prayers,  fur  want  of  a  good  ora- 
tory J  for  he  that  prayeth  upon  Cod's  account, 
cares  not  what  he  fuffers,  fo  he  be  the  friend  of 
Chriil;  nor  where  nor  when  he  prays,  fo  he  may 
do  it  frequently,  fervently,  and  acattablf,  Taykr. 
If  you  can  teach  them  to  love  and  rclpe^V  other 
pe  tple,  they  will,  as  your  age  requires  it,  find 
way  s  to  cxprefs  it  acceptably  to  every  one. 

Locke  on  Education,  §  145. 
Acce'ptance.   n.f.   [^acceptance,  Fr.] 

1.  Reception  with  approbation. 

Ey  that  acceptance  of  his  I'overeignty,  they  alfo 
a  cepteJ  of  his  lawsj  why  then  Ihould  any  other 
laws  now  be  ufed  amongl^  them  } 

Spenjcr's  Stale  of  Ireland, 
If  he  tells  us  his  noble  deeds,  we  mud  alfo  tell 
him  our  noble  acceptance  of  them. 

Sbakcfpeare's  Coriolanui. 
Thus  1  imbold^i'd  fpake,  and  freedom  us'd 
Permi/five,  and  aitcplance  found. 

Paradife  Lojf,  ^.  viil.  A  43  5. 

Some  men  cannot  be  foolswith  fo  good  acceptance 

as  others.  South's  Xrrm^ns, 

2.  The  meaning  of  a  word  as  it  is  received 
or  underftood;  acceptation  is  the  word 
now  commonly  ufed. 

A  C  C 

That  pleafure  is  man's  chiefeft  gsod,  becfufe 
indeed  it  is  the  peixeption  of  good  that  is  properly 
pleafure,  is  an  aifertionmoft  certainly  true,  though, 
under  the  common  acceptance  of  it,  not  only  falfe 
but  odious:  for,  according  to  this,  pleafure  ani 
fenfuality  pafs  for  terms  equivalent;  and  therefore 
he,  who  takes  it  in  this  fenfe,  alters  the  fubjeft  of 
the  difcourfc,  South, 

Acce'ptance.  [inlaw.]  Thc  receiving 
of  a  rent,  whereby  the  giver  binds  him- 
felf, for  ever,  to  allow  a  former  aft  done 
by  another,  whether  it  be  in  itfelf  good 
or  not.  Co'wel, 

Accepta'tion.  n.f.  [Jrom.  accept.] 

1.  Reception,  whether  good  or  bad.  This 
large  fenfe  feems  now  wholly  out  of  ufe. 

Vet,  poor  foul !  knows  he  no  other,  but  that  I 
do  fufpeft,  negled^,  yea,  and  deleft  him  -^  For, 
every  day,  he  finds  one  way  or  other  to  fet  forth 
himfelf  unto  me;  but  all  are  rewarded  with  like 
coldnefs  oi acceptation,  Sidney,  b,  ii. 

What  is  new  finds  better  acceptation,  than  what 
is  good  or  great.  Dcnbam's  Sophy„ 

2.  Good  reception,  acceptance. 

Cain,  envious  of  the  acceptation  of  his  brother's 
prayer  and  facrifice,  flew  him  ;  making  himfelf 
the  firft  manflayer,  and  his  brother  the  firft  mar- 
tyr. Raleigh's  Hiftcry  of  the  World,  b.  i. 

3.  The  ftate  of  being  acceptable  ;  regard. 

Some  things,  although  not  fo  required  of  necef- 
fity,  that,  to  leave  them  undone,  excludeth  from 
falvation,  are,  nntwithftandirg,  of  fo  great  dig- 
nity and  acceptation  with  Cod,  tliat  moft  ample 
reward  in  heaven  is  laid  up  for  them.    Hooker^  b.  ii* 

They  have  thofe  enjoymcnt^only  as  the  confe- 
qucnces  of  the  ftate  of  efteem  and  acceptation  they 
are  in  with  their  parents  and  governours. 

Locke  on  Education,  §  5 J. 

4.  Acceptance  in  the  juridical  fenfe.  This 
fenfe  occurs  rarely. 

As,  in  order  to  the  pafling  away  a  thing  by  gift, 
there  is  required  a  furrcnder  of  all  right  on  his  part 
that  gives  ;  fo  there  is  required  alfo  an  acceptation 
on  his  part  to  whom  it  is  g'ven.     South's  Seiwoiis, 

5.  The  meaning  of  a  word,  as  it  is  com- 
monly received. 

Thereupon  the  earl  of  Lauderdale  made  a  dif- 
courfc upon  the  feveral  queffions,  and  what  ac- 
ceptation thefe  words  and  expreflions  had. 

Clarendon,  b.  viii» 
All  matter  is  either  fluid  or  folid,  in  a  large 
acceptation  of  the  words,  that  they  may  compre- 
hend even  all  the  middle  degrees  betwren  extreme 
fixednefs  and  coherency,  and  the  moft  rapid  in- 
teftinemotionof  the  particles  of  bodies.  Boitl.  Serf?;, 

Acce'pter.  a./,  [from  accept.]  The  per- 
fon that  accepts. 

Acceptila'tion. n.f.  [acceftilatio, Lat. J 
A  term  of  the  civil  law,  importing  the 
remiflion  of  a  debt  by  an  acquittance 
from  the  creditor,  teftifying  the  receipt 
of  money  which  has  never  been  paid. 

Acce'ption.  a.  f.  [acceptiort,  Fr.  from 
ncceptio,  Lat.]  The  received  fenfe  of  a 
word  ;   the  meaning.     Not  in  ufe. 

That  this  hath  been  cliecmcu  thc  due  .ind  prd- 
per  acception  of  this  word,  1  fhall  teftify  by  one 
evidence,  which  gave  me  the  firft  hint  of  this  no- 
tion. Hammond  on  Ft/rrdatnentals, 

ACCE'SS.  n.f.  [In  fome  of  its  fenfes,  it 
leems  derived  from  accefj'us  ;  in  others, 
from  acccfjio,  Lat.  acces,  Fr] 

I.  The  way  by  which  any  thing  ;nay  be 

The  accefs  of  the  town  was  only  by  a  neck  of 
land.  .Bacon, 

There  remained  very  advantageous  aeC'fh  for 
temptations  to  enter  and  invade  men,  the  fortifi- 
cations being  very  fl-ndcr,  little  knowledge  of  im- 
mo.'tality,  or  an;  thing  beyond  tliis  life,  and  no 


A  C  C 

•ffuraace  tlut  rrptatance  wouM  be  iJmitted  Tor  I 
<in.  Hammof^d  on  yundamntalu 

And  hrrt  th*  aceejt  a  gloomy  grove  defends  { 
And  hrie  th*  unnuvigabic  lake  extendSi 
H>'cr  whofe  unhappy  waters,  void  of  lights 
'No  bird  prerames  to  (leer  his  airy  flight. 

Orjdrnt  j^netd,  vi, 

i.  The  means,  or  liberty,  of  approaclung 
either  to  things  or  men. 
When  we  are  wrong'd,  and  would  unfold  our 
We  «re  deny'd  acf^i  unto  hii  perfon« 
£v'n  by  thofe  men  that  moft  have  done  us  wrong. 

They  go  commiflion'd  to  require  a  peace, 
And  carry  prefenti  to  procure  «c^. 

Drydcni  ^neid,  vii.  /,  tOg. 
He  grants  what  they  befought  j 
InftruAed,  that  to  Cod  js  ao-acceft 
Without  Mediator,  whofe  high  office  now 
Mofcs  in  figsre  bears. 

Afilicn's  Par,  Lut,  h.xi'i.  l.ijg, 

3.  Encreafe,  enlargement,  addition. 

The  gold  was  accumulated,  and  (lore  treafures, 
for  the  moll  part;  but  the  filver  is  ftill  growing. 
Befides,  infinite  is  the  aectfi  of  territory  and  em- 
pire ij  tlie  fame  enterprise.  Bacon. 

Sot  think  fuperfluous  their  aid  ; 
I,  from  the  influence  of  thy  iooks,  receive 
jtcceji  in  every  virtue  ;  in  thy  fight 
Wore  wife,  more  watchful,  ftronger. 

Paradije  hufi,  h.  !x. 
Although  to  opinion,  there  be  many  gods,  may 
fc::m  an  aueji  in  religion,  and  fucli  js  cannot  at  ail 
confiH  with  athclfm,  yet  doth  it  dcduflivcly,  and 
upon  inference,  include  the  fame;  for  unit)  is  the 
jnfcparable  and  eHential  attribute  of  Deity. 

Brii'wnt  Vulgar  ErrcurSf  h,  u  f .  10. 
The  reputation 
Of  virtuous  aftions  paft,  if  not  kept  up 
■With  an  accefs,  and  frei>.  fupply,  of  new  ones, 
Is  loft  and  loon  forgotten.  Daihant^s  So/>hy,  i 

4.  It  is  fometimes  ufed,  after  the  French, 
to  fignify  the  returns  or  fits  of  a  diftem- 
per  j  but  this  fenfe  feems  yet  fcarcely 
received  into  our  language. 

For  as  relapfes  make  difcafes. 
More  defperate  than  their  firll  accrffes.     Itudihrat. 
A'ccEssARiNESS.  ».  /.   [froiB  accejpxry.'\ 
The  ftate  of  being  acceflary. 

Perhaps  this  will  draw  us  into  a  negative  accrf- 
farirfefi  to  the  mifchiefs.  Dtcay  cf  Piety. 

A'ccEstAHY,  *dj.  [A  corruption,  as  it 
feems,  of  the  word  acceffory,  which  fee  ; 
but  now  more  commonly  ufed  than  the 
proper  word.]  1  hat  which,  without 
being  the  chief  conllituent  of  a  crime, 
contributes  to  it.  But  it  had  formerly  a 
good  and  general  fenfe. 

As  for  thofe, things  that  are  accejpiry  hereunto, 
thofe  things  that  fo  belong  to  the  way  of  falvation, 
&c.  Il(ioktr,h,\\\,^  ■^, 

He  hath  taken  upon  him  the  government  o( 
HuU,  without  any  apprehenfion  or  imagination, 
that  it  would  ever  make  him  aicijj'ary  to  rebellion. 
C/arendon,  h.  viii. 
Acce'ssible.  aifj.  [accejpbilii,  Lat.  ac- 
ctjjible,  Fr.]  That  which  may  be  ap- 
proached ;  that  which  we  may  reach  or 
arrive  at. 

It   is   applied   both   to  perfons  and 
thing.'v,  with  the  particle  tt. 

Sonic  lie  more  open  to  our  fenles  and  daily  ob- 
fervation  \  others  are  more  occult  and  hidden, 
and  though  accejfibUy  '\n  fome  meafure,  to  our 
fenfes,  yet  not  without  great  fearch  and  fcrutiny, 
or  fome  happy  accident.   HaJt'i  Origin  of  Mankind, 

Thofe  things,  which  were  indeeid  inexplicable, 
liave  been  rackt  and  tortured  to  difcover  tbem- 
felves,  while  the  plainer  and  more  acctffihie  truths, 
«s  if  defpicablc  while  caf^i  ait  clouded  and  ob- 
jfcurc^.  Dkoj  of  Piety, 

A  C  C 

Al  an  ifland,  we  are  atceJUU  oB  every  fide,  and 
expofed  to  perpetual  invafions ;  againft  which  it  i< 
impoflible  to  fortify  ourfelvea  fufficiently,  without 
a  power  at  fea.  Addifint  Frteboldtr. 

In  converfation,  the  tempers  of  men  are  open  and 
tremble,  their  attention  is  awake,  and  their  minds 
difpofc-d  to  receive  the  ftrongeft  impreffions  ;  and 
what  is  fpnken  is  generally  more  affeding,  and 
more  appofite  to  particular  occafions.  Rcgrrs. 

Acce'ssion.  »./  [acctj/!e.  Lit,  accejion, 

1.  Increafe  by  fomething  added,  enlarge^ 
ment,  augmentation. 

Nor  could  all  the  king's  bounties,  nor  his  own 
large  acccffom,  raife  a  fortune  to  hi«  heir ;  but  af- 
ter vaft  fums  of  money,  and  great  wealth  gotten, 
he  died  unlamented.  Clarendon. 

There  would  not  have  been  found  the  difference 
here  fct  down  betwixt  the  force  of  the  air,  when 
expanded,  and  what  that  force  (hould  have  been 
according  to  the  theory,  but  that  the  included  inch 
of  air  received  fome  little  accejjion  during  the  trial. 
Boyle" i  Spring  &/*  the  j^ir. 

The  wifeft  among  the  nobles  began  to  appre- 
hend the  growing  power  of  the  people  j  and  there- 
fore, knowing  what  an  accejjion  thereof  would  ac- 
crue to  them,  by  fuch  an  addition  of  property, 
ufed  all  means  to  prevent  it>  Sivift. 

Charity,  indeed,  and  works  of  munificence,  are 

the  proper   difcharge  of   fuch   over-proportioned 

accejiom,  and  the  only  virtuous  enjoyment  of  tliem. 

Rogirs^s  Serm^ni. 

2.  The  aft  of  coming  to,  or  joining  one's 
felf  to  ;   as,  accejjion  to  a  confederacy. 

Befidc,  what  wile  objeaions  he  prepares 
Againft  my  late  acciJJMn  to  the  wars  ? 
Does  not  the  fool  perceive  his  argument 
Is  with  more  force  againft  Achilles  bent } 

Dryden'i  Fah/ei. 

3.  The  adl  of  arriving  at ;  as,  the  king's 
accejfioH  to  the  throne. 

.A'ccfiSiORlLV.  adv.  \it<3sa  accejjory .^    In 

the  manner  of  an  acceflbry. 
A'ccESSORY.flf^'.  Joined  to  another  thing, 

fo  as  to  increafe  it ;  additioaal. 

In  this  kind  there  is  not  the  leaft  a£lion,  but  it 
doth  fomewhat  make  to  the  accejfory  augmentation 
ofourblifs.  Hxkrr. 

A'ccessory.  h. /.  \acce^oria!,  Lat.  ac- 
cijfoire,  Fr.  This  word,  which  had 
anciently  a  general  fignification,  is  now 
almoft  confined  to  forms  of  law.] 

\.  Applied  to  perfons. 

A  man  that  is  guilty  of  a  felonious  ofl'ence,  not 
principally,  but  by  participation  ;  as,  by  com- 
mandment, advice,  or  concealment.  And  a  man 
may  be  acceijory  to  the  offence  of  another,  after 
two  forts,  by  the  common  law,  or  by  ftarute  :  and, 
by  the  common  law,  two  ways  alfo;  that  is,  be- 
fore or  after  the  fatl.  Before  the  rafl  j  as,  when 
one  commandeth  or  advifeth  another  to  commit  a 
felony,  and  is  notprefentat  the  execution  thereof; 
for  his  prcfence  makes  him  alfo  a  principal ;  wheie- 
fore  there  cannot  be  an  acccjjory  before  the  fa£l  in 
manftaughter ;  becaufe  manflaughtcr  is  fudden 
and  not  prepcnfed.  Accijjhry  after  the  fadl,  is, 
when  one  receiveth  him,  wW>m  he  knoweth  to 
have  committed  leiony.  A<ctjrory  by  ftatute,  is 
he  that  abets,  counlels,  or  hides  any  man  com- 
mitting, or  having  committed,  an  offence  made  fe- 
lony by  ftatute.  Cewel. 

By  the  common  law,  the  accijfories  cannot  be 
proceeded  againft,  till  tlie  principal  has  received 
his  trial.  SpenJ.  Stale  of  JreUnd. 

But  paufe,  my  foul !  and  ftudy,  ere  thou  fall 
On  accidental  joys,  th^  effential. 
Still  before  accejjbriei  to  abide 
A  trial,  muft  the  principal  be  try'd.  Dcnnt. 

Now  were  all  transform'^ 
Alike,  to  ferpents  all,  as  aceeffirirt 
To  his  bold  riot.     Milton' t  P»r.  t,^,  h,  X,  U  510. 

2.  Applied  to  things. 

A  C  C 

An  atttjforj  it  faid  to  b«  that  which  it*»  tlv 
cede  unto  fome  principal  fad  or  tiling  in  law  ( 
and,  as  fuch,  generally  fpeakiog,  follows  tlie  rci- 
foir  and  nature  of  its  principal.  Aylife, 

A'cciDENCE.  n.  f.  [a  corruprion  of^ /jr- 
cidents,  from  accidentia,  Latin.]  The 
little  book  containing  the  firft  ru- 
diments of  grammar,  and  explaining 
the  properties  of  the  eight  parts  of 

I  do  confefs  I  do  want  eloquence. 
And  never  yet  did  learn  mine  accidence. 

Taylor  the  tTatrr-poet, 
A'CCIDENT.  n./,  [accident,  Lat.] 

1.  The  property  or  quality  of  any  being, 
which  may  be  feparated  from  it,  atleafl 
in  thought. 

If  ftie  were  but  the  body's  accident. 
And  her  fole  being  did  in  it  fubfift. 

As  white  in  fnow  ihe  might  herfclf  abfent, 
And  in  the  body's  fubftance  not  be  mif&'d. 

Sir  y.  Dav'el. 

An  accidental  mode,  or  an  accident,  is  fuch  a 
mode  as  is  not  neceffary  to  the  being  of  a  thing  ; 
for  the  fubjeft  may  be  without  it,  and  yet  remain 
of  the  fame  nature  tliat  it  was  before  ;  or  it  is  that 
mode  which  may  be  feparated  or  aboliftied  from 
its  fubje£l.  IVatti's  Lo^ick, 

2.  In  grammar,  the  property  of  a  word. 

Tile  learning  of  a  language  in  nothing  elfe  but 
the  informing  of  ourfelvei,  what  compufurei  of 
letters  arc,  by  confent  and  inftitution,  to  fignify 
fuch  certain  notions  of  things,  with  their  nioda. 
lities  and  accidents.        H'ilderi  Elements  ofSpeccb* 

3.  That  which  happens  unfbrefeen;  ca- 
fualty,  chance. 

General  laws  are  like  general  rules  in  phyfick, 
according  whereunto,  as  no  wife  man  will  dclire 
himfelf  to  be  cured,  if  there  be  joined  with  his 
difcal'c  fome  fpecial  accident,  in  regard  whereof, 
that  whereby  others  in  the  fame  infirmity,  but 
without  the  like  accident,  recover  health,  w«uld 
be,  to  him,  either  hurtful,  or,  at  the  leaft,  un- 
profitable. Hooker,  b.  v.  ^  9. 

The  flood,  and  other  accidents  of  time,  made 
it  one  common  field  and  pafture  with  the  land  of 
Eden.  Raleigh's  Hifior/  of  the  World, 

Our  joy  is  tum'd 
Into  perplexity,  and  new  amaze ; 
For  whither  is  he  gone  ?  \f\sM  accident 
Hath  rapt  him  from  us  ?  Parajife  Regained, 

And  trivial  accidents  Ihall  be  forborn. 
That  others  may  have  time  to  uke  their  turn. 

Dryden's  Failet, 

The  reformation  owed  nothing  to  the  good  in- 
tentions of  king  Henry.  He  was  only  an  inftru- 
mentof  it  (a«  the  logicians  fpeak)  by  accident. 

Sivift's  Mijcellanies, 

Accide'ntal.  ft./,  [accidental,  Fr.  See 
ACCIDENT.]  A  property  nonefTeii- 

Conceive,  as  much  as  you  can,  of  the  efTentiaU 
of  any  fubjed,  before  you  confider  its  accidentals, 
fVaits's  Logick. 
Accide'ntal.  adj.  [from  accident.] 

1.  Having  the  quality  of  an  accident, 
nonefTential  ;  ufed  with  the  p.irticle  to, 
before  that  in  which  the  accident  in- 

A  diftinflion  is  to  be  made  between  what 
plcafcs  naturally  in  itfclf,  and  what  pleafcjs  upon 
the  account  of  machines,  atlors,  dances,  and 
circumftances,  which  are  merely  accidental  to  the 
tragedy,  Rymer's  Tragedies  of  the  laft  Age, 

This  it  ecc'idental  to  a  ftate  of  religion,  and 
tlierefore  ought  to  be  reckoned  among  the  ordinary 
difficulties  of  it.  Tithtjan, 

2.  Cafual,  fortuitous,  happening  by  chance. 

Thy  fin's  not  accidental,  but  a  trade. 

Shakefpeare's  Mcaf.  fjr  Mcaf, 
So  fhall  you  hear 
01  tcddinltl jai^tMaf)  cafual  flaughteis ; 


A  C  C 

Of  deatht  put  on  by  cunning,  and  forc'd  caufe. 

Shakeff.  Hdmlct. 
Look  upon  things  of  the  mod  acddtual  and 
mutablf!  nature;  accidenlal  in  their  produSion, 
and  mutable  in  their  continuance ;  yet  God's 
prefc'ence  of  them  is  as  certain  in  him,  as  the 
memory  of  them  is,  or  can  be,  in  us. 

Smith' t  Sc  mors. 

3.  In  the  following  paflage  it  feems   to 

flgmfy  adiientitious. 
Ay,  luch  a  minifter  as  wind  to  fire, 

Tha:  adds  an  accidtntal  fiercenefs  to 

Its  narural  fury.  Dcnbam'%  Sc;>h. 

Accidentally,  aJi>.  [from  accidental] 

1.  After  an  accidental  manner ;  noneffen- 

Other  points  no  lefs  concern  the  Common- 
wealth, though  but  accidentally  depending  U3  .n 
the  former.  «>>«/«■•,  St.  :fir.l. 

I  conclude  choler  acciJetuaUy  bitter,  and  acri- 
monioui,  but  not  in  idilf.   Harvey  on  Cmfum^tkns. 

Z,  Cafually,  fortuitoufly. 

Although  virtuous  men  do  fometimes  acciJer 
tally  make    their    way    to    preferment,    yet    t'.ic 
world  is  fo  corrupted,  that  nu  man  can  reafon- 
»bly  hope  to  be  rewarded  in  it,  merely  upon  ?c- 
count  of  his  virtue.  Swift',  MijccHanics. 

Accide'ntalness.  n./.  [from  acciden- 
la/.]     The  quality  of  being  accidental. 

Acci  PIENT.  n./.  [accipient,  Lat.]  A  re- 
ceiver, perhaps  lometjmes  ufed  for  re- 
cipiint.^  j)jg 

To  Acci  TE,  -V.  a.  [accito,  Lat.]  To  call, 
to  fomrnons  ;  a  word  not  in  ofe  now. 

Our  coronation  done,  we  will  accit^, 
(As  I  before  x:.n:r.i'xt'i)  all  our  ftate, 
Ani  (h'eavV,  cwifi^r'-j  to  :-  y  good  intents) 
No  pnnre,  :jo  peer,  :  t  c^ufc  £„  fj„ 

Hcav  n  ihjrtrn  Ha:  c  3^5  day. 

AccLA  iM,»./  [flfi^/owo,  Lat.  from  which 

n.^-„K;.    Crftthe  rerU-^f/a/w.  jiwloli, 

lenoon.]     A  (hout  of  praife, 

jrfoitthypow'n,  with  load  tfrt/dim, 

.,-1    L      .  ■        ^''"'»  P'r.  Lofi,  b.  iii.  /.  ,07. 
The  herald  end* ;  the  vaulted  firmament 
With  loud  acc:amt,  and  vaft  applaufe,  is  rent. 
.  ,  t>ryd.  FM,t. 

ACCLAMA  rioN.  n.f.  [acclamatio,  Lat.] 
Shouts  of  a;>plaufe ;  fuch,  as  thofe  with 
which  a  viftorious  army  falutes  the  ge- 
neral. ° 

It  hath  been  the  cuftom  of  Chriftian  men,  in 
token  of  the  gieater  reverence,  to  «and,  to  utter 
ceruin  word*  o{  atcUmatio,,  and,  at  the  name  of 
Jefus,  to  bow,  11,^1,^,  i.  V.  ^  ig. 

Gladly  then  he  mix'd 
Among  thofe  friendly  pow'rs,  who  him  teceiv'd 
With  joy,  and  acclamathm  loud,  that  one, 
That,  of  fo  many  myriads  faU'n,  yet  one 
Retum'd,  not  loft.       Milt,  farad.  Left,  i.vU  l.zi 
Such  an  encliantment  is  the.e  in  words,  and 

1  ?!,*  "f  ^'^f  ''  ''"'"  '"  '■<""«>  to  be  ruined 
plaufibly,  and  to  be  ulhered  to  their  dcrtruaion 
with  paacg)nck  and  acclamation.  South 

AccLi'viTY.  n.f.  [from  acclit-ut,  Lat.] 
The  Ikepnefs  or  rtope  of  a  line  inclin- 
ing to  the  horizon,  reckoned  upwards  • 
«,  the  afcent  of  an  hill  is  the  acc/intt/j] 
the  defcent  is  the  declivity.  P«/«A>. 

The  nien,  leaving  their  wives  and  younger 
children  below,  do,  not  without  fome  difficttltv, 
clamber  up  the  accli^itie,,  dragging  their  kine  them,  whe-e  ll«y  feed  them,  aod  milk 
thew,  and  make  butter  and  cheefe,  and  do  all 
.he  *a,;y-work.  Ray  o„  th  Crtat,.,,. 

Accii  vous.  adj.  {accli-vu,,  Lat.]  Rifinp 
with  a  (lope.  *■ 

Vol.  L  I 

A  C  C 

A  C  C 

To  Accto'r.  v.  a.    [See  CLOY.] 

1.  To  fill  up,  in  an  ill  fenfe  ;  to  crowd,  to 
Huff  full ;  a  word  almoft  obfolete. 

At  the  well  head  the  pureft  ftreamsarife; 
But  mucky  filth  his  branching  arms  annoys, 
And  with  uncomely  weeds  the  gentle  wave  arr/oyj. 

'Fdi}y  ^cen. 

2.  To  fill  to  fatiety ;  in  which  fenfe  clov  is 
itill  in  ufe. 

They  that,  efcapc  bed  in  the  temperate  zone, 
would  be  acchyid  with  long  nights,'  very  tedious, 
no  lefs  than  forty  days.  Ray  o-l  the  Creatim. 

To  Acco'iL.  v.  IT.  [See  Coil.]  To 
crowd,  to  keep  a  coil  about,  to  buftle, 
to  be  in  a  hurry:  a  word  now  out  of 

About  the  cauldron  many  cooks  accoiTd, 
With  hooks  and  hJles,  as  need  did  require ; 
The  while  the  viands  in  the  veOel  boil'd. 
They  did  about  their   bufinefs  fweat,  and  forely 
'^"i''''-  Tairi  Suten. 

A'ccOLENT.  n.f.  \accokns,  Lat.]  He  that 
ribabits  near  a  place  ;  a  borderer.    Dia. 
Acco'mmodable.    adj.     [accommodabilis, 
Lat.]    That  which  may  be  fitted  ;  widi 
the  particle  to. 

As  there  is  infinite  variety  in  the  circumftances 

of  pe.f.ns,  thing,,  anions,  times,  and  places;  fo 
we  muft  be  furniihed  with  fuch  general  rulei  a; 
arc  auommaMt  to  a';l  this  variety,  by  a  wife  judg- 
ment and  diforeti.n.  WattC,  Logici. 

To  ACCO'MMODATE.   v.    a.    [acccm- 
mcdo,   Lat.] 

1.  To  fupply  with  conveniencies  of  any 
kind.     It  has  tuiih  before  the  thing, 

1  hcie  three, 
The  .eft  io  nothing  ;  with  this  word,  ftand,  flanj, 
j1(ccmm,dalcj  by  the  place  (more  charming 
With  rheirown  noblenefs,  which  could  haveturn'd 
A  diftaff  to  a  lance),  gilded  pale  looks. 

Sbakcfp,  CytnbcUre. 

2.  With  the  particle /<7,  to  adapt,  to  fit,  to 
make  confiiient  with. 

He  had  altered  many  things,  not  that  they 
were  not  natural  before,  but  that  he  might  accom- 
xKdait  himfelf  to  the  age  in  which  he  lived. 

,_  .  Dryden  on  Dramatic  Poetry, 

rmt  hit  ronfijrtune  to  li^bt  upon  an  hypo- 
thefis,  that  could  not  be  acotr.modaiid  to  the  na- 
ture of  things,  and  human  aftliiis  ;  his  principles 
could  not  be  made  to  agree  with  that  conftitution 
and  order  which  God  hatli  fettled  in  the  world. 

3.  To  reconcile  ;  to  adjuft  what  feems  in- 
confiftent  or  at  variance ;  to  make  con- 
fillency  appear. 

Part  know  how  to  accomodate  St.  James  and 
St.  Paul  better  than  fome  late  reconcilers.    Norri:. 

To  Acco'mmodate.  f.  n.  To  be  con- 
formable to. 

They  make  the  particular  enfigns  of  the  twelve 
tribes  accommodate  unto  tiie  twelve  figns  of  the 
zodiac.  n 

»T  •  L       r  ,    .  Brown. 

Neither  fort  of  chymifts  have  duly  confidcred 

how  great    variety  there    is    in  the  textures  and 

confiftencics  of  compound  bodies;  and  how  little 

the  confiftince    and   duration   of  many  of  them 

feem  to  accommodate  and  be  explicable  by  the  pro 

pofed^  notion.  Boyle;  Sce/>t.  Chym. 

Acco'mmodate. adj.  [accommodatut,  Lat.] 

Suitable,  fit;  ufed  fometimes  with  the 

particle/iir,  but  more  frequently  with  to. 

They  are  fo  aftcd  and  directed  by  nature,  as 

to  caft  their  eggs  in   fuch  places  as  arc  moft  ac- 

ccmmadate  for  the  cxcluCon  of  their  young,  and 

where  there  is  food  ready  for  them  fo  foon  as  they 

be  hatched.  Ry  on  the  Creation. 

In  thefe  cafes  we  examine  the  why,  the  what, 

and  the  how,  of  things,  and  ptopofc  means  ac- 

ttmmodttt  It  ti>c  end.  VEJtran^c,  , 

God  did  not  primarily  intend  to  appoint  th!» 
way  of  worfliip,  and  to  impofe  it  upon  them  aj 
that  which  was  moft  proper  and  agreeable  to  him, 
but  tliat  he  condefcended  to  it  as  moft  accommodate 
to  their  prefent  ftate  and  inclination.  Tillotfon. 
Acco'mmodately.  adv.  [from  accom- 
modate.]    Suitably,  fitly. 

Accommoda'tion.  n.f.  [ham  accommit' 

1.  Provifion  of  conveniencies.       •v, 

2.  In  the  plural,  conveniencies,  things  re- 
quifite  to  eafe  or  refrefhment. 

The  king's  commiilioncrs  were  to  have  fuch 
accommodations,  a;;  the  other  thought  fit  to  leave  t» 
them  ;  who  had  been  very  civil  to  tlie  king's 
commiflioners.  Clar.„don,  b.  yiii. 

3.  Adaptation,  fitnefs ;  vvith  the  particle /o. 

Indeed  that  difputing  phyfialogy  is  no  accommo- 
dation to  your  defignf,  which  are  not  to  teach  men 
to  cant  endlefsly  about  ittateria  and  frma. 

Glan-vilU's  Scepfts* 

The  organization  of  the  body,  with  accommoda- 
tion to  its  funitions,  is  fitted  with  th:  moft  curious 
mechanifm.  //a/«i  Origin. 

4-  Compofition  of  a  difference,  reconcili- 
ation, adjulhnent. 

Acco'mpanable.  adj.  [from  accompany.'\ 
Sociable  :  a  word  now  not  ufed. 

A  (hiw,  as  it  were,  of  ui  accomparfable  folita. 
rincfs,  and  of  a  civil  wildnefs.  Sidney,  b.  i. 

Acco'mpanier.  »./  [from  accompany.] 
The  perfoii  that  makes  part  of  the  com- 
pany ;  companion,  Dia. 

To  ACCO'MPANY.  -v.  a.  [accompagntr, 
Fr.]  To  be  with  another  as  a  compa- 
nion, it  is  ufed  both  of  perfons  and 

Co  vjfit  her,  in  her  chafte  bower  of  reft, 
Accompany'd  with  angel-like  delights. 

,      Sfenfer,  Sonnet  iii. 

The  great  bufinefs  of  the  fenfe*  being  to  ^lake 

u:  take  notice  of  what  hurts  or  advantages  the 

body,    it  is    wifely  ordered  by  nature,  that  pain 

fhould  accompany  the  reception  of  feveral  ideas. 


As  folly  IS  ufually  accompanied  with    perverfc- 

nefs,  fo  it  is  here.      Stvift's  Short  yie-w  of  Ireland. 

To  Acco'mpany.  'v.n.  To  aflbciate  with; 
to  become  a  companion  to. 

No  maninrSccl  doth  accompany  mth  others 
but  he  learneth,  ere  he  is  aware,  fome  gcfture* 
voice,  or  faftiion.  Bacon's  Nat.  Hi/lory', 

Acco'mplice.  »./.  [complice,  Fr.  from 
complex,  a  word  in  the  barbarous  Latin, 
much  in  ufe.] 

I.  An  aflbciate,  a  partaker,  ufually  in  aa 
ill  fenfe. 

There  were  feveral  fcandalous  reports  induftri . 
oudy  fpread  by  Wood,  and  his  accomplices,  to  dif- 
courage  all  oppofition  againft  liis  infamous  projert. 


2.  A  partner,  or  to-operator  j  in  a  fenfe 

If  a  tongue  would  be  talking  without  a  mouth, 
what  could  it  have  done,  when  it  had  all  it» 
organs  of  fpccch,  and  accomplices  of  f<,und,  about 
''•      .  AddiJ'ontSpiaatorfti"  zn_j. 

3,  It  is  ufed  with  the  panicle  to  before  a 
thing,  and  •with  before  a  perfon, 

Childlefs  Arturiua,  vaftly  rich  before. 
Thus  by  his  lolfes  multiplies  his  ftore, 
Sufpedled  for  accomplice  to  the  fire,  burnt  his  palace  but  to  build  it  higher. 

Who,  ftiould  theyft^l  for  want  of  his  rcliet 
He  judg'd  himfelf  flr«»i^/(«  ■with  the  thief, 

Diydcn't  Fables. 

To  ACCOMPLISH.  -J.  a.  [aaompUr,  tr. 
from  coinpUo,  Lat.] 

D  i.T« 

A  C  C     . 

».  To  complete,  to  execute  fully;  as,  to 
atamflijb  a  dcfign. 

He  that  U  fir  oft  (hall  die  of  the  peftilence,  and 

lie  that  is  near  (hall  fall  by  the  fword,  and  he  that 

temaineth,  and  is  befieged,   (hall  die  by  the  fa- 

mine.    Thus  will  I  eccimflifr  my  fury  upon  them. 

Extkkl,  vi.  la. 

».  To  complete  a  period  of  time. 

He  would  accampli/h  Icventy  years  in  the  defo- 
lations  of  Jerulilcm.  Danitl,  ix.  a. 

3.  To  fulfil ;  as,  a  prophecy. 

The  vifion, 
Which  I  made  known  to  Lucius  ere  the  ftroke 
Of  this  yet  fcarce  cold  battJe,  at  this  in(»ant  ' 

Is  full  accmflijh'd.  ShaUfra-t'i  Cymhlint. 

We  fee  every  day  thofe  events  eaaflly  aaom- 
pTilhtd,  which  our  Saviour  foretold  at  fo  great  a 
diftance.  ,  ^**''/°«- 

4.  To  gain,  to  obtain. 

Tell  him  from  me  (a»  he  will  win  my  love) 
He  bear  himfelf  with  honourable  aftion ; 
Such  as  he  hath  obferv'd  in  noble  ladies 
Unto  their  lords,  by  them  aecomplilhtd. 

_  Stakrjf.  7am.  of  a  Sircw. 

I'll  make  my  lieaven  in  a  lady's  lap. 
Oh  miferable  thought,  and  more  unlikely. 
Than  to  accompli/h  twenty  golden  crowns. 

'^•^  Hhakijf.litnryy 

5.  To  adorn,  or  furnifh,  either  mind  or 

From  the  tents 
The  armourers  uctmfTtp'ing  the  knights. 
With  bufy  hammers  clofmg  rivets  up. 
Give  dreadful  note  of  preparation.   Shakefp.  Htri,  V. 
Ac  co'm  p  I,  I  s  H  E  D .  participial  adj. 

1.  Complete  in  fome  qualification. 

For  who  cxpcfts,  that,  under  a  tutor,  a  young 
gentleman  Ihould  be  an  ammflj/hiJ  publick  ora- 
tor or  logician.  Ltcie. 

2.  Elegant ;  finiftied  in  refpea  of  embel- 
lifiiments  ;  ufed  commonly  of  acquired 

.      qualifications,  without  including  moral 

The  next  I  took  to  wife, 
O  that  I  never  had !  fond  with  too  late. 
Was  in  the  valeof  Sorec,  Dallla, 
That  fpteious'  nJon(Ver,  my  acccmfli/h'rl  fnare. 

Sam/on  Agcn. 

Acco'mplisher.  n.f.  [from  accompliJh.'\ 

The  pcrfon  that  accompliflies.         DiSl. 

Acco' a PLiSHUBKr. It./.  lac<ompliJ~ement, 

1 .  Completion,  full  performance,  perfec- 

This  would  be  the  acccmpCi/hment  of  their  com- 
mon felicity,  in  cafe,  by  their  evil,  either  through 
<lcftiny  or  advice,  they  fuffered  not  the  occ.ilion  to 
^(  loft.  Sir  Jibn  Hayward. 

Thereby  he  might  evade  the  aatmfl'^nur.t  of 
thofe  affliftions  he  now  but  gradually  end urcth. 

BrtnvH^s  Vulgar  Errours. 

He  thought  it  impo(rible  to  (inJ,  in  any  one 
body,  all  thofe  perfcSions  which  he  fought  for 
the  acitmflijimtnt  of  a  Helena  j  becaufc  nature, 
In  any  individual  ptrfon,  makes  nothing  that  is 
perfed  in  all  its  parts.       Drydm'i  Dufrtjiry,  Pre/. 

2.  Completion  ;  as,  of  a  prophecy. 

The  miraculous  fuccefs  of  th;  apo.lles  preach- 
ing, and  the  acampliJhiKer.t  of  miny  of  their  pre-  • 
i'ldt'ions,  which,  to   thofe  early  Chriiiians,  were 
matters  of  fath  only,  are,  to  us,  matters  of  figh: 
and  expetience.  ^iitriury'tSirmoin. 

3.  Embelli(hm«nt,  elegance,  ornament  of 
mind  or  body. 

Young  heirs,  and  elder  brothers,  from  their 
cwn  refleifling  theeftatestheya.e  born  to,  and 
therefore  thinking  all  other  accimplijhmntt  unne- 
celTary,  arc  iff  no  manner  of  ufc  but  to  keep 
op  their  families.  Aldifin,  Speftator,  N"  123. 

4.  The  a£l  of  obtaining  or  perfefting  any 
thing;  attainment;  completion. 

A  C  C 

The  means   fuggcfted   by  policy  and   worldly 
wifdom,  for  the  aitainmcnt  of  thofe  earthly  cn- 
joymer.ts,  are  unfit    for    that    purpofe,  not  only 
upon  the  account  of  their   for,  but 
alfo  of  their  frequent  oppofit'.on  and  contrariety 
to,  the  aiccmplipmir.i  of  fucli  ends.     South' t  Scrm. 
Acco'mpt.  It./.  [Fr.  compter  And  compte, 
anciently  accompier.    Skinner.^    An  ac- 
count, a  reckoning.    See  Account. 

The  foul  may  have  time  to  call  itfelf  to  a  juft 
accompt  of  all  things  paft,  by  means  whereof  re- 
pentance is  perfefled.  Hotter,  i.v.  §46. 

Each  Cbriftmas  they  accanpn  did  dear; 
And  wound  their  bottom  round  the  year.      Pritr, 
Acco'mptant.  It./,  [accomptant,  Fr.]   A 
reckoner,  computer.     See  Account- 

As  the  accompt  runs  on,  generally  the  accompt- 
ant goes  backward.  Souib's  Sermors. 

Acco'mpting  DAY.     The  day  On  which 
the  reckoning  is  to  be  fettled. 
To  whom  thou  much   doll   owe,  thou  much 
maft  pay; 
Think  on  the  debt  againft  th'  accompt'wg  day. 

Sir  J.  Dnkam, 

To  ACCO'RD.  f.  a.  [derived,  by  fome, 
from  corda,  the  firing  of  a  mufical  in- 
ilrument,  by  others,  from  corda,  hearts  ; 
in  the  firft,  implying  harmony,  in  the 
other,  unity.] 

.  To  make  agree  ;  to  adjuft  one  thing  to 
another ;  with  the  particle  to. 

The  (irft  fports  the  (hepherds  (hewed,  were  full 
of  fuch  leaps  and  gambols,  as  being  accardeii  to 
the  pipe  which  they  bore  in  their  mouths,  even 
as  they  danced,  made  a  right  piilure  of  their  chief 
god  Pan,  and  his  companions  the  fatyrs. 

Siilnty,  b.\. 
Her  hands  accorded  the  lute's  mufic  to  the  voice; 
her  panting  heart  danced  to  the  mufick. 

Sidney,  h.  ii. 
The  lights  and  (hades,  whofe  well  acardeJ  ftrife 
Gives  all  the  (irength  and  colour  of  our  life. 

Pope's  Epift. 

2.  To  bring  to  agreement ;   to  compofe  ; 
to  accommodate.     , 

Men  would  not  reft  upon  bare  contrafts  without 
reducing  the  debt  into  a  fpecialty,  which  created 
much  certainty,  and  acctrdtd  many  fuits. 

Sir  M.  Hale. 

To  Acco'r  D.  f.  n.    To  agree,  to  fuit  one 
with  another ',  with  the  particle  w/VA. 

1  hings  are  often  fpoke,  and  feldom  meant ; 
But  that  my  heart  acccrdtth  ivitb  my  tongue. 
Seeing  the  deed  is  meritorious, 
And  to  prefervc  my  fovereign  from  his  foe. 

Several  of  the  main  parts  of  Mofcss  biftory,  as 
concerning  the  flood,  and  the  (irft  fathers  of  the 
fcve:al  nations  of  the  world,  do  very  well  acctr.i 
ivith  the  mod  ancient  accounts  of  pmfane  hiliory. 
Till  tfon.  Sermon  i. 
Jarring  int'refts  of  themfelves  create 
Th"  accorditg  mufick  of  a  well-mixt  (late.     Pope. 
Aoco'r-D.   n./.  [accord,  Fr.] 
I.  Acompaft;  an  agreement ;  adjuftment 
of  a  difference. 

There  was  no  means  for  him  to  fatisfy  all 
obligations  to  God  and  man,  but  to  ofler  himfelf 
for  a  mediator  of  an  accord  and  peace  between 
them.  Bacon's  Hen,  VII. 

If  both  are  fatisfy'd  with  this  accord. 
Swear  by  the  laws  of  knighthood  on  my  fword. 

Dryd.  Fat. 

z.  Concurrence,  union  of  mind. 

At  laft  fuch  grace  I  found  and  means  I  wrought, 
That  I  that  la  'y  to  my  Ipoufe  had  won, 

Accord  of  friends,  confent  of  parents  fought, 
Affiance  made,  my  happincfs  begun. 

Spenfir's  Fairy  Sheer. 
.         They  gathered  tlicniiyvcs   together,  to  fight 

A  C  C 

with  Tofliua  and  Urael,  with  one  eccorj. 

•■  Jtpua,  IX.  1. 

Harmony,  fymmetry,  juft  correfpond- 
ence  of  one  thing  with  another. 

Beauty  is  nothiii^  clfc  but  a  juft  acard  and  mu- 
tual harmony  of  the  members,  animated  by  a 
healthful  conftitution.      Drydm't  Dujrejnoj,  Pre/. 

.  Mufical  note. 

Try,  if  there  were  in  one  ftceple  two  bells  of 
unifon,  whether  the  ftriking  of  the  one  would 
move  the  other,  mire  than  If  it  were  another 
accord.  Bacons  Natural  Hljlorj,  No  281. 

We  muft  not  blame  Apollo,  but  his  lute. 
If  falfe  accords  from  her  diit  fttings  be  fent. 

Sir  y.  Daviet. 

.  Oxvn  accord  ;  voluntary  motion  :  ufed 
both  of  perfons  and  things. 

Ne  Guyon  yet  fpal^e  word. 
Till  that  they  came  unto  an  iron  door. 
Which  to  them  open'd  of  its  own  accorr!. 

ta'ry  Stuetn. 
Will  you  blaxe  any  man  for  doing  that  of  hia 
own  accord,  which  all  men  (hmld  be  compelled  to 
do,  that  are  not  willing  t  th.mfelvea.  Hocier. 
All  animal  fubftance.-,  eipofed  to  tlie  air,  turn 
alkaline  of  their  f  wn  accord;  and  fome  vegetables, 
by  heat,  will  not  turn  acid,  but  alkaline. 

jlrbuthnit  en 

in  fpeaking,  correfpondent  to 

6.  Aftion 
the  words. 
Titus,  I  am  come  to  talk  with  thee. — 

No,  not  a  word:  how  can  I  grace  my  talk, 

Wanting  a  hand  to  give  it  that  accord? 

Sbate/p.  Titus  And. 
Acco'rdance.  n./.  [from  accord.] 

1 .  Agreement  with  a   perfon  ;    with  the 
particle  iMith. 

And  prays  he  may  in  long  accordance  bide, 
With  that  great  worth  which  hath  fuch  wonder* 
wrought.  Fairfax,  h.'n.Jlan*ab%' 

2.  Conformity  to  fomething. 

The  only  way  of  defining  of  fin,  is,  by  the  con- 
trariety to  the  will  of  God ;  as  of  good,  by  the 
accordance  vntl)  that  will. 

Hammond's  Fundamentals. 

Acco'rdant.  adj.  [accordant,  Fr.]  Wil- 
ling ;  in  a  good  humour.     Not  in  ufe. 

1  he  prince  difcovered  that  he  loved  your  niece, 
and  meant  to  acknowledge  it  this  night  in  a  dance; 
and,  if  he  found  her  accordant,  he  meant  to  take 
the  prefent  time  by  the  top,  and  inftantly  break 
with  you  of  it.      Skakefp.  Muck  ado  ahout  Nothing. 
Ac  co'  R  D I N  c .  prep,  [from  accord,  of  which 
it  is  properly  a  participle,  and  is  there- 
fore never  ufed  but  with  to.] 
.  In  a  manner  fuitable  to,  agreeably  to, 
in  proportion. 

Our  churches  are  places  provided,  that  the  peo- 
ple might  there  alTemble  themfelves  in  due  and 
decent  manner,  according  to  their  feveral  degrees 
and  orders.  Hooker,  h.  v.  ^  13. 

Our  leal,  then,  (houlJ  be  according  to  know- 
ledge And  what  kind  of  knowledge  ?  Witli  ut 
all  queftion,  firft,  according  to  the  true,  faving, 
evangelical  knowledge.  It  (liould  be  according  to 
the  gofpcl,  the  whole  gcfpel :  not  only  according  to 
its  truths,  but  precepts :  not  only  according  to  its 
fiee  grace,  but  necelTary  duties  :  not  only  accord- 
ing to  its  mjfteries,  but  alfo  its  commandments. 

Sprat's  Sermtm. 

Noble  is  the  fame  that  is  built  on  candour  and 
ingenuity,  according  to  thofe  beautiful  lines  of  Sir 
John  Denham.  Addijon,  Sptaalor. 

1.  With  regard  to. 

God  made  all  things  in  number,  weight,  and 
meafure,  and  gave  them  to  be  confidercJ  by  us  ac- 
tording  to  thefe  propeities,  which  are  inherent  in 
creatcJ  beings.  Hc:dcr  en  Time, 

3.  In  proportion.     The  following  phrafe 
is,  I  think,  vitious. 

A  man  may,  with  prudence  and  a  good  con- 
fclencc,  approve  of  the  profeiTed  principles  of  one 


A  C  C 

party  more  than  the  other,  according  as  he  thinks     J 
they  bell  piomotc  the  good  of  church  and  ftate. 

Sivlft'i  Church  tf  England  Man. 

Acco'roinclv.  aJ'v.  [from  accon/.]   A- 
greeably,  faitably,  conformably. 

As  the  a'Sions  ot  men  are  of  fundry  diilmft 
kinds,  fo  the  laws  thereof -oiuft  accori'wg'.y  be  dif- 
tinguiihed.  Ho'.kcr,  b.i. 

Sirrib,  thou'rt  faid  to  have  a  ftubborn  fouf. 
That  apprehends  no  fuit'ier  than  this  world; 
And  ftjuar'U  thy  life  accord  n^fy. 

Shakilp.  Mcufurefor  Meaj. 
Whoever  is  fo  aflTuted  of  the  authuricy  and  f:nk 
of  fcrirture,  as  to  believe  ths  doSriae  of  it,  and 
to  live  acccjdinglyt  fliall  be  laved. 

TilUtfon's  Prifacc. 

Mealy  fubftances,  fermented,  turn  four.     Ai- 

cordinglj,  given  to  a  weak  child,  they  dill  retain 

their  future;  fot bread  will  give  them  the  cholit. 

Arbutbnor  en  AHmcnts. 

To  ACCO'ST.  -v.  a.   \accofttr,  Fr.]     To 
fpcik  to  firft  ;  to  addrefs  ;  to  falute, 

Vou  millake.  knight  :  a.-ct/?  her,  front  her, 
board  her,  woo  her,  alTail  her. 

Sbakfj'ftare'l  Tvjelfth  Night. 
At  length,  ciiUcaing  ail  his  ferpent  wiles, 
Witii  foothmg  words  renew  d,  him  thus  accoSs. 

Paraa.  Reg, 
I  firft  aca^-d  him  :  I  fu'd,  I  (ought, 
Aod,  with  a  loving  force,  to  Phencus  brought. 

Dryd.  j'Ene'td. 

Acco'sTABLE.  <i<^'.  [from flffo/?.]  Eafyof 
accefs ;  familiar.     Not  in  ufe. 

They  were  both  indubitable,  ftron^-,  and  high- 
minded  men,  yet  of  fwect  and  accnjiahU  nature, 
almod  equally  del  ghting  in  theprefsand  affluence 
of  d'pendents  and  fultors.  yf^atsn. 

ACCO'UNT.  n.  f.  [ftom  the  old  French 
accomft,  from  computui,  Lat.  it  was  ori- 
ginally written  accimpt,  which  fee ;  but, 
by  gradually  foftening  the  pronuncia- 
tion, in  time  the  orthography  changed 
to  account. \ 

.1.  A  computation  of  debts  or  expences  ;  a 
regifter  of  facts  relating  to  money. 
At  many  tJm^s  I  brought  in  m^^ 
Laid  them  before  you  ;  you  would  threw  them  off, 
And  fay  you  found  them  in  mine  honefly. 

Shakcfp.  Timcn. 
When  my  young  mader  has  once  got  the  ikill 
of  keeping  accounti  (which  is  a  bulincfs  of  rear>n 
more  than  arithmetic)  i>erhaps  it  will  not  be  amlfs, 
that  his  father  frj;n  thenceforth  require  him  to  do 
it  in  all  his  concernments.  Lacke  on  Educ. 

2.  The  ftate  or  refult  of  a  computation  ; 
as,  the  acccunt  ftands  thus  between  us. 

Behoid  this  have  1  fnund,  faith  the  Preacher, 
counting  or.e  by  one,  to  Bnd  out  the  acatint. 

EcclefipJIkus,  vii.  17. 

3.  Such  a  ftateofperfons  or  things,  as  may 
make  them  more  or  lefs  worthy  of  being 
confidered  in  the  reckoning.  Value,  or 

For  the  care  that  they  toik  for  their  wives  and 
their  children,  their  brethren  and  kinsfolks,  was 
in  leafl  iictuni  with  them  :  but  the  greatell  and 
principal  fear  was  fur  the  holy  temple. 

z  Maccah.  xv,  1 1. 

That  good  affcAion,  which  things  of  fm.Tller  ar- 
ttutt  have  once  fet  on  work,  is  by  fo  much  the 
more  calily  raifed  higher.  Hocker,  h.  v.  ^  35. 

1  fliould  make  more  account  of  their  judgment, 
who  arc  rnen  of  fenfe,  and  yet  have  never  touched 
a  pencil,  than  of  the  opinion  given  by  the  grcatcO 
part  of  painters.  Dryden^t  D.'ijrrfr. 

4.  Profit ;  advantage  ;  to  /«r«  to  account 
is  to  produce  advantage. 

We  wouiJ  eftablifl)  our  fouls  in  fuch  a  folid  and 
fubftintial  virtue,  as  will  turn  to  aacuni  in  that 
great  day,  when  it  mull  Hand  the  tc!l  of  infinite 
wifdom  and  juflicc.  Add,  Sji{l,  N^  399. 

A  C  C 

.  Dlftlnflion,  dignity,  rank. 

There  is  fuch  a  peculiarity  in  Homer's  manner 
of  apostrophizing  Eumaus:  it  is  generally  applied, 
by  that  poet,  only  to  men  v^ account  and  diftinc- 
ti'on.  Pope's  OdylTey;   *.'«. 

.  A  reckoning  verified  by  finding  the  va- 
lue of  a  thing  equal  to  what  it  was  ac- 

Confidering  the  ufual  motives  of  human  aflions, 
which  are  pleafure,  profit,  and  ambition,  I  cannot 
yet  comprehend  howthofe  pcrfons  find  theirarroir:; 
in  any  of  the  three.  Swift. 

.  A  reckoning  referred  to,  or  fum  charg- 
ed upon  any  particular  peribn  ;  and 
thence,  figuratively,  regard;  confidera- 
lion  ;  fake. 

If  he  hath  wronged  thee,  or  oweth  thee  aught, 
put  that  on  my  account,  Philemon,  i.  S, 

This  mull  be  always  remembered,  that  liothiiig 
can  come  into  the  account  .>f  recreation,  that  is  not 
done  with  delight.  Liciecn  Education,  ^  197. 

In  matters  vvlierc  his  judgment  led  him  to  op- 
pofe  men  on  a  public  acccunt,  he  would  do  it  vigo. 
roufly  and  heartily.  jitierhury's  Seimoia. 

The  afTertion  is  cur  Saviour's,  though  uttered 
by  him  in  the  perfon  of  Abraham  the  father  of  the 
faithful;  who,  on  the  <rri rant  of  that  charafler,  is 
very  fitly  introduced.  Attcrbury. 

Thele  tribunes  kindled  great  dilTenfions  between 
the  nobles  and  the  commons,  on  the  account  of  Co- 
riolanus,  a  nobleman,  wh^m  the  latter  had  im- 
peached. Stvifi's  Conlcfti  in  Athens  and  Rome, 

Nothing  can  recommend  itfelf  to  our  love,  on 

any  other  account,  but  either  as  it  promotes  our 

prefent,  or  is  a  means  to  alTurc  to  us  a  future  Iiap- 

pinefs.  Rogers,  Sermon  v. 

Sempronius  gives  00  thanks  on  this  account, 


J.  A  narrative,  relation  ;  in  this  ufe  it 
may  feem  to  be  derived  from  cenie,  f  i . 
a  tale,  a  narration. 

J.  The  review  or  examination  of  an  affair 
taken  by  authority  ;  as,  the  magiftrate 
took  an  account  ot  the  tumult. 

Therefore  is  the  kingdom  of  heaven  likened 
onto  a  certain  king,  which  would  take  acccuni  of 
his  fervants ;  and  when  he  had  begun  to  reckon, 
one  was  brought  unto  him,  which  owed  him  ten 
thoufand  talents.  Matt,  xix.  23,  24. 

10.  The  relation  and  reafons  of  a  tranfac- 
tion  given  to  a  perfon  in  authority. 

What  need  we  fejr  who  knows  it,  when  none 
can  call  our  power  f)  accour.t  ?    ' 

Shitkefpiare'i  Macbeth, 

The  true  ground  of  morality  tan  only  be  tlie 
will  and  law  of  a  Cod  who  fris  men  in  the  dark, 
has  in  his  hands  rewards  and  punilhments,  and 
power  enough  to  call  to  account  the  proudell  offen- 
der. Lccki, 

11.  Explanation;  aflignment  of  caufes. 

It  is  eafy  to  give  account,  how  it  comes  to  pafs, 
that  though  all  men  defire  bappinefs,  yet  their  wills 
carry  them  fo  contrarily.  Locke, 

It  being,  in  our  author's  arroonr,  a  right  acquired 
by  begetting,  to  rule  over  thofc  he  had  begotten,  it 
Wis  not  a  power  poflible  to  be  inherited,  becaufe 
the  right,  being  confequcnt  to,  and  built  on,  an  aft 
perfedlly  perfonal,  made  that  power  fo  too,  and 
impoHible  til  be  inherited.  Locke, 

iz.  An  opinion  previoufly  eftablinied. 

Thefc  were  detigned  to  join  with  the  forces  at 
fra,  there  being  prepared  a  number  of  fiat-bo!tomed 
boats  to  tranfport  the  land  forces  under  the  wing 
of  the  great  navy  :  for  they  made  no  account,  but 
that  the  navy  Hiould  be  abfolutely  mafter  of  the 
fcas.         Baccn't  Conftdcrations  on  War  luiib  Spain, 

A  prodigal  young  fellow,  that  had  fold  his 
clothes,  upon  the  fight  of  a  fwallow,  made  account 
that  fummerwas  at  band,  and  away  went  liis  fliirt 
too.  L'Efirange,  Fab,  cxxvii. 

13.  The  reafons  of  any  thing  colleftcd. 
Being  convinced,  upon  all  account!)  that  tbey 

A  C  C 

had  the  fame  reafon  to  believe  the  hiftoryof  our 

Saviour,  as  that  of  any  other  perfon  to  which  they 
themfelves  were  not  aftually  cye-witneffcs,  they 
were  bound,  by  all  the  rules  of  hiftorical  faith,  and 
of  right  reafon,  to  give  credit  to  this  billory. 


14.  In  law. 

Account  is,  in  the  common  law,  taken  for  a  writ 
or  adion  brought  againft  araan,  that,  by  means  of 
office  or  bufincl's  undertaken,  is  to  render  an  <if- 
ccunt  unto  anothe'r  ;  as  a  bailiff  toward  hismiiftcr, 
a  guardian  to  his  ward.  C-tvcf, 

To  Acco'uNT.  -v,  a.  [See  ACCOUNT.] 

1 .  To  efteem,  to  think,  to  hold  in  opinion. 

That  alfo  was  accounted  a  land  of  giants.    De/it. 

2.  To  reckon,  to  compute. 

Neither  the  motion  of  the  moon,  whereby 
months  are  computed,  nor  the  fun,  whereby  years 
are  accounted,  conCfteth  of  who'e  numbeis. 

Bronvn's  Vulgar  Errours, 

3.  To  affign  to,  as  a  debt ;  with  the  parti- 
cle to. 

For  fome  years  really  accrued  the  yearly  fum  of 
two  hundred  thoufand  pounds  to  the  king's  cofi'er*  : 
and  it  was,  in  truth,  the  only  projcdl  that  was  ac- 
counted to  his  own  I'ervice.  Clarendon, 

4.  To  hold  in  efteem  ;  with  of. 
Silver  was  nothing  accounted  of  in  the  days  of 

Solomon.     •  -  Chrtin. 

ToAcco'uNT.   1/.  a. 

1.  To  reckon. 

The  calendar  months  are  likewlfe  arbitrarily 
and  unequally  fettled  by  the  fame  power;  by 
which  months  we,  to  this  day,  account,  and  they 
meafure  and  make  up,  that  which  we  call  the  Ju- 
lian year.  Holder  on  Time. 

2.  To  give  an  account,  to  aflign  the  caufes ; 
in  which  fenfe  it  is  followed  by  the  par- 

If  any  one  (hould  a(k,  why  our  general  conti- 
nued fo  eafy  to  the  lad  ?  I  know  no  other  way  to 
account  for  it,  but  by  that  unmeafurable  love  of 
wealth,  which  his  bell  friends  allow  to  be  his  pre- 
dominant paffion.  Swift, 

3 .  To  make  up  the  reckoning ;  to  anfwer ; 

Then  thou  flialt  fee  him  plung'd,  when  lead  he 
At  once  accounting  for  his  deep  arrears. 

Vryd.  fu-u.  Sat.  xiii. 
They  have  no  uneafy  prefages  of  a  future  reckon- 
ing, wherein  the  pleafures  they  now  talle  mud  be 
accounted  for;  and  may,  perhaps,  he  outweighed 
by  the  pains  which  fliall  tiien  lay  hold  of  them. 

Alteibury's  SermoK', 

4.  To  appear  as  the  medium,  by  which 
any  thing  may  be  explained. 

Such  as  have  a  faulty  circulation  through  the 
lungs,  ought  to  eat  very  little  at  a  time;  becaufe 
the  increafe  of  the  quantity  of  frelh  chyle  mtill 
make  that  circulation  Hill  more  uneafy  ;  which. 
Indeed,  is  the  cafe  of  confumptivc  and  fome  afih- 
matic  perfon',  and  accounts  for  the  fymptoms  they 
are  troubled  with  after  eating. 

Arbuthnot  on  Aliment!. 
Acco'uNTABLE.  «<^'.  [from  «CfO«»/.]  Of 
whom  an  account  may  be  required  ;  who 
mult  anfwer  for  :  followed  by  the  parti- 
cle te  before  the  perfon,  and_/ir  before 
the  t'hing. 

Accountable  to  none. 
But  to  my  confciencc  and  my  God  alone. 

Thinking    themfelves    excufed    from    (landing 
upon  their  own  legs,  or  being  accountable  for  their 
own  condufl,  they  very  feldom  trouble  themfelves 
with  enquiricf^,  Locke  on  Education, 

The  good  magiftrate  will  make  no  diftinftion  ; 
fir  the  judgment  is  God's;  and  he  will  look  upon 
himfelf  as  accountable  at  bis  bar  for  the  equity  of 
it,  Attcrbury's  Sermons, 

Accot/'Nt ANT,<ti^'.  [ftom account.}  Ac- 
D  z  countable 

A  C  C 

countable  to;  refponfible  for.    Not  in 

His  offence  is  To,  as  it  appurs 
jtcamnttnt  n  the  law  upon  tiiat  pain. 

Stakrff,.  Mtaf.fvMiaf. 
I  love  her  too, 
Not  out  oribfolute  lull  (though,  peradventure, 
J  ftand  acccuntant  for  as  great  a  Tin) 
But  partly  led  to  diet  iry  revenge. 

Sbaifffeari'i  Othtlls. 

Acco'uNTANT.  n. /.  [See  Accompt- 
ANT.]  A  computer  ;  a  man  fciUcd  or 
employed  in  accounts. 

The  different  compute  ef  divers  dates  ;  thefliort 
and  irieconcilcable  years  of  fome  ;  the  exceeding 
crrour  in  the  natural  frame  of  others  ;  and  the 
falfc  deduAiona  of  ordinary  orrwnr^nfi  in  molt. 

Brown^s  Vulgar  Erroun, 

Acco'uNT-BOOK.  »./  A  book  Contain- 
ing accounts. 

1  would  endeavour  to  comfort  myfelf  upon  the 
•  lofs  of  friends,  as  I  do  upon  the  lofs  of  money  ; 
by  turning  to  my  account-book,  and  feeing  whether 
I  have  enough  left  for  ray  fupport.  Sivifl. 

Acco'dnting.  n.f.  [from account.]  The 
aft  of  reckoning,  or  making  up  of  ac- 

This  method  faithfully  obfenrcd,  muft  keep  a 
man  from  breaking,  or  running  behind-hand  in 
his  fpiritual  eftatej  which,  without  frequent  af- 
(luitiing),  he  will  hardly  be  able  to  prevent. 

Sourb*t  Sermons* 
To  Acco'uPLE.  -v.  a.  [accoufler,  Fr.]  To 
join,  to  link  together.      We  now  nfe 

He  fent  a  folemn  embaflage  to  treat  a  peace 
and  league  with  the  king;  accoupimg  it  with  an 
article  in  the  nature  of  a  requeft. 

Bacon's  HcirjWl. 

Tfl  Acco'uRACE.  f.  a.  [Ofafolete.  See 
Courage.]    To  animate. 

That  forward  pair  ihe  ever  would  alTuage, 
When  they  would  ftrive  due  reafon  to  exceed ; 

But  that  fame  /roward  twain  vouM accouragi. 
And  of  her  plenty  add  unto  her  need. 

Fairy  Sluten,  i.  ii.  c.  2. 

To  Acco'uRT.  -v.  a.  [See  To  COURT.] 
To  entertain  with  courtfhip,  or  courtefy ; 
a  word  now  not  in  ufe. 

Who  all  this  while  were  at  their  wanton  reft, 
.^ccourting  each  her  friend  with  lavirti  feaft. 

Fairy  f^een. 

To  ACCOTTTRE.  t,.  a,  laccouirer,  Fr.] 
To  drefs,  to  equip. 

Is  it  for  this  th«y  ftujy  ?  to  grow  pale. 
And  niifs  the  plealurcs  of  a  glorious  meal  f 
For  this,  in  rags  accculred  are  they  feen. 
And  made  the  May-game  of  the  public  fpleen  ? 


Drefs,  equipage,  furniture  relating  to 
the  perfon  ;  trappings,  ornaments. 

I  profefs  requital  to  a  hair's  breadth  ;  not  ojjly 
in  tht  finr.plc  office  of  love,  but  in  all  the  accc-iire- 
metst,  complement,  and  ceremony  of  it. 

Sbair/fearc's  Merry  If^mcs  of  lyinjfor. 

Chtiftianity  is  loft  among  them  in  the  trappings 
and  accoutrctncnrs  of  it;  with  which,  infteid  of 
adorning  religirm,  they  have  ftrangelj  difguifed  it, 
and  quite  ftifled  it  in  the  crowd  of  external  rites 
and  ceremonies.  Tillotfin,  Sermon  xxviii. 

I    have  feen  the  pope  officiate  at  St^  Peter's, 
■where,  for  two  hours  tog':ther,  he  was  bufied  in 
putting  .in  or  off  his  different  accoulrmntt,  accord- 
ing to  die  different  parts  he  was  to  aft  in  them. 
AeUlfon,  Sfeaaii-T,  N"  201. 

How  gay  with  all  th'  accoulrcmenis  of  war. 
The  Britons  come,  with  gold  well-fraught  thev 
come.  p/,i/, 

ACCRETION.  »./  [accreii,,  Lit.]  The 

A  C  C 

a£l  of  ^rmving  to  another,  fo  ai  to  in- 

creafe  it. 

Plants  do  nourifli ;  inanimate  bodies  do  not : 
they  have  an  accretion,  but  no  alimentation. 

Bac.ns  Am.  Hft.  N"  6c2. 

The  charges  feem  to  be  eftcdcd  by  the  exhaling 
of  the  mo'fture,  which  may  leave  the  tinging  cor- 
pufcles  more  denl'e,  and  fomcihing  augmented  by 
the  accretion  of  the  oily  and  earthy  parts  of  that 
moifture.  Nrwt'jn^s  Ofttict, 

Infants  fupport  abftinence  worft,  from  the  quan- 
tity of  aliment  confumcd  \r\  accretion, 

Arhuthnot  or  Aliments. 

Accre'tive.  adj .[ftomaccretion.]  Grow- 
ing ;  that  which  by  growth  is  added. 

if  the  motion  be  very  (low,  we  perceive  it  not  : 
we  have  no  fenfe  of  the  accreiite  motion  of  plants 
and  animals  :  and  the  fly  fliadow  fteals  away  upon 
the  dial;  and  the  quickelt  eye  can  difcover  no 
more  but  that  it  is  gone.  Glanville's  Scepjis. 

To  ACCRO'ACH.  -v.  a.  [accrocher,  Fr.] 
To  draw  to  one  as  with  a  hook ;  to  gripe ; 
to  draw  away  by  degrees  what  is  ano- 

Accro'achment.  tt.f.  [ftom  accroach.l 
The  aft  of  accroaching.  DiS. 

To  ACCRU'E.  "J.  n.  [from  the  participle 
accru,  formed  from  «f<Tc;/n»,  Fr.] 

1.  To  accede  to,  to  be  added  to  ;  as,  a 
natural  produftion  or  efFeft,  witliout  any 
particular  refpeft  to  good  or  ill. 

The  Son   of  God,   by    his  incarnation,   hath 

changed  the  manner  of  that  perfonal  fubfiftence  ; 

no  alteration  thereby  accruing  to  the  natu  re  of  God . 

Hooker,  h.  v.  §  54. 

2.  To  be  added,  as  an  advantage  or  im- 
provement, in  a  fenfe  inclining  to  good 
rather  than  ill ;  in  which  meaning  it  is 
more  frequently  ufed  by  later  authors. 

From  which  compaft  there  ariling  an  obligation 
upon  every  one,  fo  to  convey  his  meaning,  there 
accrues  alfo  a  right  to  every  one,  by  the  fame  (igns, 
to  judge  of  the  fenfe  or  meaning  of  the  perfon  fo 
obliged  to  exprefs  himfelf.  Souths  Sermons. 

Let  the  evidence  of  fuch  a  particular  miracle  be 
never  fo  bright  and  clear,  yet  it  is  ftill  but  particu- 
lar ;  and  muft  therefore  want  that  kind  of  force, 
that  degree  of  influence,  which  accrues  to  a  land- 
ing general  proof,  from  its  having  been  tried  or 
approved,  and  confented  to,  by  men  of  all  ranks 
and  capacities,  of  all  tempers  and  interefis,  of  all 
ages  and  nations.  Atterhury^s  Sermons. 

3.  To  append  to,  orarife  from  :  as,  an  ill 
confequence  ;  this  fenfe  feems  to  be  lefs 

His  fcholar  Arlftotle,  as  in  many  other  parti- 
culars, folikewifeinthis,  did  juftlyoppofcThim,  and 
"became  one  of  the  authors ;  choofing  a  certain  be- 
nefit, before  the  hazard  that  might  accrue  from 
the  difrefpefts  of  ignorant  pcrfons.  Wilkins. 

4.  In  a  commercial  fenfe,  to  be  produced, 
or  arife  ;  as,  profits. 

The  yearly  benefit  that,  out  of  thofe  his  works, 
accruetb  to  hermajefty,  amounteth  to  one  thoufand 
pounds.  Carcw^s  Surv. 

The  great  profits  which  have  accrued  to  the  duke 
of  Florence  from  his  free  port,  have  fet  feveral  of 
the  ftates  of  Italy  on  the  fame  fubjeft. 

Addifon  on  Italy. 

5.  To  follow,  as  lofs  ;  a  vitious  ufe. 

The  benefit  or  lofs  of  fuch  a  trade  accruing  to 
the  government,  until  it  comes  to  take  root  in  the 
nation.  Temp/e's  Mifc. 

Accuba'tion.  n.f.  [from  «cfa*o,  to  lie 
down  to,  Lat.]  The  ancient  pofture  of 
leaning  at  meals. 

It  will  appear,  that  aecukati^n,  or  lying  down  at 
meals,  was  a  gefture  ufcd  by  very  many  nations. 
Brcion^s  yul^ar  Errotirs, 

T»  Accu'.UD.  11.  «.   [<j«»«^o,  Lat.]  To 

A  C  C 

lie  at  the  table,  according  to  the  ancient 
maimer.  Di3. 

Accu'mbent.  adj.  \_accumbeni,  Lat.] 

The  Roman  recumbent,  or,  more  properly,  ac- 
cumieni  poftute  in  eating,  was  Introduced  alter  the 
fird  Punic  wjr.  Arhutbnot  on  Cans. 

To  ACCU'MULATE.  f .  a.  [from  accu- 
mule,  LaM]  I'o  heap  one  thing  upon  an- 
other ;  to  pile  up,  to  heap  together.  It 
is  ufed  either  literally,  as,  to  accumulate 
money  ;  or  figuratively,  as,  to  accumu- 
late merit  or  wickednefs. 

If  thou  doft  (lander  her,  and  torture  me, 
Never  pray  more  ;  abandon  all  rcmorfc; 
On  horrors  head  horrors  accumulate ; 
For  nothing  canft  thou  to  damnation  add. 

Sbakejp.  Otbttto. 
Crulht  by  imaginary  treafons  weight. 
Which  too  much  merit  did  accumulate. 

•  Sir  yobn  Denbam* 

Accumula'tion,  tt.f.  [from  accumu- 

1 .  The  aft  of  accumulating. 

One  of  my  place  in  Syria,  his  lieutenant. 
For  quick  accumulation  of  renown. 
Which  he  atchiev'd  by  th'  minute,  loft  his  favour. 
Sbakefpearis  Antony  and  Cleopatra^ 

Some,  perhaps,  might  othcrwife  wonder  at  fuch 
an  aciumulatiin  of  benefits,  like  a  kind  of  embroi- 
dering, or  lifting  of  one  favour  upon  anotlier. 

2.  The  ftate  of  being  accumulated. 

By  the  regular  returns  of  it  in  fome  people,  and 
their  freedom  from  it  after  the  morbid  matter  it 
exhaufted,  it  looks  as  there  were  regular  accu- 
mulations and  gatherings  of  it,  as  of  other  hu- 
mours in  the  body.  Arhutbnot  on  Diet, 
Accumula'tive.  aJj.  [from  accumu- 

1.  That  which  accumulates. 

2.  That  which  is  accumulated. 

If  the  injury  meet  not  with  meeknefs,  it  then 
acquires  another  accumulative  guilt,  and  (Unds 
anfwcrable  not  only  for  its  own  pofitive  ill,  but 
for  all  tlie  accidental,  which  it  caufes  in  the  fuf- 
fcrcr.  Government  of  tbe  Tongue* 

Accumula'tor.  tt.f.  [from  accumulate.] 
He  that  accumulates  ;  a  gatherer  or 
heaper  together. 

Injuries  may  fall  upon  the  paflive  man,  yet, 
without  revenge,  there  would  be  no  broils  and 
quarrels,  the  great  accumulators  and  multipliers  of 
injuries.  Decay  of  Piety, 

A'ccuRACY.  »./.  [accuratio,'L2.t.]  Ex- 
aftnefs,  nicety. 

This  perfcil  artifice  and  accuracy  might  have 
been  omitted,  and  yet  they  have  made  (hift  to 
move.  Mort, 

Quicknefs  of  imagination  is  feen  in  the  inven- 
tion, fertility  in  the  fancy,  and  tbe  accuracy  in 
the  exprelfiun.  Drydtx, 

The  man  who  hath  the  ftupid  ignorance,  or 
hardened  effrontery  I  to  infult  the  revealed  will  of 
God  ;  or  the  petulant  conceit  to  turn  it  into  ridi- 
cule ;  or  the  arrogance  to  make  his  own  per- 
feiltions  the  mcalure  of  the  Divinity  ;  or,  at  beft, 
that  can  collate  a  text,  or  quote  an  authority, 
with  an  infipid  accuracy  ;  or  demonftrate  a  plain 
ptopofition,  in  all  formality;  thefe  now  are  the 
only  men  worth  mentioning.  Dclatrj, 

Wc  confider  the  uniformity  of  the  whole  de- 
fign,  accuracy  of  the  calculations,  and  (kill  in  re- 
ftoring  and  comparing  paO'ages  of  ancient  au- 
thors. Arhutbnot  on  Coins^ 

A'CCURATE.   adj,   [accuratus.  Lat.] 

1 .  Exaft,  as  oppofcd  to  negligence  or  ig- 
norance, applied  to  pcrlbns. 

2.  Exaft,  without  defeat  or  failure,  ap- 
plied to  things. 


A  C  C 

A  C  C 


No  m«n  living  has  made  more  aeewau  tri- 
als than  Reaumurc,  that  brighteft  ornament  of 


3.  Detern^iate  ;  precifely  fixed. 


Thole  conceive  the  celef^ial  bodies  have  more 
accurate  influences  upon  thefe  things  below,  than 
indeed  they  have  but  in  grof..  Bacon, 

A'ccuRATELV.  Wi'.  \_{Tom  accurate.'^  In 
an  accurate  manner ;  exaifily,  without 
errour,  nicely. 

Tlie  fine  ot'  incidence  is  either  accurately,  or 
very  nearly,  in  a  given  ratio  to  the  fine  of  refrac- 
tion. Ncwiii:. 

That  all  thefe  didances,  motions,  and  quan- 
tities of  matter,  ihould  be  fo  accurately  and 
harmonioufly  adjufted  in  this  great  variety  of  cur 
fyllem,  is  above  the  fortuitous  hitsof  blind  matrriul 
caufes,  and  mufl  certainly  flow  from  that  eterna. 
fountain  of  wifdom.  Bctttlry. 

A'ccuR ATENESS.  11./.  [itOBX  occuraie.] 
Exaftnefs,  nicety. 

But  I'cmetimc  after,  fufpefting  that  in  making 
this  obfervation  1  had  nut  determined  the  diame- 
ter of  the  fphtrc  with  fu£cient  accurater^fs,  I  re- 
peated tiie  experiment.  N^nvton. 

To  Accv'rse.  'V.  a.  [See  Curse.]  To 
doom  to  mifery  ;  to  invoke  mifery  upon 
any  one. 

As  if  it  were  an  unlucky  comet,  or  as  if  God 
had  fa  accurjtd  it,  that  it  ihould  never  ihine  to 
give  light  in  things  concerning  our  duty  any  way 
towards  him.  Htj'.kcr. 

When  Hildebrand  accurfed  and  cart  down  from 
his  throne  Henry  IV.  there  were  none  fo  hardy  as 
to  defend  their  lord.     Sir  Walter  Raliigh'i  E£'ays. 

Accu'rsed.  fart.  adj. 

1,  That  which  is  curled  or  doomed  to 

•Tis  the  moft  certain  fign  the  world's  accurfi. 
That  the  bed  things  corrupted  are  and  word. 


2.  That  which  deferves  the  curfe  ;  ex- 
ecrable ;  hateful ;  detcKable  ;  and,  by 
confequence,  wicked ;  malignant. 

A  fwift  blefling 
May  foon  rettirn  to  this  our  luffcring  country, 
Under  a  hand  accurt'd  !        Sbakr'peare^t  Machetb. 
The  chief  part  of  tiie  mifc,-y  of  wicked  men, 
and  thofe  accurfed  fpiritn,  the  devi's,  is  this,  that 
they  are  of  a  difpofition  contrary  to  God.    Titiotjvn. 
They,  like  the  feed  from  which  they  (prung, 
Againll  the  g  >ds  immortal  hated  nurO.      Dryrlrn. 
Accu'sABLE.  adj.  [fromtlie  verb aecuji.] 
That  which  may  be  cenfured  ;  blame- 
able  ;  culpable. 

There  would  be  a  manifed  defeat,  and  Nature's 
improvition  were  juftly  accufai/e -,  it  animals,  fo 
fubjc^  unto  difeafes  from  bilious  caales,  ihould 
want  a  proper  conveyance  for  chnler. 

Sroivii'i  Vulgar  Errourt. 

Accdsa'tiok.  n./.  [(rom  accu/e.'] 

1.  The  aft  of  accufing. 

Ihus  they  in  mutual  accujatioti  fpent 
The  fruidefi  hours,  but  neither  felf- condemning. 
And  of  their  vain  contcft  appear'd  no  end.    M'lli'^n, 

2.  The  charge  brought   againft  any  one 
by  the  accufer. 

You  read 
Thefe  acrufaihns,  and  thefe  grievous  crimes 
Committul  by  your  perfoo,  and  your  followers. 

Ail  accujatiiti,  in  the  very  nature  of  the  thing, 
Aiil  fuppofing,  and  being  founded  upon  fome  law : 
frr  where  there  is  no  law,  there  can  be  no  tinnf- 
greflion  ;  and  where  there  can  be  no  tranfgrefiijn, 
1  am  furc  there  ought  to  be  no  accufatien. 


3.  [Ill  the  fenfe  of  the  courts.]    A  decla- 
jation  of  ibme  crime  preferred  before  a 

competent  judge,  in  order  to  infli£l  fome 
judgment  on  the  guilty  perfon. 

Ayliff'e^s  Parergon. 
Accu'sATiVE.  a<?Jr'.  [accuj'atii'us,  La.t.]  A 
term  of  grammar,  fignifying  the  rela- 
tion of  the  noun,  on  which  the  adlion 
implied  in  the  verb  terminates. 
Accu'sATORY.  adj.  [from  accii/i.'\  That 
which  produceth  or  containeth  an  accu- 

In  a  charge  of  adultery,  the  accufer  ought  to 
fet  forth,  in  the  accu/atory  libel,  fome  certain  and 
definite  t'mc.  Ayl'iffe. 

To  ACCU'SE.  -v.  a.   [accu/o,  Lat] 

1.  To  charge  with  a  crime.  It  requires 
the  particle  0/  before  the  fubjedl  of  ac- 

He  ftripp'd  the  bears-foot  of  its  leafy  growth  j 
And,  calling  wcftcrn  winds,  accused  the  fpring  of 
floth.  Drydeni  Virgil, 

The  profcfibrs  are  accufcd  cfM  the  ill  prafljccs 
which  may  (zzai  to  be  the  ill  confequenccs  of  their 
principles.  Addijon. 

2.  It  fometimes  admits  the  particle_/or. 

Never  ftrnd  up  a  k*g  of  a  fowl  at  fupper,  while 
there  is  a  cat  or  dog  in  the  houfe,  that  can  be  ac- 
cused f,.r  run.iing  away  with  it :  But,  if  there 
happen  to  be  neither,  you  mutt  lay  it  upon  the  rats, 
or  a  llrange  greyhound.  Sviift, 

3.  To  blame  or  cenfure,  in  oppofition  to 
applaufe  or  jullification. 

'I'heir  CDnfcieiiCe  bearing  witnefs,  anJ  their 
thoughts  the  mean  while  accujing  or  elfe  exculing 
one  another.  Rem.  ii.  i  5. 

Your  valour  would  your  floth  too  much  accujc, 

And  therefore,  like  the;jfelves,  they  princes  choofe. 

VrydttCi  Tyravrick  Love. 

Accv'sER.  n. /.  [from  accuji,']  He  that 
brings  a  charge  againft  another. 

There  are  fome  perfons  forbidden  to  be  accuftrs, 
on  the  fcore  of  their  fex,  as  women  ;  others,  of 
their  age,  as  pupils  and  infants ;  others,  Ujmn  the 
account  of  fome  crimes  committed  by  them  ;  and 
others,  on  the  fcore  of  fome  filthy  lucre  they  pro- 
pofe  to  gain  thereby  j  others,  on  the  fcore  of  their 
conditions,  3i  libertines  againli  their  patrons  ;  and 
others,  through  a  fufpicion  of  calumny,  as  having 
once  already  given  falfe  evidence ;  and,  lailly, 
others  on  account  of  their  poverty,  as  not  being 
worth  more  than  fifty  aurei,       Ayliffci  Parcrgon, 

—That  good  man,  who  dracic  the  pois'nous 
With  mind  ferene,  and  could  not  wifli  to  fee 
His  vile  accufer  drank  as  deep  as  he.  Drydcn. 

If  the  perfon  accufed  maketh  his  innocence 
plainly  to  appear  upon  his  trial,  the  accufer  is  im- 
mediately put  to  an  ignominious  death  J  and,  out 
of  his  goods  and  lands,  the  innocent  perfon  is 
quadruply  recompenfed.  Guirrvers  Travels, 

To  ACCU'STOM.  t/.  a.  [acautumer,  Fr.J 
To  habituate,  to  enure,  with  the  par- 
ticle to.     It  is  ufed  chiefly  of  perfons. 

How  fhali  we  breathe  in  other  air 
Lefs  pure,  accufiivt'd  to  immortal  fruits  ?     Milton. 
It  iias  been  fome  advantage  to  accuflitn  one's 
felf  10  books  of  the  fame  edition. 

fVatts's  Itnfrmemnt  of  the  Mind- 
To  Acc'oSTOM.  11.  /r.    To  be  wont  to  do 
any  thing.     Obfolete. 

A  boat  over-freighted  funk,  and  all  drowned, 
fav'ng  one  woman,  that  in  her  firft  pepping  up 
again,  which  moft  living  things  accuficjm,  got  holj 
of  the  boat.  Corciv, 

Acco'sTOMAELE.  adj.  [from  accujfom.l 
Of  long  cuftom  or  habit  j  habitual, 

Animjls  even  of  the  fame  original,  extraftion, 
and  fpecies,  may  be  divcrufied  by  accufiomabk  re- 
Hdeiicc  Ul  one  clitnacc,  from  what  they  are  in  ano- 
ther. Halt  i  Origin  of  Mankind. 

adv.     According   to 



Touching  the  king's  fines  accufiomahly  paid  for 
the  purchafing  of  writs  original,  I  find  no  certain 
beginning  of  them,  and  do  therefore  think  that 
they  grew  up  with  the  chancery. 

Bacon's  Alienatien* 
Accu'sTOMANCE.  tt.f.  \accoutumance, Fr.J 
Cuftom,  habit,  ufe. 

Through  accufiomance  and  negligence,  and  per- 
haps fome  other  caufes,  we  neither  feel  it  in  our 
own  bodies,  nor  take  notice  of  it  in  others.     Boyle. 

Accu'sTOM ARiLY.  Wi;.  In  a  cuftomary 
manner ;  according  to  common  or  cuf- 
tomary praftice. 

Go  on,  rhetorick,  and  expofe  the  peculiar  emi- 
nency  which  you  accufltmarily  marflial  before  logic 
to  public  view.  Clcaveland. 

Accu'sTOM  AR  Y.  adj.  [from  accu/}om.'\ 
Ufual,  praftifed  ;  according  to  cuftom. 

Accu'sTOMED.  adj.  [from  accujiom.'\  Ac- 
cording to  cuftom  ;  frequent ;  ufual. 

Look  how  Jhe  rubs  her  hands. — Ic  is  an  ac~ 
cuflomed  atflion  with  her,  to  feem  thus  wafhing  her 
hands :  1  have  known  her  continue  in  this  a  quar- 
ter of  an  hour.  Sbakefj^earis  Macbeth. 

AcE.  n,/.  [As  not  only  fignified  a  piece 
of  money,  but  any  integer,  from  whence 
is  derived  the  word  ace,  or  unit.  Thus 
Aj  fignified  the  whole  inheritance.  Ar- 
huthnot  on  Coins,  ] 

I.  An  unit;  a  fmgle  point  on  cards  or 

When  lots  are  (huffled  together  in  a  lap,  urn,  ot 
pitcher;  or  if  a  man  bit.ijfold  carts  a  die,  what 
reafon  in  the  world  can  he  have  to  prefume,  that 
he  rtiall  draw  a  white  ftone  rather  than  a  black,  or 
throw  an  ace  rather  than  a  fife  ?  South. 

I.  A  fmall  quantity;  a  particle;  an  atom. 
He  will  ni>t  bate  an  ace  of  abfolute  certainty; 
but  however  doubtful  or  improbable  the  thing  is, 
coming  from  him  it  muft  go  for  an  indifputable 
truth.  Government  of  the  Tongue. 

I'll  not  wag  an  ace  farther ;  the  whole  world 
fiiall  not  bribe  me  to  it.       Dryden^s  Spanijh  Friar.. 

Ac  e'p  H  A  LOUS  .rJ(^'.  [axi^aX®-,  Gr.jWith- 
out  a  head.  Diff. 

Ace'rb.  adj.  [aceriiis,  hat.']  Acid,  with 
an  addition  of  roughnefs,  as  moft  fruits 
are  before  they  are  ripe.  ^incy, 

Ace'rbity.  n.f.   [acerbitas,  Lat.] 

1.  A  rough  four  tafte. 

2.  Applied  to  men,^lharpncfs  of  temper  j 

True  it  is,  that  the  talents  for  criticifm,  namely, 
fmartnefs,  quick  cenfure,  vivacity  of  remark,  in- 
deed all  but  acerbity,  fccm  rather  the  gifts  of  youth 
than  of  old  a^ic.  Pope. 

To  ACE'RVATE.   i-.  a.     [acervo,  Lat.] 

To  heap  up.  Dia. 

AtERVA'TI0^J.  n.f.  [from  acer'vate.'\  The 

aft  of  heaping  together. 
Ace'rvose.  adj.  Full  of  heaps.         Diil. 
AcE'iCENT.  adj.    [ace/cetts,  Lat.]    That 

which  has  a  tendency  to  fournefs  or  aci> 


The  fame  perfons,  perhaps,  had  enjoyed  their 
health  as  well  with  a  mixture  of  animal  dirt,  qua- 
lified with  a  fufticicnt  quantity  of  acefccnts^  as^ 
bread,  vinegar,  and  fermented  liquors. 

Arbutbnot  on  Aliments. 

AcETo'sE.  ai^'.  That  which  has  in  it  any 
thing  four.  Di^. 

AcETo'siTY.  n.f.  [from  acito/e,]  The 
ftate  of  being  acctoie,  or  of  containing 
fournefs.  Di^. 

Ace'tous.    adj.    [from  actttim,  vinegar, 


A  C  H 

Lat.]  Having  the  quality  of  vinegar ; 

RiiuDS,  which  confid  chiefly  of  the  juice  of 
gripet,  infpinated  in  the  ikies  or  hulka  by  the 
avoljcion  of  the  fupeifluouimoiflure  through  their 
pores,  being  dillillol  in  a  retort,  did  not  affurd 
any  vinous,  but  rather  an  acfteus  fpirit.  Boyte* 

Ache.  n./.  [ac*.  Sax.  ax®'»  G""-  "O*^ ge- 
nerally written  ake,  and  in  the  plural 
akes,  of  one  fy  liable;  the  primitive  man- 
ner being  preferved  chiefly  in  poetry, 
for  the  fake  of  the  meafure.]  A  con- 
tinued pain.     See  Ake. 

I'll  rack  thee  with  oM  cramps; 
Fill  all  thy  bones  with  athes,  make  thee  roar 
That  beajts  Oiall  tremble  at  thy  din.      Shaiefpeare. 

A  coming  fliow'r  your  (hooting  corns  prelate, 
Old  acbci  will  throb,  your  hollow  tooth  will  ra^e. 


To  Ache,  i:  n,  [See  Ache.]  To  be  in 

Upon  this  account,  our  fcnfcs  are  dulled  and 
fpert  by  any  extraordinary  intention,  and  our  very 
eyes  will  actt,  if  long  fixed  upon  any  difficultly 
difcerned  object.  GlanviUc. 

To  ACHI'EVE.  f.  a.  [achever,  Fr.  to 

1.  To  perform,  to  finiQi  a  defign  pro- 

Our  toils,  my  friends,  are  crown'd  with  furc  fuc- 
cefs  I 
The  greater  parf  perform'd,  acb'uve  the  lefs.  Dryd* 

2.  To  gain,  to  obtain. 

Experience  is  by  induftry,  fffi/fvV, 
And  perfeflcd  by  the  fwift  coui  fe  of  time.  Shakeff. 

Tranio,  1  burn,  I  pine,  1  pcrilh,  Tranio, 
If  1  atblevt  not  this  young  modcH  gi:l. 


Thou  haft  achieved  our  liberty,  conlin'd 
Witliin  helUgates  till  now.  Miltcit, 

Show  all  the  fpoils  by  valiant  kings  achiev'J, 
And  groaning  nations  by  their  arms  rcliev'd.  Prior, 

Achi'ever.  »./.  He  that  performs ;  he 
that  obtains  what  he  endeavours  after. 

A  viftory  is  twice  itfclf,  when  the  achk-ver 
brings  home  full  numbers. 

Sbaktfpeari:  Much  ado  about  Nctbing. 
Achi'evement.  »./.   [ackevement,  Fr.^ 

1.  The  performance  of  an  adion. 

From  every  coaft  that  heaven  walks  about. 
Have  thither  come  the  noble  martial  crc'-v, 
That/amous  hard  achievements  dill  purfuc. 

Fairy  ij^tf/rcff. 

2.  The  efcutcheon,  or  enfigns  armorial, 
granted  to  any  man  for  the  performance 
of  great  aflions. 

Then  (hall  the  war,  and  ftern  debate,  and  ftrife 
Immortal,  be  the  bus'nefs  of  my  life  j 
And  in  thy  fame,  the  dufJy  fpoils  among, 
High  on  the  burniih'd  roof,  my  banner  (hall  be 

Rank'd  with  my  champion's  bucklers,  and  below, 
With  arms  rcvers'd,  th'  atbicv^ments  of  the  for. 

Achie-vemeiitj  in  the  firft  fenfe,  is  derived 
■  from  achienje,  as  it  figiiifies  to  perform  ; 
in  the  fecond,  from  achieve,  as  it  im- 
ports to  gain. 
A'cHiNG.  n.f.  [(torn  acbe.'\  Pain;  un- 

When  old  age  comes  to  wait  upon  a  great  and 
worlhipful  fmncr,  it  comes  atiended  with  many 
painful  girdi  and  acbingt,  called  the  gout.      South. 

A'CHOR.  n.f.  \ach6r,  Lat.  ix^^j,  Gx.fur- 
fur.^  \  fpccies  of  the  herpes ;  it  appears 
with  a  crully  fcab,  which  caufc'-  an  itch- 
ing on  the  furface  of  the  head,  occa- 
fioned  by  a  fait  Iharp  ferum  oozing 
through  the  fkin.  ^lincy. 

A  C  K 

A'CID.  at/J.  [adJus,  Lat.  aciJt,  Fr.]  Sour, 

Wild  trees  laft  longer  than  garden  trees;  and 
In  the  fame  kind,  thole  whofe  fruit  Is  acij,  mote 
than  thafe  whofe  fruit  is  fweet. 

Baton's  Natural  Uifi'.ry. 

jlcid,  or  four,  prnceedj  from  a  fait  of  the  fame 
nature,  without  mixture  of  oil ;  in  aufterc  taftes 
tl>e  oily  parts  have  not  difentangled  thenifclvcs 
from  the  falts  and  earthy  puts  ;  luch  i>  the  t.iftc 
of  unripe  fruits.  Arhuthnot  m  Alimtrut. 

Liquors  and  fubflances  are  called  acidt,  which 
being  compofed  of  pointed  particles,  aft'efl  the 
tafte  in  a  (harp  and  piercing  manner.  The  com- 
mon way  of  trying,  whether  any  particular  liquor 
hath  in  it  any  particles  of  this  kind,  is  by  mix- 
ing it  with  fyrup  of  violets,  when  it  will  turn  ot 
a  led  colour;  but  if  it  contains  alkaline  or  lixivia! 
particles,  it  changes  that  fyrup  green.  Sluircy. 
Aci'dity.  n.f.  [fromaaV.]  The  quality 
of  being  acid ;  an  acid  tafte  ;  iharpnefs  ; 

Filhes,  by  the  help  of  a  dilTolvent  liquor,  cor- 
rode and  reduce  thei?~meat,  (kin,  bones,  and  all, 
into  a  chylus  or  cremor  ;  and  yet  this  liquor  ma- 
nifc'.s  nothing  of  acidity  to  ihe  tafte.  R.y. 

When  the  tafte  of  tlie  mouth  is  bitter,  it  is  a 
fign  of  a  redundance  of  a  bilious  alkali,  and  de- 
mands a  quite  dilTerent  diet  from  the  cafe  of  aci- 
dity or  fournefs.  Arhuthnii  on  Alimtr.n. 

A'ciDNEss.  »./  [fromof/V.]  Thequality 
of  being  acid;  acidity.  See  Acid  iry. 

ACFDVLjE.  n.f.  [that  is,  aqua  acitiuU.'\ 
Medicinal  fprings  impregnated  with 
ftiirp  particles,  as  all  the  nitrous,  chaly- 
beate, and  alum  fprings  are.  ^incy. 
The  acidu/ar,  or  medical  Iprings,  emit  a  greater 
quantity  of  their  minerals  than  ufual ;  and  even 
the  ordinary  fprings,  which  we-e  before  clear, 
frelh,  and  limpid,  become  thick  and  turbid,  and 
are  impregnated  with  fulphur  and  other  mine- 
rals, as  long  as  the  earthquake  lafts. 

fVcfodward^ s  Natural  H'jiory 

To  Aci'dulate.  n).  a.  [acidukr,  Fr.] 
To  impregnate  or  tinge  with  acids  in  a 
flight  degree. 

A  diet  of  frelh  unfaltcd  things,  watery  liquors 
ac'dulatidf  farinaceous  emollient  fubftances,  four 
milk,  butter,  and  acid  fruits. 

Arhuthnot  on  Aliments. 

To  ACKNO'^VLEDGR.  -v.  a.  [a  word 
formed,  .is  it  feems,  between  the  Latin 
and  Englifh,  from  cgnofco,  and  knoiti- 
ledge,  which  is  deduced  from  the  Saxon 
cnapan,  to  kno'w.'\ 

1.  To  own  the  knowledge  of;  to  own  any 
thing  or  perfon  in  a  particular  cha- 

My  people  do  already  known  my  miiid. 
And  will  acknowledge  you  and  JilTica, 
In  placcof  lord  Baffanioard  niylelf.      Sbaiijftare. 

None  tliat  ackno^ckdge  God,  or  providence. 
Their  fouls  eternity  did  ever  duubt.  Davits. 

2.  To  confefs  ;  as,  a  fault. 

For  I  ackniKvltdgt  my  ttanfgreffions  ;  and  my 
(in  is  ever  before  me.  fjalm  li.  3. 

3.  To  own  ;  as,  a  benefit ;  fomctimes 
with  the  particle  to  before  the  perfon 
conferring  the  benefit. 

His  fpirit 

Taught  them;    but  they  his  gifts  aeinowMg'd 

not.  Mihm. 

In  tbc'(irft  place,  therefore,  I   thankfully  ac- 

inmvltdge  to  the  Almighty  power  the  he 

his  given  me  in  the  beginning,  and  the  profecu- 

tion  of  my  prefent  ftudies.  Dryder. 

Ac KNo'wLE DOING,  a.-lj.  [from  acknoiu. 

ledge.]  Grateful ;  ready  to  acknowledge 

benefits  received.     A  Gallicifm,  recon- 


A  C  O 

He  has  diewn  his  hero  acimoviledging  aod  OR* 
grateful,  campa(ri  >nate  and  hard-hearCed  ;  but,  at 
the  bottom,  fickle  and  fclf-intcrefted. 

Drydcn's  Vtrgil. 
Ac  K  N o'wL E O c  M  E  N T .  n.f.  [from  acknoitt- 

1.  Conccffion  of  any  charafter  in  ano- 
ther ;  as,  exiftence,  fuperiority. 

The  due  contemplation  of  the  human  nature 
doth,  by  a  necelTary  cortnexion  and  chain  of 
caufcs,  carry  us  up  to  the  unavoidable  ackn&w.. 
ledgmnt  of  the  Doitj-  ;  becaufe  it  carries  every 
thinking  man  to  an  original  of  every  fucceffive  in- 
dividual. Hall's  Origin  of  Maniind, 

2.  Conceflion  of  the  truth  of  any  pofl- 

Immediately  upon  the  acknowledgment  of  the 
chriftian  faith,  the  eunuch  was  baptized  by  Fhilip. 


3.  Confeflion  of  a  fault. 

4.  Confeflion  of  a  benefit  received  ;  gra- 

5 .  Aft  of  atteflation  to  any  conceflion  ; 
fuch  as  homage. 

■i'hcre  be  many  wide  countries  in  Ireland,  in 
which  the  laws  of  England  were  never  eftablilhed, 
nor  any  acknonvhdgment  of  fubjcdlion  made. 

apenjcr's  State  ef  Ireland, 

6.  Something  given  or  done  in  confeflion 
of  a  benefit  received. 

The  fecond  is  an  aeknototedgtntnt  to  his  ma- 
jefty  for  the  leave  of  fi(hing  upon  his  coafts  ;  and 
though  this  may  not  be  grounded  upon  any  treaty, 
yet,  if  it  appear  to  be  an  ancient  right  on  our  fide, 
and  cuftom  on  theirs,  not  determined  or  cx- 
tingui(hed  by  any  treaty  between  us,  it  may  with 
juftice  be  iniifted  on.  lemflt's  Mij'ccilanics,  ■ 

J'CME.  n.f.  [i.,,,.,.,GT.'\  The  height  of 
any  thing ;  more  efpecially  ufed  to 
denote  the  height  of  a  diftcmper,  which 
is  divided  into  four  periods,  i.  The 
arche,  the  beginning  or  firft  attack. 
2.  Anahafis,  the  growth.  3.  Acme,  the 
height.  And,  4.  Paracme,  which  is  the 
declenfion  of  the  diftemper.  i^iney. 

Aco'i.OTHisT.  n.f  [azo^^fSiw,  Gr.]  One 
of  the  lowelt  order  in  the  Romifti  church, 
whofe  office  is  to  prepare  the  elements 
for  the  offices,  to  light  the  church,  Wr. 

it  is  duty,  according  to  the  papal  law,  when 
the  Vi(hop  rii-igs  mafs,  to  order  all  the  inferior 
clergy  to  appear  in  their  proper  hab'.ts ;  and  to  Lc 
that  all  the  offices  of  the  church  he  rightly  per- 
formed J  to  ordain  the  atolothiji,  to  keep  the  facred 
velfels.  Ayi.fe's  Parirgon. 

A'coLYTE.  n.f.  The  fame  with  AcoLO- 


A'coN'iTE.  n.f.  [aeonitutn,  Lat.]  Properly 
the  herb  wolfs-bane,  but  commonly  ufed 
in  poetical  language  for  poifon  in  ge- 

Our  land  is  from  the  rage  of  tygers  freed. 
Nor  nourilhcs  the  lion's  angry  feed  ; 
Nor  pois'nous  aconite  is  here  produc'd, 
Or  grows  unknown,  or  is,  »hcn  known,  refus'd. 


Dcfpair,  that  aconite  docs  prove. 
And  certain  death  to  others'  iovc. 
That  poifon  never  yet  withftood. 
Does  nouri(h  mine,  and  turns  to  blood. 


A'coRK.  n, /.  [jEcepn,  Sax.  from  ac,  an 
oak,  and  cojin,  corn  or  grain  ;  that  is, 
the  grain  or  fruit  of  the  oak.]  The  feed 
or  fruit  born  by  the  oak. 

Errour:.,  fuch  as  are  but  acorns  in  our  younger 

brows,  grovi  oaks  in  our  older  heads,  and  become 

indexible.  Brtvi*. 

4  Content 

A  C  CL 

A  C  Q^ 

Content  with  food  which  nature  freely  bredi 
On  wildings  and  on  ftrawbcrries  they  fed  ; 
Cornels  and  bi  amble-berries  gave  the  reft, 
And  falling  actiriu  furnifli  d  out  a  feaft. 

Dryjen^s  0-vid, 

He  that  is  nouriflied  by  the  aeoms  he  picked  up 
under  an  oak,  or  the  apples  he  gathered  from  the 
trees  in  tiie  wood,  has  ceruinly  appropriated  them 
to  himfelf.  Lotit. 

A'cORNED.  adj .\Jrom  acorn.']  Storedwith 

Like  a  full  acorn  d  boar>  Shahefp<rare. 

Aco'usTi  CKS.  ».yl  [AxbiT<*,of  iieaw,  Gr. 

to  hear.] 
r.  The  doftrine  or  theory  of  founds. 
2.  Medicines  to  help  the  hearing,  ^iney. 
To  ACOyAl'NT.  1/.  a.   [accointer,  Fr.] 

1.  To  make  familiar  with;  applied  either 
to  perfons  or  things.  It  has  luith  before 
the  objeft. 

We  that  acquaint  ourfelves  laith  ev'ry  zone, 

And  pafs  the  cropicks,  and  behold  each  pole  ; 
When  we  come  home,  arc  to  ourfelves  unknown, 

And  unacquainted  ftill  with  our  own  foul. 


There  •uiilh  thee,  new  welcome  faint. 
Like  fortunes  may  her  foul  acouaint,  Milton, 

Before  a  man  can  fpeak  ■  n  any  fubjeft,  it  is 
neceflary  to  be  acjuainitd  viitb  it. 

Locke  on  Education, 

jlcauaint  yourfelves  luitb  things  ancient  and 
modern,  natural,  civil,  and  religious,  domeftic  and 
national ;  things  of  your  own  and  foreign  countries ; 
and,  above  all,  be  well  acfuainird  viiih  God  and 
yourfelve»;  learn  animal  nature,  and  the  workings 
of  your  own  fpirits.  IVatti'i  Lopck. 

2.  To  inform.  With  is  more  in  ufe  before 
the  objeft  than  of. 

But  for  fome  other  reafonj,  my  grave  Sir, 
Which  is  not  fit  you  know,  I  not  ac-jLaint 
My  father  c/this  bufinefs. 

Sheiefpe!tre\  T-wtlJtb  Night. 

A  friend  in  the  cotintry  acquaints  nic,  that  two 

or  three  men  of  the  town  are  got  among  them,  and 

have  brought  words  and  phralcs,  which  were  never 

before  in  thofe  parts.  Tallir. 

Acqu a'intakce.  n.f.  [accoiittance,  Fr.] 

1,  The  Bate  of  being  acquainted  with; 
familiarity,  knowledge.  It  is  applied 
as  well  to  perfons  as  things,  with  the 
particle  "witb. 

Nor  was  his  arqaaintattce  left  w'ltb  the  famous 
eoetsof  hit  age,  than  ■with  the  noblemen  and  ladies. 


Our  admiration  of  a  famous  man  IclTens  upon 
our  nearer  acquaintance  tcitb  him  ;  and  we  feldon. 
hear  of  a  celebrated  perfon,  without  a  catalogue  ol 
iome  DOtorioui  weaknelTei  and  infirmitie*. 


Would  we  be  admitted  into  an  acquaintance  v^ith 
God,  let  ut  ftudy  to  re.''emble  him.  We  muft  be 
partakers  of  a  divine  nature,  in  order  to  partake  oi 
this  high  privilege  ar-d  alliance.  jiitertury. 

2.  Familiar  knowledge,  fimply  without  a 
prepofition.  _ 

Brave  foldicr,  pardon  me. 
That  any  accent  breaking  from  mi^-tonguc. 
Should  'Icape  the  true  acquaintance  of  mine  ear. 

This keept  the underftanding  long  in convrrle  with 
ao  objefl,  and  long  converfe  brings  acquaintance. 

In  what  manner  he  lived  with  thofe  who  were 
of  his  neighbourhood  and  acquaintance^  how  obli- 
ging his  carriage  wat  to  them,  what  kind  offices  he 
did,  and  was  always  ready  to  do  them,  1  forbear 
particularly  to  fay.  Atierbury. 

%.  A  flight  or  initial  knowledge,  fhort  of 
friendfhip,  as  applied  to  perfons. 

I  b'jpe  1  am  pretty  near  feeing  you,  and  there- 
fore I  would  cultivate  an  acquaintance i  becanfe  if 
you  do  oot  know  mc  when  we  meet,  yon  need  only 

keep  one  of  my  letters,  and  compare  it  with  my 
face  ;  for  my  face  and  letters  are  counterparts  of 
my  heart.  Sivift  to  Pcfe. 

A  long  noviciate  of  acquaintance  ihould  precede 
the  vows  of  friendlhip.  Bolinghroke. 

4.  The  perfon  with  whom  we  are  ac- 
quainted ;  him  of  whom  we  have  fome 
knowledge,  without  the  intimacy  of 

In  this  fenfe,  the  plural  is,  in  fome 
authors,  acquaintance,  in  others  acquain- 

But  (lie,  all  vow'd  unto  the  red-crofs  knight, 
His  wand'ring  peril  clofcly  did  lament, 

Ne  in  this  new  acquaintance  could  delight, 
But  her  dear  heart  with  anguilh  did  torment. 

Fairy  ^een. 

That  young  men  travel  under  fome  tutor,  I 
allow  well,  fo  that  he  be  fuch  a  one  that  may  be 
able  to  tell  them  what  acquoinfancei  they  are  to 
fcek,  what  exercifes  ordifcipline  the  place  yieldeth. 


This,  my  lord,  has  juftly  acquired  you  as  many 
friends,  as  tlicre  are  perfons  who  have  the  honour 
to  be  known  to  you  ;  mere  acquaintance  you  have 
none,  you  have  drawn  them  all  into  a  nearer  line  j 
and  they  wiio  have  converfedwith  you,  are  for  ever 
after  inviolably  yours.  Dryden. 

We  fee  he  isadianied  of  his  neareft  acquaintances. 
*  Bcylc  againji  B entity. 

Acoyji'iNTZD. ac/J.  [from  acquaint.]  Fa- 
miliar, well  known  ;  not  new. 

Now  call  we  our  high  court  of  parliament ; 
That  war  or  peace,  or  both  at  once  may  be 
As  tiungs  acquainted  and  familiar  to  us.    Shakeff. 
Acqjj  e'st.  n.J.  [acquejl,  Fr.  irotaacquerir, 
written  by  fome  acquift,  with  a  view  to 
the  woid  acquire,  or  acquijiia.]    Attach- 
ment, acquifltion  ;  the  thing  gained. 
New acquifls  are  moreburdea  than  Itrcngth. 


Mud,  repofed  near  the  oRea  of  rivers,  makes 

continual  additions  to  the  land,  thereby  excluding 

the  fea,  and  preferving  thefe  (hells  as  trophies  and 

figns  of  its  new  acquit  and  encroachments. 


To  ACOyi'ESCE.  t;.  n.    [acquie/cer,  Fr. 

acqutejcere,  Lat.]   To  reft  in,  or  remain 

fatisiied  with,  without  oppofition  or  dif- 

content.     It  has  in  before  the  objeft. 

Others  will,  upon  account  of  the  receivednefs 
of  the  propofed  opinion,  think  it  rather  worthy  to 
b^  examined  than  acquifjctd  in.  Boyle. 

Nc.thcr  a  bare  approbation  of,  nor  a  mere  wish- 
ing, nor  una^ive  complacency  in  j  nor,  laftly,  a 
natural  inclination  to  things  virtuous  and  good, 
can  pafs  before  God  for  a  man's  willing  of  f'ucii 
things  i  and,  confcquently,  if  men,  upon  this  ac- 
count, will  needs  take  up  and  acquitfce  in  an  airy 
ungrounded  perfuafion,  tiial  they  will  thafe  things 
which  really  they  not  will,  tlicy  fall  thereby  into  a 
grofs  and  fatal  delufion.  South. 

He  hath  empl'yed  his  tranfcendentwifdom  and 
power,  that  by  thefe  he  might  make  way  for  his 
benignity,  at  the  end  wherein  they  ultimately  ac- 
quiefce.  Creiv. 

Accjuie'scence.  n./.   [from  euqtii,/ce.] 

1.  A  filent  appearance  of  content,  dilUn- 
guilhedon  one  fide  from  avowed confent, 
on  the  other  from  oppofition. 

Neither  from  any  of  che  nobility,  nor  of  the 
clergy,  who  were  thought  moftaverfelrom  it,  tliere 
appeared  any  llgn  of  coutradiOion  to  that;  but  an 
entire  acquiejcace  in  all  the  hiihops  thought  tit  tn 
do.  Clarendon. 

2.  Satisfaftion,  reft,  content. 

Many  indeed  have  ^ivcn  over  their  purfuits  after 
fame,either  from  di  f  ippointmcnt,or  from  experience 
of  the  little  picalurc  which  attends  it,  or  the  better 
informations  or  natural  c-^ldn-rfs  of  old  age;  but 
fi'Idom  from  a  full  fatisfadtioii  and  acquicjance  in 
their  prefent  enjoymcntj  of  it.  AdJifon, 

A  C  Q^ 

3.  Submlffion,  confidence. 

The  grenteft  part  of  the  world  take  up  their  pcr- 
fuafions  concerning  good  and  evil,  by  an  implicit 
faith,  and  a  full  acquiefcence  in  the  word  of  tliofe, 
who  (hall  rcprcfent  things  to  them  under  thefe  cha- 
rafters.  South. 

AcQjri'RABLE.  adj.  [from  acquire.]  That 
which  may  be  acquired  or  obtained  ; 

Thofe  rational  inlUnfls,  the  connate  principles 
engraven  in  the  human  foul,  though  they  are  truths 
acquirable  and  deducible  by  rational  confequence 
and  argumentation,  yet  fcem  to  be  infcribed  in  the 
very  crafis  and  textuie  of  the  foul,  antecedent  to 
any  acquifition  by  induftry  or  the  exercife  of  ths 
difcurfive  faculty  in  man. 

HaWs  Origin  of  Mankind. 

If  the  powers  of  cogitation  and  volition,  and 
fenfation,  are  neither  inherent  in  matter  as  fuch, 
nor  acquirable  to  matter  by  any  motion  or  modifi- 
cation of  it ;  It  necellarily  follows,  that  they  pro- 
ceed from  fome  cogitative  fubftance,  fome  incor- 
poreal inhabitant  within  us,  which  we  call  fpirit 
and  fiul.  Bcntley. 

To  ACC^I'RE.  v.  a.  [acqiierir,  Fr.  ac- 
quiro,  Lat.] 

1 .  To  gain  by  one's  own  labour  or  power ; 
to  obtain  what  is  not  received  from  na- 
ture, or  tranfmitted  by  inheritance. 

Better  to  leave  undone,  than  by  our  deed 
Acquire  too  high  a  fame,  while  he,  we  ferve,  'a 
away.  Shakefp.  Antony  and  Cleopatra, 

2.  To  come  to  ;  to  attain. 

Motion  cannot  be  perceived  without  the  percep- 
tion of  its  terms,  viz.  the  parts  of  fpacc  which  it 
immediately  left,  and  thofe  which  it  next  acquires. 
Glan-ville^s  Scepjis, 
Acqv I'titD,  farticip.  adj.  [irora  acquire.] 
Gained  by  one's  felf,  in  oppofition  to 
thofe  things  which  are  beftowed  by  na- 

We  are  feldom  at  eafe,  and  free  enough  from  " 
the  f.)licitation  of  our  natural  or  adopted  defires ; 
but  a  conftant  fuccclfion  of  uneafintlfcs,  out  of 
that  ftock,  which  natural  wants,  or  acquired  habits, 
have  heaped  up,  take  the  will  in  their  tuins. 

Acc^ui'rer.  n.f.   [from  acquire.]     The 

perfon  that  acquires  ;  a  gainer. 
AcQj;i'REMENr.ff./  [iioaxacqicire.]  That 
which  is   acquired ;  gain  ;  attainment. 
The  word  may  be  properly  uled  in  op- 
pofition to  the  gifts  of  nature. 

Thele  his  acquirements,  by  induftry,  were  ex- 
ceedingly both  enriched  and  enlarged  by  many 
excellent  endowments  of  nature. 

H^tyivard  on  Edivard  VI, 
By  a  content  and  acquiefcence  in  every  fpeciea 
of  truth,  we  embrace  the  fhadow  theicof;   or  fo 
much  as  may  palliate  itsjuft  and  fubftantial  <:e- 
quirements.  Brcrwn^s  Vulgar  Errours, 

It  is  very  difficult  to  lay  down  rules  for  the  ac- 
quirement c.i  a  tafte.  The  faculty  muft,  in  fome 
deg,ec,  be  born  with  us.  Addifon. 

Acquisi'riON.  n./,   \_acquiJilio,'LsX,] 

1 .  The  aft  of  acquiring  or  gaining. 

Each  man  has  but  a  limited  right  to  the  good 
things  of  the  world ;  and  the  natural  allowed  way, 
by  "which  he  is  to  compafs  the  po/le(lion  of  tliefe 
things,  is  by  his  own  induftrious  acquifition  of 
them.  South. 

2,  The  thing  gained  ;  acquirement. 

Great  Sir,  all  acquifition 
Of  glory  as  of  empire,  here  I  lay  before 
Your  royal  feet.  Denkani*s  Sophy, 

A  ftate  can  never  arrive  to  its  period  in  a  more 
dcpl'irabic  crifis,  than  when  Ibme  prince  lies  hover- 
ing like  a  vulture  to  difmember  Its  dying  carcali:  ;. 
by  wliich  means  it  becomes  only  an  acquifition  to 
fome  mighty  monarchy,  without  hopes  of  a  rcfur- 

ireftioB.  ^       S-wift^ 


A  C  Q^ 

Acqyi*«ITIVK.  adj.  [acqmjtlivtts,  Lat.] 
That  whidi  is  acquired  or  gained. 

He  diej  not  in  his  aefuifitive  buc  in  liis  nativf 
foil ;  nature  hcrfelf,  as  it  were,  claiming  a  Ana) 
intercft  in  his  btdy,  when  fortune  had  done  with 
him.  IVaton. 

Acqui'sT.  n.f.  [See  AcquEST.]  Ac- 
quirement ;  attainment ;  gain.  Not  in 

His  fervant  he  with  new  acquiji 
Of  true  experience  from  this  great  cvrnf, 
With  peace  and  confolation  hath  difmift.    MUtor.. 

To  ACQUIT,  v.  a.  [acquitier,  Fr.     See 

I.  Tofet  free. 

Nc  do  1  with  (for  wi/hing  were  but  vain) 
To  be  acquit  from  my  continual  fmart ; 

But  joy  her  thrall  for  ever  to  remain. 
And  yield  for  pledge  my  poor  captived  heart. 


a.  To  clear  from  a  charge  of  guilt ;  to  ab- 
folve ;  oppofed  to  condemn,  either  fimply 
with  an  accufative  ;  as,  the  jury  acquitted 
him,  or  with  the  particles  from  or  of, 
which  is  more  common,  before  the  crime. 

If  I  fin,  then  thou  markeft  me,  and  thou  wilt 
not  acquit  me  from  mine  iniquity.  ^oi,  x.  14. 

By  the  fuDVage  of  the  moft  and  beft  he  is  already 
acquittedftai,  by  tbefencenceof  fome,  condemned. 


He  that  judges,  without  informing  himfelf  to 
the  utmoft  chat  he  is  capable,  cannot  acquit  iiim' 
felf  ©/"judging  amifs.  Locke. 

Ncitlier  do  I  refiedt  upon  the  memory  of  his 
majefty,  whom  I  entirely  atpi/f  of  my  Imputation. 


3.  To  clear  from  any  obligation. 

Steady  to  my  principles,  and  not  difpirjted  with 
my  affliilions,  I  have,  by  the  blefling  of  God  on 
my  endeavours,  overcome  all  difficulties ;  and,  in 
fome  mealurc,  acquitted  mrfclf  of  the  debt  which 
I  owed  the  publick,  when  I  undertook  this  work. 


4.  In  a  /imilar  fenfe,  it  is  faid.  The  man 
hath  acquitted  him/elf  luell  i  that  is,  he 
hath  difcharged  his  duty. 

Acqjii'tment.  n.f  [from  acquit.]  The 
ftate  of  being  acquitted  ;  or  ad  of  ac- 

The  word  imports  properly  an  acquittiunt  or  dif- 
tharge  of  a  man  upon  fome  precedent  accufatlon, 
and  a  full  trial  and  cognizance  of  hit  caufe  had 
thereupon.  Souib, 

^cquj'ttal.  «./.  In  law,  is  a  deliver- 
ance and  fetting  free  from  the  fufpicion 
or  guiltinefs  of  an  offence.'  Ccnuel. 

The  conllant  defign  of  both  thefe  orators,  was 
to  drive  fome  one  particular  point,  either  the  con- 
demnation or  acquittal  oi  an  accufed  pcrfon. 

To  Acqui'ttance.  I/,  a.  To  procure  an 
acquittance  ;  to  acquit  j  a  word  not  in 
prefent  ufe. 

But  if  black  fcandal  and  fouI-facM  reproach. 
Attend  the  fcquci  of  your  impofition. 
Your  mere  enforcement  (hall  acquittance  me 
From  all  the  impure  blots  and  flalns  thereof 


Acqui'ttance.  n.f.  [from  acquit.] 
I.  tHc  aft  of  difcharging  from  a  debt. 

But  foon  fliall  find 
Forbearance,  no  acquittance,  ere  day  end 
Juftice  fliall  not  return,  as  beauty,  fcorn'd. 

1.  A  writing  teftifying  the  receipt  of  a 

You  can  produce  acquitlanca 
For  fuch  a  fum,  from  fpecial  officers 
Of  Charles  hit  father. 

Siiaicffeare'i  Lfot't  Labmr  Loji. 

A  C  R 

They  quickly  pay  their  debt,  and  then 
Take  no  acquittances,  but  pay  again.  Donne. 

The  fame  man  bought  and  fold  to  himfelf,  paid 
the  money,  and  gave  the  acquittance,  yirhuthnot. 
A'cRE.  n.f.  [JEcjM,  Sax.]  A  quantity  of 
land  containing  in  length  forty  perches, 
and  four  in  breadth,  or  four  thoufand 
eight  hundred  and  forty  fquare  yards. 


Search  every  acre  in  the  high-grown  field. 
And  bring  him  to  our  eye.       Sbakefp.  Kin^  Lear. 
A'cRiD.  adj.  [acer,  Lat.]    Of  a  hot  biting 
tafte  ;  bitter  ;  fo  as  to  leave  a  painful 
heat  upon  the  organs  of  tafte. 

Bitter  and  acrid  dift'cr  only  by  the  (harp  particles 
of  the  firft  being  involved  in  a  greater  quantity  of 
oil  than  thofc  of  the  laft.      j^rbutbnot  on  Aliments. 

Acrimo'nious.  adj.  Abounding  with 
acrimony  ;  fharp  ;  corrofive. 

If  gall  cannot  be  tendered  acrimonious,  and  bitter 
of  itfelf,  then  whatever  acrimony  or  amaritude 
redounds  in  it,  muH  be  from  the  admixtare  oi 
melancholy.  Harvey  on  Conjuntptiom. 

A'cRiMONY.   n.f.   [acrimenia,  Lat.] 

1 .  Sharpnefs,  corrofivenefs. 

Thctu  be  plants  that  have  a  milk  in  them  when 
they  are  cut;  as,  figs,  old  lettuce,  fow-thiftles, 
fpurge.  The  caufe  may  be  an  inception  of  putre- 
faflion  :  for  thnfe  milks  have  all  :inacrimony,  though 
one  Ihould  think  they  Ihould  be  lenitive. 

Sacen's  Natural  Hifttry. 

ThechymilH  define  fait,  from  fome  of  its  pro- 
perties, to  be  a  body  fufible  in  the  fire,  congealable 
again  by  cold  into  brittle  glebes  or  crydaU,  foluble 
in  water,  fo  as  to  difappear,  not  malleable,  and  ha- 
ving fomcthing  in  it  which  affects  the  organs  of 
tafte  with  a  fenfation  of  acrimony  or  fliarpnefs. 


2.  Sharpnefs  of  temper,  feverity,  bitter- 
nefs  of  thought  or  language. 

John  the  Baptift  fet  himfelf,  with  much  acri- 
mony and  indignation,  to  bafBe  this  fenfelefs  arro- 
gant conceit  of  theirs,  wliich  made  them  huff  at 
the  doilrine  of  repentance,  as  a  thing  below  them, 
and  not  at  all  belonging  to  them.  St/utb. 

A'c  R I T  u  D  E .  n.  jf.  [from  acrid. ]  An  acrid 
tafte  ;  a  biting  heat  on  the  palate. 

In  green  vitriol,  with  iti  aftringent  and  fwectijh 
taftes,  is  joined  foute  acritudct 

Grcvj's  Mujteum. 

Acroama'tical.  fl;^'.  [aKjoao^t,  Gr.  I 
hear.]  Of  or  pertaining  to  deep  learn- 
ing ;  the  oppoiite  of  exoterical. 

Acroa'ticks.  n.f.  [Axgoolixa,  Gr.]  Ari- 
ftotle's  leftures  on  the  more  nice  and 
principal  parts  of  philofophy,  to  which 
none  but  friends  and  fcholars  were  ad- 
mitted by  him. 

Acro'nycal.  adj.  [from  uic^0-, Jiimmui, 
and  >iy|,  nox  ;  importing  the  beginning 
of  night.]  A  term  of  aftronomy,  applied 
to  the  ftars,  of  which  the  rifmg  or  fetting 
is  called  acronycal,  when  they  either  ap- 
pear above  or  fink  below  the  horizon  at 
the  time  of  funfet.  It  is  oppofed  to 

Acro'nycally.  ad<v.  [from  acronycal.] 
At  the  acronycal  time. 

He  is  tempeltuous  in  the  fummer,  when  he 
rlfes  heliacally,  and  rainy  in  the  winter,  when  he 
r\ie%  acronycaily.  Dryden, 

A'crospire.  n.f.  [fromax^®'  ando-B-ir^a, 
Gr.]  A  fhoot  or  fprout  from  the  end  of 
feeds  before  they  are  put  in  the  ground. 

Many  corns  will  fmilt,  or  have  their  pulp  turned 
into  a  fubftance  like  thick  cream  ;  and  will  fcitd 
forth  their  fubftaucc  in  an  acrojfirt^       Mortimer. 


A'cROspiRED./ar/.  adj.  Having  fprouts, 
or  having  ftiot  out. 

For  want  of  turning,  when  the  malt  is  fpread 
on  the  Hrior,  it  comes  and  fprouts  at  both  ends, 
which  is  called  acrofjiircd,  and  is  fit  only  for  fwine. 


AcRo'ss.  adv.  [from  a  for  at,  or  the 
French  a,  as  it  is  ufed  in  a  traijers,  and 
crofs.]  Athwart,  laid  over  fomethinj 
fo  as  to  crofs  it. 

The  harp  hath  the  concave  not  along  the  ftringS| 
but  acrofs  the  ftrings  ;  and  no  harp  hath  the  found 
fo  melting  and  prolonged  as  the  IriQi  harp. 


This  view'd,  but  hot  enjoy' J,  with  arms  acrofr 
He  Hood,  reflecting  on  his  country's  lofs.  Dryden* 

There  is  a  fet  of  urtizans,  who,  by  the  help  of 
feveral  poles,  which  they  lay  acoji  each  ochers 
Ihoulders,  build  thcmfelv.'-i  up  into  a  kind  of  pyra- 
mid j  fo  that  you  fee  a  pile  of  men  in  the  air  of  four 
or  five  rows  rifing  one  above  another,  Addifcn. 
AcRo'sTiCK.  n.f  [from  ixf®- and  rt%®'» 
Gr.]  A  poem  in  which  the  firft  letter 
of  every  line  being  taken,  makes  up 
the  name  of  the  perfon  or  thing  on 
which  the  poem  is  made. 

ACRO'STICK.  adj. 

I.  That  which  relates  to  an  acroftick. 
z.  That  which  contains  acrofticks. 

Leave  writing  plays,  and  chnofe  for  thy  command 
Some  peaceful  province  in  acnjlick  land  : 
There  thou  may'ft  wings  difplay,  and  altars  raife. 
And  torture  onepoor'word  ten  thoufand  ways. 


J'CROTERS,  or  ACROTE'RIA.  n.  f 
[from  ait^ot,  Gr.  the  extremity  of  any 
body.]  Little  pcdeftais  without  bafes, 
placed  at  the  middle  and  the  two  ex- 
tremes of  pediments,  fometimes  fervihg 
to  fupport  rtat.ues. 
To  ACT.  T.  n.  [ago,  aQum,  Lat.] 
I.  To  be  in  action,  not  to  reft.  ' 

He  hangs  between  in  duubt  t>  aH  or  re/l.  Ftpe, 

z.  To  perform  the  proper  funftions. 

Albe't  the  will  is  not  callable  \}t  beifvg  compelled 
to  any  of  its  actings,  yet  it  is  cipable  of  beii^ 
made  to  a^  with  more  or  lefs  d)6iculiy,  according 
to  the  different  impreiUons  it  rcceiy^s  from  motives 
or  objeils.  South, 

3.  To  pradllfe  arts  or  duties ;  to  condud 
one's  felf. 

"I'is  plain  that  (he,  wljo  for  a  kingdom  now* 
Would  facrifice  her  love,  and  break  her  vovii. 
Not  out  of  love,  but  intereft,  acts  alanc. 
And  would,  ev'n  in  my  arms,  lie  thinking  o(  a 
throne.  Dryden  i  Cvnquejl  of  Granada. 

The  defirc  of  happinefs,  and  the  conftrainc  it 
ptits  upon  us  to  afl  for  it,  no  body  accounts  an 
abridgment  of  liberty.  Locke. 

The  fplendor  of  his  office,  is  the  token  of  that 
facred  character  which  he  inwardly  bears :  and 
one  of  thefe  ought  conlbntly  to  put  him  in  mind 
of  the  other,  and  excite  him  to  afl  up  to  it,  through 
the  whole  courfe  of  his  adminiftration. 

Atterhury'"!  Sermons, 

It  is  our  part  and  duty  to  co-operate  with  this 

grace,  vigoroufly  to  exert  thofe  poweis,  and  a^  up 

to  thofe  advantages  to  whi^h  it  rciiaies  us.      He 

has  given  eyes  to  the  blind,  and  feet  to  the  lame. 

Rt'^crs's  Sermcns. 

4.  To  produce  efFefts  in  fome  pafli ve  fubjedl. 

Hence  'tis  we  wait  the  wond'rous  caufe  to  find 
How  body  a^s  upon  impalTive  mind. 

Garth^s  Difpenfary. 

The  ftomach,  the  intcftines,  the  muftles  of,  the 

lower  belly,  all  ad  upon  the  aliment;  befides,  the 

chyle  is  not  fucked,  but  fqueezed  into  the  mouths 

of  the  la£teals,  by  the  action  of  the  fibres  of  the 

■    guts.  Ariulhnot  en  Aliments, 

Tc  Act.  -v,  t,. 

I.  To 


t.  To  bear  a  borrowed  charsifter;  m,  a 


Honour  and  fliamc  from  no  condition  rife  ; 
j^a  well  your  part,  there  all  the  honour  lies.     Pete. 

t.  To  counterfeit ;  to  feign  by  aaion.  '  ' 

His  forrner  trembling  once  again  renew'd, 


VVi^th  aff^  fear  the  villain  thus  purfuM.     D.yrler 

|.  To  aduate  ;  to  put  in  motion  ;  to  re- 
gulate the  movemeats. 

Moft  people  in  the  world  are  affej  by  levity  and 
humour,  i>y  ftrange  and  irrational  changes.    South. 

I  they  are  as  proud  as  Lucifer,  as  cove- 
tous as  Demas,  as  falfe  as  Judas,  and,  in  th- 
whole  courfe  of  their  converfation,  aiJ,  and  a,e 
*ctcd,  not  by  devotion,  but  defign.  South 

We  fuppofc  two  diftina,  incommunicable  con- 
fcoufneires^ffi^;  the  fame  body,  the  one  ccn- 
ftantly  by  day.  the  other  by  night ;  and,  on  the 
other  fide,  the  lame  confcioufcefi  aaing  by  inter- 
vals  two  diftinfl  bodies.  ''    '  ^^^^^ 

Act.  n./.  [aSum,  Lat.] 
I.  Something  done  ;  a  deed  ;  an  exploit, 
whether  good  or  ill. 

A  lower  place,  not  well. 
May  make  too  great  an  aa  : 
Better  to  leave  undone  than  by  our  deed 
Acquire  too  high  a  fame. 

-.  r  ■  Stahfp.  Ant.  and  Cltopatra. 

Ike  confcious  wretch  mud  all  hisaS.  reveal  ■ 
toth  to  confefs,  unable  to  conceal ; 
From  the  firft  moment  of  his  vital  breath,' 
To  his  lift  hour  of  unrepenting  death.       Drfdcn. 

Z.  Agency ;    the  power  of  producing  an 
effecl.  " 

I  will  try  the  forces 
Of  thcfe  thy  compounds  on  fuch  creatures  at 
We  count  not  worth  the  hanging ;  but  none  human : 
1  o  try  the  vigour  of  them,  and  apply 
Allayments  to  their  aa  ;  and  by  them  gather 
T  heir  feveral  virtues  and  efteas. 
.      «  cv-  ,  ,      Staktfffare':  Cjmlelm. 

3.  ALtion  ;  the  performance  of  exploits  ; 
produiSion  of  effefta. 

'Tis  fo  much  in  your  nature  to  do  good,  that 
your  lilc  IS  cut  one  continued  a^  of  placing  benefits 
on  many,  as  the  fun  i.  always  carrying  his  light  to 
fome  part  or  other  of  the  world.     DryJ„',  FabU,. 

Wh:,forth  from  nothingcall'd  thit  comely  frame. 
His  will  and  aa,  his  word  and  work  the  fame. 

4.  The  doing  of  fome  particular  tiling  Ta 
llep  taken  ;  a  purpofe  executed. 

Ihiia.'?  perfuadesme, 
I  hat  thi«  remotion  of  the  duke  and  her 
Is  praaicc  only.  Stak.jfur,-,  Kl„g  Lt^r. 

5.  A  (late  of  reality  ;  effeft. 

_  The  feeds  of  herb-  and  plants  at  the  firft  jre  not 
in  ^a,  but  in  poffibility,  that  which  they  after- 
wards grow  to  be.  'o.  , 
_  Cod  alone  excepted,  who  aSually  and  everlaft- 
irgly  I,  wha:foever  he  may  be,  and  which  cannot 
hereafter  be  that  which  now  he  is  not:  all  other 
things  befides  are  Ibmewhatin  Foflibllitv,  which  as 
yet  they  are  not  in  «c>.                            '      y/^^^,,.. 

Sure  they're  confcious 
Of  fome  intended  mifchief,  and  are  fled 
To  put  It  into  «a.  D,nh^m\  Sophy. 

b.  Incipient  agency;  tendency  to  an  effort 

Her  legs  were  bulkin'd,  and  the  left  before. 
In  aa  to  ihoct ;  a  filver  bow  Ihc  bore.        DryJcr. 

7.  A  part  of  a  play,  during  which  the  ac- 
tion proceeds  without  interruption. 

Many  never  doubt  but  the  whole  condition  re- 
quired by  Chrift,  the  repentance  he  came  to  preach, 
will,  m  that  lad  fcene  of  their  laft  aa,  imme- 
dutely  before  the  exit,  be  as  opportunely  and  ac- 
ceptably performed,  at  at  any  other  point  of  their 

V^  .a         •   »  ,.      "'■'^"""l''  Fu„damntali. 
•■iveaffsarejuft  the  mealure  of  a  play. 

8.  A  decree  of  a  court  of  joAice,  iTedirt 
of  a  legiflature. 

Vol.  I. 

i  They  make  ediftr  for  uftrv  to  fuppsrt  ofurers, 

repeal  daily  any  wiiolcfome  a'a  eftablifti-J  againit 
,      the  nch,  and  provide  more  piercing  flatutcs  daiK 
to  chain  up  aid  refliaia  the  pcor. 

Shakrfitare's  Corial.iru!. 
You  that  are  k,ng,  though  he  do«-car  the  crown, 
Have  caus'd  hi.-n,  by  new  aa  of  parliament, 
1  0  biot  out  me.  Shak.-rper.r,'!  Ihrry  VI. 

9.  Record  of  judicial  proceedings. 

_  Judiciul  aas  are  all  thole  matters  wliith  relate  to 
judicial  proceedings  ;  and  being  reduced  into  wi- 
ting  by  a  public  notary,  are  recorded  L-y  the  autho- 
rity of  the  judge.  ^y;j^_ 
A  CTioN.  ;,./.  [aawn,  Fr.  aalo,  Lat.] 

1.  The  quality  or  ilate  of  aaing,  oppoiite 
to  rcjl.  .     o      rr 

O  nolle  Englifli  !  that  could  entertain 
With  half  their  forces  the  full  power  of  France  • 
And  let  another  half  (land  laoahing  bv,  ' 

All  out  of  work,  and  cold  for  aaLn.   ' 

SbaUfpsare'i  Henry  V. 

2.  An  aft  or  thing  done ;  a  deed. 

This  aaion,  I  now  go  on, 
Is  for  my  better  grace.  Shak-fpem'i  fTmter!  Ta/e. 
God  never  accepts  a  good  inclination  inrtead  ot 
a  good  oaicn,  where  that  aahn  may  be  doi'e  •  nay 
fo  much  the  contrary,  that,  if  a  good  inclination 
be  not  feconded  by  a  good  affion,  the  want  of  that 
aascn  IS  made  fo  much  the  more  criminal  and  in- 
excufable.  t      , 

A  .  iiutb. 

3.  Agency,  operation. 

It  i»  better,  therefore,  that  the  earth  fliouJd 
move  about  its  own  center,  and  make  thofc  ufeful 
vic.ffitudes  of  night  and  day,  than  expofe  always 
the  fame  fide  to  the  aahn  of  the  fun.         BcntUy 

He  has  fettied  laws,  and  laid  down  rules,  con- 
formable to  which  natural  bodies  are  governed  in 
their  upon  one  another.  Cbeyne. 

+.  The  feries  of  events  reprefented  in  a 

This  aaion  fhould  have  three  qualifications. 
*irft,  it  Liould  be  but  one  aah„;  fccondly,  it 
fliould  be  an  entire  aaion;  and,  thirdly,  it  ihould 
be  a  great  a<f?wii.  /iti-r 

V  Oelficulation  ;  the  accordance  of  the 
motions  of  the  body  with  the  words 
fpoken;  a  part  of  oratory. 

™~"f  '''?'  ^P"''^  <■'"''  8''P<=  'he  hearer's  wrift, 
While  he  t.iat  hears  makes  fearful  aaioH 
With  wrinkled  brows.  Slai^fp.  Khr  Jch„. 

_Our  orators  are  obf.-rved   to  make  ufc  of  Icfs 
gefture  or  aaioa  than  thofe  of  other  countries. 

&.  [In  law.]  It  is  ufed  with  the  prepifi- 
tion  againfl  before  tlie  perfon,  and/»r 
before  the  thing. 

Aakns  are  pcrfonal,  real,  and  mixt ;  aakn  per- 
fonal  belongs  to  a  man  againji  another,  by  reafon 
of  any  eontrjft,  offence,  or  caufe,  of  like  force 
with  a  contraa  or  oftcnce  made  or  done  by  him  or 
fome  other,  for  whofe  faft  he  is  to  anfwcr.  Anion 
rral  IS  given  to  any  man  agairji  another,  that  pof- 
lefTcs  the  thing  required  or  fued  for  in  his  own 
name,  and  no  other  man's.  Aakn  mixt,  is  that 
which  hes  as  well  againfi  or  for  the  thing  which  wc 
feek,  as  agawjl  the  perfon  that  hath  it ;  called 
m,xi,  bccaufc  it  hath  a  mixt  refpcft  both  to  the 
tiling  and  to  the  pcrfjn. 

Aakn  Is  divided  into  civil,  penal,  and  mixt. 
Aa,on  civil  It  that  which  tends  onlv  to  the  reco 
very  of  that  which  is  due  to  us  ;  as  a  fum  of  mo- 
ney formerly  lent.  Aaion  penal  is  that  which 
aims  at  fome  penalty  cr  puniihment  in  the  party 
fucd,  be  it  corporal  or  pecuniary:  as,  in  comra.n 
li*,',  '"'=,""''  '"''"'''  °f  »  man  felonioufly  flain 
fiiall  purfuc  the  law  agahjl  the  murderer.  Aahn 
mixt  IS  that  vthich  fceks  both  the  thing  whereof 
wc  are  deprived,  and  a  penalty  alfo  for  the  uriuft 
dctJiningof  the  fame. 

Aahn  upon  the  cafe,  it  an  aahn  given  for  redrcfs 

of  wrongs  done  without  force  again/}  my  man,  bv 

law  not  fpecially  provided  for.  ' 

Aahn   vp^n  the  flaiute,  is   aa  aahn   brought 

oZ^mfi  a  man  iipon  breach  of  a  ftatute.      Crwcll. 


Th;.-e  was  never  mm  could  have  a  jailer  aahn 
mamfi  fii:hy  tjnunc  than  1,  fmce,  jll  other  thiojit 
being  granted  mc,  her  blindnefs  is  the  only  lett. 

For  our  reward  then, 
Fir/1,.311  our  debts  arc  paid  ;  dangers  of  law, 
Aa:onz,  decrees,  jujgraentj,  againfi  us  quitteJ. 

7.  In  the  plural,  in  France,  the  fame  as 

flocks  in  England. 
A'cTiOKABLE.  a^^  [^vom.  c.3ion.]   -That 
wnich  admits  aa  aftion  in  law  to  be 
brought  againft  it  ;  punidiable. 

His  procels  was  formed  ;  whereby  he  was  found 
guilty  ot  nought  ehc,  that  I  could  learn,  which 
was  aa-tovMe,  but  of  ambition. 

-,  ,    .  Homel's  Vccal  Forcff. 

No  man  3  face  is  aaionabJe  :  thefe  finguUrities 

jire  interpretablelVom  more  innoccntcaufes.  CoHier, 

AcTioNARy,orA'cTiONisT.».y:  [froin 

aaio„.]    One  that  lias  a  fhare  in  e,aio,„ 

or  flocks. 

A'cTioN-TAKiNC.  a,fj .     Accuftomed  to 

refent  by  means  of  law  ;  litigious. 

A   knave,    a   rafcal,  a  filthy  worfted-ftockin? 

Knave  ;  a  lily-liver'd  aSkn-t^king  knave.  Shakefp. 
Actita'tion.  „./   [from  a^ita,  Lai.] 

Aftion  quick  and  frequent.  Dia. 

To  A'cT.iwATE.'u.a.   [i'lom  aai-ve.]   To 

make    adlive.     This    word   is    perhaps 

ufed  only  by  the  author  alleged. 

As  fnowand  ice,  eCpecially  being  hojpen,  and 
theircold  aa:i,ai.-d  by  nitre  or  fait,  will  turn  water 
into  ice,  and  that  in  a  few  hour.;  fo  it  may  be. 

tinTe  '"™  *"'"'  °'  "'^"''''y  '"""  '*='"=> '"  'oVr 
-  ^        '  Bacon. 

Active,  ac^j.  [aai-vus.  Lit.] 
I.  That  which  has  the  power  or  quality  of 
afting.  ' 

Thele  particles  have  not  only  a  vis  ineriiar,  ac. 
compamed  with  fuch  pafiive  laws  of  motion,  at 
naturally  refult  from  that  force,  but  alfo  they  are 
moved  by  certain  aaim  principles,  fuch  as  is  that 
of  gravity,  and  that  which  caufes  fermentation, 
and  the  cohrlion  cf  bodies.  AWi/te',  Opticks. 

2.    Ihat  which  afts,  oppofed  to  pafTtve,  or 
that  which  fufFers.  ^  ■" 

—When  an  even  flame  two  hearts  did  touch, 
Mis  omce  was  indulgently  tn  (it 
Aaivti  to  palTives,  corrcfpondencr 
Only  his  fubjedl  was.  '  r>„. 

It  you  think  that,  by  multiplying  the  adUita- 
ments  in  the  fame  proportion  that  jou  multiply  the 
ore,  the  woik  will  follow,  you  may  be  deceived; 
for  quantity  in  the  paflive  will  add  more  rdilUnce 
than  thequantity  in  the affiw will  add  force.  Bacn. 

3.  ^ufy,  engaged  in  aflion  ;  oppofed  to 
idle  or  fedentciry,  or  any  ftate  of  which 
the  duties  are  performed  only  by  the 
mental  powers. 

'Tis  vii  tuous  aaion  that  muft  pralfe  bring  forth. 
Without  which,  flow  advice  is  little  worth  j 
,pf  jn=y  wlio  «ive  good  counfel,  praife  defervr, 
Iho  intheaaw  part  they  cannot  fcrve.  Denham. 

4.  rraftical ;  not  merely  theoretical. 

_  The  world  hath  had  in  thefe  men  fiefli  expe- 
rience,howdangcrousfuchaW-:.,errorsare.  i/«,ir^ 

5.  Nimble;  agile;  quick. 
Some  bend  the  ftubborn  bow  for  Tiflory  • 

And  fome  with  darts  tbcirafl«,r  finews  try.  ir,  dni 
o.  In  grammar.  ^ 

A  verb  aaive  it  that  which  fignifies  aftion,  as 
^ '""''•  Cl'rke-,  Latin  Grammar. 


AcTivELT.  ad-v.  [from  aaive.]  In  an 
aftive  manner  ;  bufily  ;  nimbly.  In  an 
aaive  fignification  j  as,  tbe  ivcrJ  is  u/td 

A'cTivENEss.  n.f.  [fromfl<?;W.]    The 

quality   of  being    aftivc ;    (^uicknefs ; 

^  nunbjenefs. 


A  C  U 


nimbUnefs.  This  is  a  word  more  rarely 
ufed  than  aSi-vity. 

Whit  (Irange  agility  and  efUvenifi  do  our  com- 
mon tumblers  and  dancen  on  the  rap:  attain  to,  by 
continual  nercifc  !  Hnikini'i  Math.  Mogick. 

AcTi'viTY.  n.f.  [from  aSi've,']  The  qua- 
lity' of  being  aftive,  applied  either  to 
things  or  perfons. 

Salt  put  to  ice,  as  in  the  producing  of  the  artifi- 
cial ice,  increafeth  the  aB'rviiy  of  cold.         Bacon, 

Our  adverfary  will  not  be  idle,  though  we  are ; 

he  watches  every  turn  of  our  foul,  and  incident  of 

our  life ;  and,  if  we  remit  our  alirvity,  will  take 

advantage  of  our  indolence*  Rogers, 

A'cTOR.  n.f.  [a£lor,  Lat.] 

1 .  He  that  afls,  or  performs  any  thing. 

The  virtues  of  either  age  may  correft  the  de- 
fers of  both  :  and  good  for  fuccelTion,  that  young 
meo  may  be  learners,  while  men  in  age  are  aSon, 


He  who  writes  an  Eneomium  Nentih,  if  he  docs 
It  heartily,  is  himielf  but  a  tranfcript  of  Nero  in 
his  mind,  and  would  gladly  enough  fee  fuch  pranks, 
as  he  was  famous  for,  a^ed  again,  though  he  dares 
n  jt  be  the  aHor  of  them  himfelf.  South. 

2.  He  that  peribnates  a  charafler ;  a  ftage- 

Would  you  have 
Such  an  Herculean  after  in  the  fcene. 
And  not  tliis  hydra  ?  They  mud  fweat  no  lefs 
To  fit  their  properties,  than  t'  exprcfs  their  parts. 

Ben  Jonjon, 
When  a  good  aEior  doth  his  part  prefent, 
In  every  adl  he  our  attention  draws, 
That  at  the  lall  he  may  find  juH  applaufe.  Dtnbam. 
Thefe  falfe  beauties  of  the  ftage  arc  no  more  lad- 
ing than  a  rainbow  ;  when  the  aClor  ceafes  to  (bine 
upon  them,  they  vanilh  in  a  twinkling. 

Drydtri'i  Spamjh  Friar. 
A'cTRESS.  n.f.   [a3rice,¥r.'] 

1.  She  that  performs  any  thing. 

Virgil  has,  indeed,  admitted  Fame  as  an  aflreji 
in  the  jSnciJ ;  but  the  part  flic  ails  is  very  fljort, 
aiid  none  of  the  mod  admired  circumdances  of 
that  divine  work.  Addijrji, 

We  fprights  have  juft  fuch  natures 
We  had,  for  all  the  world,  when  human  creatures  ; 
And  therefore  I  that  was  an  alireft  here. 
Play  all  my  tricks  in  hell,  a  goblin  there.     Drjden. 

2.  A  woman  that  plays  on  the  ftage. 
A'cTUAL.  adj.   [aiiuel,  Fr.] 

I.  That  which  comprifes  aAion. 

in  this  Aumbry  agitation,  befides  her  walking 
and  dther  aliual  performances,  what,  at  any  time, 
have  you  heard  her  fay  ?       Shakeffeare'i  Macbeth. 

X.  Really  in  aft  ;  not  merely  potential. 

Sin,  there  in  pow>  before 
Once  afhial;  now  in  body,  and  to  dwell 
Habitual  habitant.  Milton. 

J.  In  aft  ;  not  purely  in  fpeculation. 

For  he  that  but  conceives  a  crime  in  thought, 
Contrafts  the  danger  of  an  aSual  fault : 
Then  what  mud  he  expe3,  that  dill  proceeds 
To  finifli  fin,  and  work  up  thoughts  to  deeds  } 


Actua'lity.  n./.  [from  a^aW.]  The 
ftate  of  being  adual. 

The  a&ualiiy  of  thefe  fpiritual  qualities  is  thus 
.  impiifoned,  though  their  potentiality  be  not  quite 
defttoyed  j  and  thus  a  crafs,  extended,  impenetra- 
ble, psffive,   divifible,   unintelligent  fubdance    is 
gener.ited,  which  we  call  matter.  Cheyne. 

A'ctually.  aJv.  [froma^W.]  In  afl; 
in  elfeft  ;  really. 

All  mankind  acknowledge  themfclvcs  able  and 
fufficient  to  do  many  things,  which  aHaally  they 
never  do.  Scuth. 

Read  one  of  the  Chronicles,  and  you  will  think 
j-ou  were  reading  a  hidory  of  the  kings  of  Ifrael  or 
Judah,  where  the  hiftorians  were  aflnj//))  infpired, 
and  where,  by  a  particular  fchcme  of  providence, 
lilt  lunga  were  diOinguiflted  by  judgmeats  or  blef- 

fings,  according  as  they  promoted  idolatry.  Or  the 
worlhip  of  the  true  Cod.  jiddifon. 

Though  our  temporal  profpeSs  fliould  be  full  of 
danger,  or  though  the  days  of  forrow  fhould  aSual/y 
overtake  us,  yec  ftill  we  mud  repofe  ourfelves  on 
God.  Rogers. 

A'ctualness.  »./  [from  a^ual.]  The 
quality  of  being  aftual. 

A'ctuarv.  «./.  [a{luarius,  Lat.]  The 
regifter  who  compiles  the  minutes  of  the 
proceedings  of  a  court ;  a  term  of  the 
civil  law. 

Suppofe  the  judge  fliould  fay,  that  he  would 
have  the  keeping  of  the  afls  of  court  remain  with 
him,  and  the  notary  will  have  the  cudody  of  them 
with  himfelf :  certainly,  in  this  cafe,  the  aBuary 
or  writer  of  them  ought  to  be  preferred.      Aylife. 

A'cTUATE.a*^'.  [from  the  verb  Toa£iuaie.'\ 
Put  into  action  ;  animated ;  brought 
into  efFeft. 

The  ailive  informations  of  the  intelled,  filling 
the  padivc  reception  of  the  will,  like  form  clofing 
with  matter,  grew  aSiuate  into  a  third  and  didind 
perfeftion  of  practice.  South. 

To  A'CTUATE.  "w.  a.  [from  ago,  aHum, 
Lat.]  To  put  into  aflion ;  to  invigo- 
rate or  increafe  the  powers  of  motion. 

The  tight  made  by  this  animal  depends  upon  a 
living  fpirit,  and  feems,  by  fome  vitaJ  irradiation, 
to  be  actuated  into  this  ludre. 

Brnvns  Vulgar  Errours. 

Such  is  every  man,  who  has  not  actuated  the 
grace  given  him,  to  tlie  fubduing  of  every  reigning 
fin.  Decay  of  Piety. 

Men  of  the  greated  abilities  are  mod  fiied  with 
ambition  j  and,  on  the  contrary,  mean  and  nar- 
row minds  are  the  lead  actuated  by  it.        jlddifin. 

Our  padions  are  the  fprings  which  actuate  the 
powers  of  our  nature.  Rogers. 

AcTuo'sE.  adj.  [from  fliS.]    That  which 

hath  ftrong  powers  of  adion :  a  word 

little  ufed. 
To  A'cu  ATE.  I),  a.  [acuo,  Lat.]  To  Ihar- 

pen,  to  invigorate  with  any  powers  of 


Immoderate  feeding  upon  powdered  beef,  pic- 
kled meats,  and  debauching  with  drong  wines,  do 
inflame  and  acuate  the  blood,  whereby  it  is  capaci- 
tated to  corrode  the  lungs.  Harvey  in  Ccnfumfiions. 
Acu'leate.  ai(/.  [acu/eatus,  Lat.]  That 
which  has  a  point  or  fting  ;  prickly  ; 
that  which  terminates  in  a  ffiarp  point. 
JCU'MEN.  n.f.  [Lat.]  A  (harp  point ; 
figuratively,  quicknefs  of  intellefts. 

The  word  was  much  affefted  by  the  learned 
Aridarchus  in  common  convcrfation,  to  fignify 
genius  or  natural  acumen.       '  Pope. 

Ac u'm  I  n  at e  d.  particip.  adj.  Edding  in 
a  point ;  fharp-pointed. 

This  is  not  acuminated  and  pointed,  as  in  the 
red,  but  feemeth,  as  it  were,  cut  ofl^. 

Ero^vns  Vulgar  Errours. 

I  appropriate  this  word.  Noli  me  langere,  to  a 
fmall  round  acuminated  tubercle,  which  hath  not 
much  pain,  unlefs  touched  or  rubbed,  or  cxafpe- 
rated  l)y  topicks.  IViJeman. 

ACU'TE.  adj.  [acutus,  Lat.] 

1 .  Sharp,  ending  in  a  point ;  oppofed  to 
obtu/e  or  blunt. 

Having  the  ideas  of  an  obtufe  and  an  acute  an- 
gled triangle,  both  drawn  from  equal  bafes  and  be- 
tween par.illels,  I  can,  by  intuitive  knowledge, 
perceive  the  one  n.)t  to  be  the  other,  but  cannot 
that  way  know  whether  they  be  equal.  Locke. 

2.  In  a  figurative  fenfe  applied  to  men  ; 
ingenious  ;  penetrating ;  oppofed  to 
dull  OTjiupid. 

The  acute  and  ingenious  author,  among  many 
vef^  fine  thoughts,  and  uncommon  fefle^ions,  has 
liartcd  the  notion  of  feeing  all  things  inCod.  Lxke. 

3 .  Spoken  of  the  fenfes,  vigorous  ;  power, 
ful  in  operation. 

Were  our  leufes  altered,  and  madehiuch  quicker 
and  acuier,  the  appearance  and  outward  fchcme  of 
things  would  hjve  quite  another  face  to  us.    Locke. 

4.  Acute  difeafc.  Any  difeafe,  which  is 
attended  with  an  increafed  velocity  of 
blood,  and  terminates  in  a  few  days  ; 
oppofed  to  chronical.  ^incy. 

5.  Jlcute  accent ;  that  which  railes  or 
fliarpens  the  voice. 

kcv'-rzLY.  ad'v.  [from  af»/*.]  After  an 
acute  manner  ;  fliarply :  it  is  ufed  as 
well  in  the  figurative  as  primitive  fenfe. 

He  that  will  look  into  many  parts  of  Afia  and 

America,  will  find  men  reafun  there,  perhaps,  at 

acutely  as  himfcif,  who  yet  never  heard  of  a  fyl- 

logifra.  Locke. 

Acu'teness.  n.f.  [from  acute,  which  fee.] 

1.  Sharpnefs. 

2.  Force  of  intelledls. 

They  would  not  be  fo  apt  to  think,  that  there 
cou'd  be  nothing  added  to  the  acutenefs  and  pene- 
trat  on  of  their  underdandings.  Locke. 

3.  Quicknefs  and  vigour  of  fenfes. 

It  eyes  fo  fiamed  could  not  view  at  once  the 
hand  and  the  hour-plate,  their  owner  could  not 
be  benefited  by  that  a.utenefs;  which,  whild  it 
difcovered  the  fecret  contrivance  of  the  machine, 
made  him  lofe  its  ufe.  Locke. 

4.  Violence  and  fpeedy  crifis  of  a  malady. 

We  apply  prefent  remedies  according  to  indi« 
cations,  refpefling  rather  the  acutenrfs  of  the  dif- 
eafc, and  precipitancy  of  the  occafion,  than  the 
rifing  and  letting  of  dars.  Brown, 

5.  Sharpnefs  of  found. 

1  his  acutsnefs  of  found  will  fliew,  that  whild, 
to  the  eye,  the  bell  feems  to  be  at  red,  yet  the 
minute  parts  of  it  continue  in  a  very  briflc  motion, 
without  which  they  could  not  drike  the  air.  Boyle. 
Adkct  to.  participial  adj.  [adaiSus,  Lat.] 
Driven  by  force  ;  a  word  little  ufed. 
The  verb  adai3  is  not  ufed.  Dia. 

A'dage.  ».y.  [adagium,  hit,']  A  maxim 
handed  down  from  antiquity ;  a  proverb. 

Shallow  unimproved  inctUe£is,  are  confident 
pretenders  to  certainty;  as  if,  contrary  to  the 
adage,  fcience  had  no  friend  but  ignorance. 

Glamille's  Scepjis  Scienti/ica» 

Fine  fruits  of  learning  !  old  ambitious  fool, 
Dar'd  thou  apply  that  adage  of  the  fchool. 
As  if  'tis  nothing  worth  that  lies  conceal'd, 
And  fcience  is  not  fcience  till  reveaPd  ?      Dryden. 

JDjTGIO.  n.f.  [Italian,  at  leifure.]  A 
term  ufed  by  muficians,  to  mark  a  flow 

A'DAMANT.  n.f.  [adamas,  Lat.  from  » 
and  ixfitu,  Gr.  that  is  inj'uperable,  in- 

1 .  A  ftone,  imagined  by  writers,  of  im- 
penetrable hardnefs. 

So  great  a  fear  my  name  amongd  thrm  fpread. 
That  they  fuppos'd  I  could  rend  bars  of  dcel. 
And  fpurn  in  pieces  podsof  <:</iin<»i/.    Shaiefpcare, 

Satan,  witli  vad  and  haughty  drides  aJvanc'd, 
Came  tow'ring,  arm'd  in  adamant  and  gold. 

Eternal  Deities, 
Who  rule  the  world  with  abfolute  decrees. 
And  write  whatever  time  fliall  bring  to  pafs. 
With  pens  of  adamant,  on  plates  of  brafs.  Dryitn» 

2.  The  diamond. 

Hardnefs,  wherein  fome  doncs  exceed  all  other 
bodies,  and  among  them  the  adamant  all  other 
doncs,  being  exalted  to  that  degree  thereof,  that 
art  in  vain  endeavours  to  counterfeit  it,  the  fac- 
titious doncs  of  chymids,  in  imitation,  being, 
eafily  detefled  by  an  ordinary  lapiJid. 

Ray  on  the  Creation,- 

3 .  Adamant  is  taken  for  the  loadilpne. 





Yoa  draw  me,  you  hard-hearted  ajamant ! 
But  yet  you  draw  not  iron  j  for  my  heart 
is  true  as  fteel.  Shahfptare. 

Let  him  change  his  lodging  from  one  part  if 

the  town  to  another,  which  is  a  great  adamant  of 

acquaintance.  Saccn. 

Adamante'an.    adj.    [from  adamant. '\ 

Hard  as  adamant. 

He  weapor.lefs  himfelf, 
.  Made  arms  ridiculous,  ufelefs  the  forgery 
Of  brazen  ihleld  and  fpear,  the  hammered  cuirafs, 
Chalybean  temperM  ftcci,  and  irock  of  mail 
Adair-antcan  proof-  M.Ucn. 

This  word  occurs,  perhaps,  only  in 
this  paffage. 
Adama'ktine.  adj.  \adamantinut,  Lat.] 

1.  Made  of  adamant. 

Wide  is  the  fronting  gate,  and  raisM  on  high 
With  adamatil'uu  columns,  threats  the  (ky. 


2.  Having  the  qualities  of  adamant;  as, 
hardneis,  indifrolubility. 

Could  Eve's  weak  liand,  extended  to  the  tree, 
\a  (Under  rend  that  adamanune  chain, 

Whofe  golden  links,  eftcfts  and  caufes  be. 
And  which  to  Cod'i  own  chair  doth  fix'd  remain  ? 


An  eternal  flerility  mud  have  poflefled  the 
world,  where  all  things  had  been  fixed  and  faft- 
ened  everlaftingly  with  the  adamantine  chains  of 
fpeciiic  gravity ;  if  the  Almighty  had  not  fpoken 
and  faid,  Let  the  earth  bring  forth  grafs,  the  herb 
\ieldlng  feed,  and  the  fruit-tree  yielding  fruit  after 
Its  kind  ;  and  it  was  fo.  Bentlry, 

In  adamantine  chain?  ihall  death  be  bound. 
And  hell's  grim  tyrant  feel  th'  eternal  wound. 


Tho'  adamantine  bonds  the  chief  redraln, 
The  dire  rettraint  his  wlfdom  will  defeat. 
And  fjon  reftore  him  to  his  regal  f;at.  Pcpe. 

A'dam's-apple.  a./  [in  anatomy.]     A 

prominent  part  of  the  throat. 
To  ADA'PT.  -v.  a.  [adapto,  Lat.]  To  fit 

one  thing  to  another  ;  to  fuit ;  to.  pro- 
'Tis  true,  but  let  it  not  be  known, 

My  eyes  are  fomewhat  dimmilh  grown  ; 

For  nature,  always  in  the  right, 

To  your  decays  adafts  my  fight.  Svoift. 

It  is  not  enough  that  nothing  offends  the  ear, 

tut  a  good  poet  will  adaft  the  very  founds,  as  well 

as  words,  to  the  things  he  treats  of. 

Pope^t  Letters. 
Adapta'tiok.  71./.  [from  adaft.'\    The 

aft  of  fitting  one  thing  to  another  ;  the 

Atnefs  of  one  thing  to  another. 

Some  fpecies  there  be  of  middle  natures,  that 
is,  of  bird"  and  beaft,  as  batts ;  yet  are  their  parts 
fo  fet  together,  that  we  cjnnot  define  the  begin- 
ningor  end  of  cither,  tliere  being  a  commixtion  of 
both,  rather  than  adaftaikn  or  cement  of  the  one 
unto  the  other.  Bn-wn't  fulgar  Errcun. 

Adhefinn  may  be  in  part  afcribed,  either  to 
fome  elartxji  motion  in  the  prelTed  glafs,  or  to 
the  exquifite  /u/afiation  of  the  almoft  numberlcfs, 
though  vrry  fmall,  afpcrities  of  the  one,  and  the 
numerous  little  cavil  es  of  the  other;  whereby  the 
furfjccs  do  :ock  in  with  one  another,  or  are,  as  it 
were,  clafped  t  geiher.  £tn/e. 

Aoa'ption.  It./,  [from  adaft.]    The  aft 
of  fitting. 

It  were  aLne  a  fufficVnt  work  to  (hew  all  the 
necfflii  es,  the  wife  contrivances,  and  prudent 
edafti'.m,  of  thefe  admirable  machines,  for  the 
benefit  of  the  whole.  Cbcynt, 

Ada'ptness.  n.f.  {(OT  adaptedne/sfitom 

.SoiT.e  notes  are  to  difplay  the  ajaptnefi  of  the'  ' 
found  to  the  fenfe.  '  Dr.'  Ntiuun. 

This  wor4  I  have  found  no  where 

To  Adco'rporate.  -v.  a.  [from  ad  and 
corpus.]  To  unite  one  body  with  an- 
other ;  more  ufually  wrote  accorporate  ; 
which  fee. 

To  ADD.  ni.  a.  [addo,  Lat.] 

1.  To  join  fomething  to  that  which  was 

Mark  if  his  birth  makes  any  d'fference, 
If  to  his  words  it  adds  one  grain  of  fenfe.   Dryden. 

They,  whofe  mufes  have  the  higheft  flown. 
Add  not  to  his  immortal  memory, 
But  do  an  adt  of  friendrtiip  to  their  own.    Hoyden. 

2.  To  perform  the  mental  operation  of 
adding  one  number  or  conception  to 
another.  To  add  to  is  proper,  but  to 
add  together  feems  a  folecifm. 

Whatloever  pcfitive  ideas  a  man  has  in  his  mind, 
of  any  quantity,  he  can  repeat  it,  and  add  it  to  the 
former,  as  eafily  as  he  can  add  together  the  ideas  ot 
two  days,  or  two  years.  Locke. 

A'ddable.  adj.  [from  add.]  That  to 
which  fomething  may  be  added.  AS- 
dible  is  more  proper.  It  fignifies  more 
properly  that  which  may  be  added. 

The  firll  number  in  e^ery  addition  is  called  the 
addable  number,  the  other,  the  number  or  num- 
bers added,  and  the  number  invented  by  the  addi- 
tion, the  aggregate  or  fum.  Cocker. 
To  Adde'cimate.  -v.  a.  [addecimo,  Lat.] 
To  take  or  afoertain  tithes.  Dii3. 
To  Adde'em.  1/.  a.  [from  deem.]  To 
efleem  ;  to  account.  This  word  is  now 
out  of  nfe. 

She  fcorns  to  be  addtem'd  fo  wortblefs-bafe, 
As  to  be  mov'd  to  fuch  an  infamy. 

Banters  Civil  Wars. 

A'dder.  tt.f.  [iErcep,  JErzoy^,  Nabbjie, 
as  it  feems  from  eirtep.  Sax.  poifon.] 
A  ferpent,  a  viper,  a  poifonous  reptile  ; 
perhaps  of  any  fpecies.  In  common 
language,  adders  zxsd./nakes  are  not  the 

Or  is  the  adder  better  than  the  eel, 
Becaufe  his  painted  Ikin  contents  the  eye  ? 

An  adder  did  it ;  for,  with  doubler  tongue 
Than  thine,  thou  ferpent,  never  adder  tlung. 


The  adder  teaches  us  where  to  ftrike,  by  her 

curious  and  fearful  defending  of  her  head.    Taylor. 

A'dder's-crass.  n.f.  The  name  of  a 
plant,  imagined  by  Skinner  to  be  fo 
named,  becaufe  ferpents  lurk  about  it. 

A'dder's-tokgue.  n.  f.  \ophiogloffum, 
Lat.]     The  name  of  an  herb. 

It  hath  no  vifible  flower ;  but  the  feeds  are 
produced  on  a  fpike,  which  refembles  a  ferpcnt's 
tongue  ;  which  feed  is  contained  in  many  longi- 
tudmal  cells.  Miller, 

The  moft  common  fimples  are  comfrey,  bugle, 
agrimony,  fanicle,  paul's-betony,  fiuellin,  peri- 
winkle, adder" s-tongue.  ffijiman's  Surgery. 

A'dder's-wort.  a./.  An  herb  fo  named, 
on  account  of  its  virtue,  real  or  fup- 
pofed,  of  curing  the  bite  of  ferpents. 

A'ddible.  adj.  [from  add.]  PoiTible  to 
be  added,     SeeAuDABLE. 

The  cleared  idea  it  can  get  of  infinity,  Is  the 
confufed,  incomprehenfible  remainder  of  cndlefs, 
addible  numbers,  which  affords  no  profpedt  of 
ftop,  or  boundary.  Locke. 

Addibi'lity.  »./.  [from  addiik.]  The 
poffibility  of  being  added. 

This  endlcfs  addition,  or  addibiliiy  (if  any  one 
like  the  word  better)  of  numbers,  \o  apparent  to 
the  mind,  is  that  which  gives  us  tlic  clearell  and 
mofl  didin^  idea  of-infinity.  Locke. 

A'oDiCE.  a,/,  [for  which  we  corruptly 

fpeak  and  write  adz,  from  abej"e.  Sax. 
an  axe.] 

The  addice  hath  its  blade  made  thin  and  iomiim 
what  arching.  As  the  axe  hath  its  edge  parallel 
to  its  handle,  fo  the  addice  hath  its  edge  athwart 
the  handle,  and  is  ground  to  a  bafil  on  its  infide  to 
its  outer  edge.  Moxcn's  Meihaiiical  Exercifes. 

To  ADDI'CT.  -v.  a.  [addico.  Lat.] 

1.  To  devote,  to  dedicate,  in  a  good 
fenfe  ;  which  is  rarely  ufed. 

Ye  knew  the  houfe  of  Stephanus,  that  they 
have  addicted  themfelves  to  the  miniftry  of  the 
faints.  I  Cor.  xvi.  1 5. 

2.  It  is  commonly  taken  in  a  bad  fenfe  ; 

as ,  he  addidcd  himfelf  to  ■■vice. 

3.  To  devote  one's  felf  to  any  perfon, 
party,  or  perfuafion.     A  Latinifm. 

I  am  neither  author  or  fautor  of  any  fe£t '.  I 
will  have  no  man  addiEl  himfelf  to  me  ;  but  if  I 
have  any  thing  right,  defend  it  as  truth's. 

Ben  Jonfon, 

Addi'ctedness.  n.  f.  [from  addiiled.] 
The  quality  or  ftate  of  being  addifted. 

Thole  know  how  little  I  have  remitted  of  my 
former  addiHednefs  to  makechymical  experiments. 

Addi'ction.  n.f.  [addiaio,  Lat.] 

1.  The  aft  of  devoting,  or  giving  up. 

2.  The  ftate  of  being  devoted. 

It  is  a  wonder  how  his  grace  Ihould  glean  it. 
Since  his  addition  was  to  courfcs  vain  j 
His  companies  unletter'd,  rude,  and  Ihallow; 
His  hours  fiU'd  up  with  riots,  banquets,  fports. 

A'dditament.»./  [additamentum,  Lat.] 
The  addition,  or  thing  added. 

Iron  will  not  incorporate  with  brafs,  nor  other 
metals,  of  itfelf,  by  fimple  fire  :  fo  as  the  enquiry 
muft  be  upon  the  calcination,  and  the  additamentj 
and  the  charge  of  them.  Ba^cn. 

In  a  palace  there  is  firft  the  cafe  or  fabiick, 
or  moies  of  the  ftrufture  itfelf;  and,  befides  that, 
there  are  certain  additamcnts  that  contribute  to  its 
ornament  and  ufe ;  as,  various  furniture,  rare 
fountains  9nd  aquedudis,  divers  things  appendi- 
cated  to  it.  Hale's  Origin  of  Mankind. 

Addi'tion.  11./.   [from  add.] 

1.  The  aft  of  adding  one  thing  to  another; 
oppofed  to  diminution.  ' 

The  infinite  diftance  between  the  Creator  and 
the  nobieft  of  all  creatures,  can  never  be  meafured, 
nor  exhauftcd  byendlefs  addition  of  finite  degrees. 

Bentky  . 

2.  Additament,  or  the  thing  added. 

It  will  not  be  modeftly  done,  if  any  of  our 
own  wifdom  intrude  or  interpofe,  or  be  willing  to 
make  additions  to  what  Chrift  and  his  apoftlet 
have  defigned.  Hammond. 

Some  fuch  refcmblances,  methinks,  I  find 
Of  our  lad  evening's  talk,  in  this  thy  dream. 
But  with  addition  ftrange  !  Mi/ten. 

The  abolifhing  of  villanagc,  together  with  the 
cuftom  permitted  among  the  nobles,  of  felling 
their  lands,  was  a  mighty  addition  to  the  power. of 
the  commons.  ^  Swi/i. 

3.  In  arithmetick. 

Addition  is  the  reduflion  of  two  or  more  num- 
bers of  like  kind  together  into  one  fum  or  total. 

Cocker's  Arithmetick. 

4.  In  law,  A  title  given  to  a  man  over 
and  above  his  chrillian  name  and  fur- 
name,  fhewing  his  ellate,  degree,  oc- 
cupation, trade,  age,  place  of  dwelling. 

Only  retain 
The  name,  and  all  th'  addition  to  a  king  ; 
The  fway,  revenue,  execution, 
Beloved  fons,  be  yours ;  which  to  confirm, 
Thii  coronet  part  bctweeo  you.     ■ 

Siakefp,  King  Lear, 
£  z  Frow 


From  this  time, 
For  wh»t  he  did  before  Corioli,  call  him, 
With  all  th'  applaufe  and  clamnurof  the  hoft, 
Caius  Marcius  Coriolanus.      Bear  th'  aJdii'aa  no- 
bly ever.  Shaktfpteris  Ccrielanus. 
There   arofe    new  difputes   upon   the  perfons 
named  by  the  king,  or  rather  againft  the  aJJilm.s 
and  appellations  of  title,  which  were  made  to  their 
names.  Clarendon. 

ADDi'xiONAL.fl/^'.  {(lom  aJditioB.']  That 
-  which  is  added. 

Our  kalendar  being  once  reformed  and  fct 
right,  it  may  be  kept  fo,  without  any  confider- 
able  variation,  for  many  ages,  by  omitting  one 
leap-year;  i.  e.  the  addiiioiial  day,  at  the  end  of 
every  1 34  years.  thlder  en  Tune. 

The  greateft  wits,  that  ever  were  produced  in 
one  age,  lived  together  in  fo  good  an  undetftand- 
ing,  and  celebrated  one  another  with  fo  much  ge- 
neroCty,  that  each  of  them  receives  an  addiiknal 
luftre  from  his  «otemporaries. ,  Add'ifcn. 

Thty  include  in  them  that  very  kind  of  evi. 
dence,  which  is  fuppofcd  to  be  powerful :  and  do, 
withal,  afford  us  fevcral  other  addiiknal  proofs,  of 
great  force  and  clearnefs.  Ailertury. 

Addi'tional.  n.f.  Additament ;  fome- 
thing  added.     Not  in  ufe. 

May  be  fome  little,  may  further  the 

incorporation.  Bacon. 

A'dditory.    adj.     [from    arid.']       That 

which  has  the  power  or  quality  of  add- 

The  ajdilory  fi^ion  gives  to  a  great  man  a 
larger  (hare  of  reputation  than  belongs  to  him,  to 
enable  him  to  fcrve  fome  good  end  or  purpr.fe, 


A'DDLE.  adj.  [from  abel,  a  difeafe.  Sax. 
according  to  Skinner  and  Junius ;  per- 
haps from  ybel,  idle,  barren,  unfruit- 
ful.] Originally  applied  to  eggs,  and 
fignifying  fuch  as  produce  nothing,  but 
grow  rotten  under  the  hen ;  thence 
transferred  to  brains  that  produce  no- 

There's  one  with  truncheon,  like  a  ladle, 
That  carries  eggs  too  frefli  or  addle ; 
And  fiill  at  random,  as  he  goes. 
Among  the  rabble  rout  beftows.  HuJiirat. 

After  much  folitarinefs,  fading,  or  long  fick- 
jiefs,  their  brains  were  addle,  and  their  bellies  as 
empty  of  meat  at  their  heads  of  wit. 

Burton  on  Melancholy. 

Thus  far  the  poet ;  but  his  brains  grow  addle: 
And  all  the  reft  is  purely  from  this  noddle. 


7'e  A'ddle.  V,  a.  [from  addle,  adj.]  To 
make  addle  ;  to  corrupt ;  to  make  bar- 

This  is  alfo  evidenced  in  eggs,  whereof  the 
found  ones  fink,  and  fuch  as  are  addled  fwim;  as 
do  alfo  tbofe  that  are  termed  byfanewitc,  or  wind, 
eggs.  Brm>n''s  Vulgar  Errours. 

T<>  A'ddle.  v.  n.  To  grow  ;  to  increafe. 

Where  ivy  embraceth  the  tree  very  fore. 
Kill  ivy,  elfc  tree  will  addle  no  more. 

7uJ}ir^i  Hujhardry. 

A'ddle  -  PATED.  adj.  Having  addled 
brains.     See  Addle. 

F'oor  Daves  in  metre,  dull  and  addle-fated. 
Who  rhyme  below  even  David's  pfalms  traiiflatcd. 


To  ADDRE'SS.  v.  a.  [addreffer,  Fr.  from 
derefar.  Spaa,  from  dirigo,  direSum, 

1 .  To  prepare  one's  felf  to  enter  upon'any 
a£lion  ;  as,  he  addrejfed  bimfelf  to  the 
•viiork.     It  has  to  before  the  thing. 

With  him  the  Palmer  eke,  in  habit  fad, 
)ciiai%M  addreft  It  that  advCDCure  hard. 

fmrjf  S^et 


It  lifted  up  its  head,  and  did  adirefi 
Itfetfrc  motion,  like  at  it  would  fpcak. 

Siakeff.  Hamlet. 

Then  Turrut,  from  his  chariot  leaping  light, 
jiddrefi'd  bimfelf  on  foot  Co  fingle  fight.    Drydrn. 

2.  To  get  ready  ;  to  put  in  a  ftate  for 
immediate  ufe. 

They  fell  direillyon  the  Englifli  battle ;  where- 
upon the  earl  of  Warwick  addrejfed  his  men  to 
take  the  flank.  Hay-ward. 

Duke  Frederick  hearing,  how  that  every  day 
Men  of  great  worth  reforted  to  this  foreft, 
Addreji'd  a  mighty  power,  which  were  on  foot. 
In  his  c.wn  condudt  purpofcly  to  take 
His  brother  here.  Shakrffeare'i  Atyou  like  it. 

To-night  in  flarflcur  we  will  be  your  gueft. 
To-morrow  for  the  march  we  are  addrifl. 


3.  To  apply  to  another  by  words,  with 
v.irious  forms  of  conftruftion. 

4.  Sometimes  without  a  prcpofition. 

To  fuch  I  would  addrtfi  with  this  moft  affec- 
tionate petition.  Decay  of  Piety. 

Among  the  crowd,  but  far  above  the  reft. 
Young  Tu^nus  to  the  beauteous  maid  addrtjl. 

Are  nat  your  orders  to  addrcji  the  fenate  .' 


5.  Sometimes  with  to, 

ylddriJJ'.ng  to  I'ollio,  his  great  patron,  and  him- 
fclf  no  vu'gur  poet,  he  began  to  affert  his  native 
character,  which  is  fublimity.  Dryden. 

6.  Sometimes  with  the  reciprocal  pro- 
noun ;  as,  he  addrejfed  him/elf  to  the  ge- 

7.  Sometimes  with  the  accufative  of  the 
matter  of  the  addrefs,  which  may  be 
the  nominative  to  the  paffive. 

The  young  hero  had  addrejjcd  his  ^ray^rs  to 
him  for  his  afljftance.  Dryden. 

The  prince  himfelf,  with  awful  dread  pofiefs'd. 
His  vo-ius  to  great  Apollo  thus  addrejl.        Dryden. 

His  fuitwjs  common  ;  but,  above  the  reft. 
To  both  the  brother-princes  thus  addrtjl.     Dryden. 

8.  To  addrefs  [in  law]  is  to  apply  to  the 
king  in  form. 

'1  he  rcprefentatives  of  the  nation  in  parlia- 
ment, and  tiie  privy-council,  addrtfs^d  the  U.\n^  to 
have  it  recalled.  S'U'ift, 

Addre'ss.  n./.  \addreffe,  Fr.] 

1.  Verbal  application  to  any  one,  by  way 
of  perfuafion  ;  petition. 

Henry,  in  knots  involving  Emma's  name. 
Had  halfconfefs'd  and  half  conceal'd  his  flame 
Upon  this  tree  ;  and  as  the  tender  mark 
Grew  with  the  year,  and  widen'd  with  the  bark, 
Venus  had  heard  the  virgin's  foft  addrefs. 
That,  as  the  wound,  the  paflion  might  increafe. 


Moft  of  the  perfons,  to  whom  thefe  addnjjci 
are  made,  are  not  wife  and  ficilful  judges,  but  are 
influenced  by  their  own  finful  appetites  and  paf- 
Jions.  fVatts^s  Improvement  of  the  Mind. 

2,  Courtfliip. 

They  often  have  reveal'd  their  paffion  to  me  : 
But,  tell  mc,  whofe  addrefs  thou  favcur'ft  moft  3 
I  long  to  know,  and  yet  1  dread  to  hear  it. 

A  gentleman,  whom,  I  am  furc,  you  yourfelf 
would  have  approved,  made  his  addrej/es  to  me. 


3;  Manner  of  addrefling  another;  as,  we 
fay,  a  man  of  an  happy  or  a  pleafing  ad- 
drefs ;   a  man  of  an  aiuktuard  addrefs. 

4.  Skill,  dexterity. 

I  could  produce  innumerable  inftances  from  my 
own  obfervation,  of  events  imputed  to  the  pro- 
found Ikill  and  addrefs  of  a  miniftcr,  which,  in 
reality,  were  either  mere  effefls  of  negligence, 
wcaknefs,  humour,  paflion,  or  pride,  or  at  beft 
but  the  natural  coiufe  of  tbines  left  to  Uiemfelves. 


A  D  E 

5.  Manner  of  direfting  a  letter;  afcnfe 
chiefly  mercantile. 

Addre  ssER.  »./.  [horn  addrefs.]  The 
perfon  that  addrcfl'es  or  petitions. 

A  D  d  u't  E  N  T .  adj.  [adducens,  Lat.]  A  word 
applied  to  thofe  mufcles  that  bring  for- 
ward, clofe,  or  draw  together  the  pans 
of  the  body  to  which  they  are  annexed. 


To  AoDu'LCE.-f.  a.  [addoucir,  Fr.  dukis, 
Lat.]  Tofweeten :  a  word  not  now  in  ufe. 

Thus  did  the  French  cmbafladors,  with  great 
fliew  of  their  king's  affeftion,  and  many  fugared 
words,  feek  to  addulec  all  matters  between  the  two 
kings.  Bacon  s  Henry  y II. 

A'  n.f.  [from  asbel.  Sax.  ill  uf. 
trious.]  A  word  of  honour  among  the 
Angles,  properly  appertaining  to  the 
king's  children  :  king  Edward  the  Con- 
felTor,  being  without  iflue,  and  intend- 
ing to  make  Edgar  his  heir,  called  him 
adeling.  Cttivdl. 

Adeno'craphy.  n.f.  [from  aor.rc  and 
yra.^iD,  Gr.]    A  treatife  of  the  glands. 

A  D  e'm  p  T 1  o  N .  n.f.  \adimo,  ademptum,  Lat.] 
I'aking  away  ;  privation.  DiS. 

Ade'pt.  n.  f.  [from  adeptus,  Lat.  that  is, 
adeptus  artem.]  He  that  is  completely 
/killed  in  all  the  fecrets  of  his  art.  It 
is,  in  its  original  fignification,  appro- 
priated to  the  chymiils,  but  is  now  ex- 
tended to  other  artills. 

The  prefervation  of  chaftity  is  eafy  to  true 
adepts.  Pope* 

Ade'pt.  adj.   Skilful;  throughly  verfed. 

If  there  be  really  fuch  adept  philolophers  as  we 
are  told  of,  I  am  apt  to  chink,  that,  among  their 
arcana,  they  are  maders  of  extremely  potent  mcn- 
ftruums.  Beyle. 

A'dequate.  <z(^'.  \_adeqi!atus,'L2iX.]  Equal 
to ;  proportionate  ;  correfpondent  to,  fo 
as  to  bear  an  exadl  refemblance  or  pro- 
portion. It  is  ufed  generally  in  a  figu- 
rative fenfe,  and  often  with  the  particl» 

Contingent  death  feems  to  be  the  whole  ade- 
quate objcti  of  popular  courage  ;  but  a  neceflary 
and  unavoidable  coflSn  ftrikes  palenefs  into  the 
ftouteft  heart.  Harvey  on  Conjumptienf. 

The  arguments  were  proper,  adequate,  and  fuf- 
ficienc  to  compafs  their  refpeflive  ends.  South* 
All  our  fimple  ideas  arc  adequate  ;  becaufe^ 
being  nothing  but  the  effcdts  of  certain  powers  in 
things,  fitted  and  ordained  by  God  to  produce 
fuch  fenfations  in  us,  they  cannot  but  be  corref- 
pondent and  adequate  to  thofe  powers.  Locke, 
Thofe  are  adequate  ideas,  which  perfeflly  repre- 
fent  their  archetypes  or  objefis.  Inadeijiiate  are 
but  a  partial,  or  incomplete,  reprefcntation  of 
thofe  archetypes  to  which  they  arc  referred, 

ffatts's  L'pck. 
A'DEqvATthY.  ad'v.  [from  adejuate.] 

1.  In  an  adequate  manner;  with  juilnefs 
of  reprefcntation  ;  with  exaftncfs  of  pro- 

Gratitude  confifts  adequately  in  thefe  two  things  > 
firft,  that  it  is  a  debt;  anJ,  fecondly,  that  it  it 
fuch  a  debt  as  is  left  to  every  man's  ingenuity, 
whether  he  will  pay  or  no.  South, 

2.  h  is  ufed  with  the  particle  to. 

Piety  is  the  necelTary  Chrifiian  virtue,  propor. 
tioned  adequately  to  the  omnifcicnce  and  fpicitu- 
ality  of  that  infinite  Deity. 

Hammcntts  Fundamentals, 

A'dequateness.  n.f.   [from  adequate."^ 

The  llate  of  being  adequate  ;  juftncfs  of 

reprefentation  ;  exaftnefs  of  proportion. 



r»  ADHE'RE.  -v 
1.  To  ftick  to  : 

A  D  H 

adj.    Not  abfokte 

with  to  before  the  thing. 

;  not 
n,   \adhttreo,  Lat.] 
as,  wax  to  the  finger; 

to  be 

3.  To  ftick,  in  a  figurative  fenfe ; 
confiftent ;  to  hold  together. 

Why  every  thing  adhirci  together,  that  no  dram 
of  a  fcrup'.e,  no'fcrjple  of  a  fcniple,  no  incredu- 
lous or  unfarc  citcumftancc— 

btiikeffeare'i  T-.velfib  Niglt. 

3.  To  remain  firmly  fixed  10  a  party,  per- 
fon,  or  opinion. 

Good  gentkmcn,  hehzthmuch  talk'd  of  you  ; 
And  fur;  I  am,  two  men  there  are  not  living. 
To  whom  he  more  adheres,  Sbaiefp,  Ham/et, 

Every  man  of  lenfe  will  agree  with  me,  that 
Angularity  is  laudible,  when,  in  contradiftion  t  > 
a  multitude,  it  adbtres  to  the  dictates  of  con- 
fclence,  morality,  and  honour.  Boyle, 

Adhe'rence.  n,  f.  \ivova.  adhere .'\  See 

1.  The  quality  of  adhering,  or  (licking; 

2.  In  a  figurative  fenfe,  fixednefs  of  mind  ; 
fteadinefs  ;  fidelity. 

The  tirm  adherence  of  the  Jews  to  their  religion 
IB  no  Icfs  temarlcabie  than  their  dilperiian  ;  conii- 
dering  it  as  pcrfccuted  or  contemned  o\cr  the 
whole  earth.  Add'iJQn. 

A  conftant  adherence  to  one  fort  of  diet  may 
have  bad  cC'cdls  on  any  conflitution. 

jlrbulbr.'jt  on  j^/imerts. 

Plain  good  fenfe,  and  a  Arm  adbtrtnee  to  (he 
point,  have  proved  m'Te  effectual  than  tliole  arts, 
which  are  contemptuoufly  called  the  fpirit  ot  re- 
gociating.  Sviif:. 

Adhe'rency.  n.f.  [The  fame  with  W- 

1.  Steady  attachment. 

2.  That  which  adheres. 

Vices  have  a  adbertncy  of  vexation. 

Decay  tf  Piety. 

Adhe'rcnt.    adj.  [bom  adhert,'\ 

1.  Sticking  to. 

Clofe  to  the  cliff  with  both  his  hands  he  clung. 
And  ftuck  adheyertt,  and  fufpended  hung.       Pife. 

2.  United  with. 

Modes  are  f:iid  to  be  inherent  or  adherent,  that 
is,  proper  or  improper.  Adhereitt  or  improper 
modes  arifc  from  the  joining  of  fome  accidcntil 
fubftdncc  to  the  chief  fubjecl,  which  yet  may  be 
feparated  from  it;  fo  when  a  bowl  is  wet,  or  a 
boy  is  clothed,  thefe  are  aJhereni  modes;  for  the 
water  and  the  clctbes  are  difllndl  t'ubllances  which 
adhere  to  the  bowl,  or  to  tA :  boy.  /frt/.'j'j  Logick. 
Adhe'rent.  n.f.  [hovn  adhere.'] 

1 .  The  perfon  that  adheres ;  one  that  fup- 
ports  the  caufe,  or  follows  the  forluue 
of  another  ;  a  follower,  a  partifan. 

Princis  muft  give  proteftion  to  their  fubjefls 
and  aHiereaii,  vihca  worthy  occalion  /hall  re<juire 
it.  Rate'i^h. 

A  new  war  mull  be  undertakcji  upon  the  advice 
of  thofe,  wh",  with  their  partifans  and  adf  erertif 
wer«  to  be  the  fole  gainers  by  it.  iiivift. 

2.  Any  thing  outwardly  belonging  to  a 

When  they  cannot  fliake  the  main  fort,  they 
mull  try  if  they  can  pnffefs  thcmfelves  of  the 
outworks,  raife  fome  prejudice  againll  his  difcie- 
tion,  his  humour,  his  ca  riage,  and  his  cttniific 
etdhtrerti.  Government  cf  the  Tongue. 

Adhe'rer.  a./,  [from  adhere.]  He  that 

He  on  lit  to  be  indulgent  to  tender  confcicncfsi 

bur,  at  'he  fiinc  timr,  a  firm  adherer  to  the  efta- 

blirt.'d  cliurch.  Sivifi. 

Ad  he's  ION.  n./.   [adhef/io,  Lat.] 

1.  The  aft  or  ftatc  of  flicking  to  fome- 


A  D  J 

thing.  Adhefion  is  generally  ufed  in  the 
natural,  and  adherence  in  the  metapho- 
rical fenfe  :  as,  the  adhejton  of  iron  to  the 
magnet ;  and  adherence  of  a  client  to  his 

Why  therefore  may  not  the  minute  parts  of 
other  bodies,  it  they  be  conveniently  shaped  icx 
adbeji'tny  ftick.  to  one  another,  as  well  as  ftick  to 
this  ipiric  ?  Boyk, 

The  reft  corfifting  wholly  in  the  fenfible  con- 
firmation, as  fmooth  and  rough  5  or  elfe  more, 
or  lefs,  firm  adhcjion  cf  the  parts,  as  hard  and 
fofc,  tough  and  brittle,  are  obvious.  Locke. 

■  —  Prove  that  all  things,  on  occafionj 
Love  union,  and  defire  adbcfion*  Prior, 

2.  It  is  fometimes  taken,  like  adherence, 
figuratively,  for  firmnefs  ia  an  opinion, 
or  Ileadinefs  in  a  practice. 

The  fame  want  of  Iincerity,  the  firae  adbeficn 
to  vice,  and  averfion  from  goodnefs,  wilt  be 
equally  a  reafon  for  their  reje^ing  any  proof 
whatfoevcr.  yitterbury, 

Adhe'sive.  adj.  [from  adhefion,']  Stick- 
ing ;  tenacious. 

It"  flow,  yet  fure,  adbeji've  to  the  tra£V, 
Hot-fteaining  «p,  Thomfon* 

To  ADHl'BIT.  o/.  a.  {adhibeo.  Lat.]  To 
apply  ;  to  make  ufe  of. 

bait,  a  neccfiary  ingredient  in  all  facriiices,  was 
adhibited  and  required  in  this  view  only  as  an  em- 
blem of  purification. 

Prefdint  Forbei'i  Letter  to  a  Bijhal>. 
Adhibi'tion.  n.f.  [hoxnadhibit.]    Ap- 
plication ;  ufe.  Z);V?. 
Adja'cency.  n.f.  [from  adjaceo,  Lat.] 

1.  The  ftate  of  lying  clofe  to  another  thing. 

2,  That  which  is  adjacent.  See  Adja- 

Becaufe  the  Cape  hath  fea  on  both  fides  near 
it,  and  other  lands,  remote  as  it  were,  equi- 
dillant  from  it ;  tliercforc,  at  that  point,  the 
needle  is  nut  diltiatled  by  the  vicinity  of  adja- 
eenciet,  Bro^vn^s  yulgjr  Erroun. 

Adja'cikt.  adj.  [adjaceits,  Lat.]  Lying 
near  or  clofe  ;  bordering  upon  fomc- 

It  may  corrupt  within  Itfelf,  although  no  part  of 
it  iffue  into  the  b  dy  adjacent.  Bacin. 

Uniform  pellucid  mediums,  fuch  as  water,  have 
no  fenfible  refle^i.n  but  in  their  external  fuper- 
ficies,  where  thzy  are  adjacent  to  other  mediums 
of  a  different  dcolity.  Netuton, 

Adja'ce^it.  tt.f.  That  which  lies  next 

The  fcBfe  of  the  author  goes  vilibly  in  its  own 
train,  and  the  words  receiving  a  determined  fenfe 
from  their  companions  and  adjacenti,  will  not 
confcnt  to  give  countenance  and  colour  to  what 
muft  be  fupported  at  any  rate.  Locke. 

Adiaphorous,  adj.  [aJiaSoiJi©-,  Gr.] 
Neutrnl ;  particularly  ufed  of  fomefpirits 
and  falts,  wldch  are  neither  of  an  acid 
or  alkaline  nature.  ^incy. 

Oui-  adiaphoroiit  fpirit  may  be  obtained,  l^y  dif- 
tilling  the  liquor  that  is  afforded  by  woods  and 
divers  other  bodies.  Beyle. 

AotA'tHORY.  n.f.  [aJia^ojia,  Gr.]  Neu- 
trality ;  indifference. 

To  ADJE'CT.  1/.  a.  [adjicio,  adjeHum, 
Lat.]  To  add  to ;  to  put  to  another 

Adje'ction.  n.f.  [adjeOio,  Lat.] 

1.  'I'he  aft  of  adjefting,  or  adiling. 

2.  The  thing  adjefted,  or  added. 

That  unto  every  poufd  of  fulphur,  an  adjeSlion 
of  jne  ounce  of  qaickfiiVfr  j  or  unto  every  pound 
of  pctre,  one  ounce  of  lal-amm'  niac,  will  much 
int-nd  the  force,  and  confequently  the  rrport,  J 
fijid  no  verily.  Bnwn'i  f^ulgar  £rreuri. 

A  D  J 

Adjecti'tious.  ac^.  [from  ad/e<3ioH.'] 
Added  ;  thrown  in  upon  the  reft. 

A'djective.  n.f.  [adjeBi'vutn,  Lat.]  A 
word  added  to  a  noun,  to  fignify  the  ad- 
dition  or  feparation  of  fome  quality, 
circuraftance,  or  manner  of  being  ;  as, 
good,  bad,  are  adjeBi'vei,  becaufe,  in 
fpeech,  they  are  applied  to  nouns,  to 
modify  their  fignification,  or  intimate 
the  manner  of  exiftence  in  the  things 
flgnified  thereby.  Clarke's  Latin  Gram, 
Ail  the  verf:iica*ion  of  Claudian  is  included 
within  the  compafs  of  four  or  five  lines  ;  perpetu- 
ally clofing  his  lenfe  at  the  end  of  a  vcrfe,  and  that 
vcrf;  commonly  which  they  call  golden,  or  two 
fubltantivcs  and  two  adjtclirjes,  with  a  verb  betwixt 
them,  to  keep  the  peace.  Dryden, 

A'djectively.  ad'v,  [from  adjeili've.] 
After  the  manner  of  an  adjeftive  ;  a 
term  of  grammar. 

Adieu',  adv.  [from  a  Bieu,  ufed  ellipti- 
cally  for  a  Dieu  je  "vous  commende,  ufed 
at  the  departure  of  friends.]  The  form 
of  parting,  originally  importing  a  com- 
mendation to  the  Divine  care,  but  nonf 
ufed,  in  a  popular  fenfe,  foipetimes  to 
things  inanimate  ;  farewell. 

Ne  gave  him  leave  to  bid  that  aged  fire 
Adieu,  but  nimbly  ran  her  wonted  courfc. 

Tairy  Slucen, 
Ufe  a  mor^   fpacious   ceremony  to    the  noble 
lords;    you  reflrained  yourlelf  within  the  lift  of 
too  cold  an  ;  he  more  expreffive  to  them. 

Shake' fenre's  W//"i  •zueli  ibat  ends  welf. 
While  now  1  take  my  laft  adieu. 
Heave  thou  no  figli,  nor  ihed  a  tear ; 

Left  yet  my  half-clos'd  eye  may  view 
On  earth  an  objedt  worth  its  care.  Priori 

To  Adjo'in.   i».  a.    \_adjoindre,   Fr.   ad- 
>afo,  Lat.] 

1.  To  join  to  ;  to  unite  to  ;  to  put  to. 

As  one  who  long  in  populous  city  p.'nt 
Forth  ifiuing  on  a  fummcr's  morn  to  breathe 
Among  the  pleafant  villages  and  farms 
Adjoind,  from  each  tliiag  met  conceives  delight. 


Correftions  or  Improvements  fliould  be  as  re- 
marks adjoin/d,  by  way  of  note  or  commentary, 
in  their  proper  places,  and  fupcradded  to  a  regular 
trcatife.  IVjus. 

2.  To  fatten  by  a  joint  or  junfture." 

As  a  malfy  wheel 
Fixt  on  the  fummit  of  the  higheft  mount. 
To  whofe  huge  fpoke  ten  thoufand  leffer  things 
Are  mortis'd  and  adjoined,  Shakej'feare, 

To  Adjo'in.  v,  n.  To  be  contiguous  to ; 
to  lie  next,  fo  as  to  have  nothing  be- 
Th'  adjoining  fane,  th'  affembled  Creeks  ex- 
And  hunting  of  the  Caledonian  heart.        Dryden, 
In  learning  any  thing,  as  little  fliould  be  pro- 
pofed  to  the  mind  at  once,  as  is  poflible;   and, 
that  being  underftood  and  fully  maftered,  proceed 
to  the  next  adjoining,  yet  unknown,   funpic,  un- 
perplexcd  propofition,  belonging  n  the  ma  ter  ia 
hand,  and  tending  to  the  clearing  what  is  princi-- 
pa'ly  defigneil.  Locke, 

To  ADJO'URN.  'v.a,   [adjourner,  Fr.] 
I.  To  put  otf  to  another  day,  naming  the 
time  ;    a  term   ufed   in  juridical   pro- 
ceedings ;  as,  of  parliaments,  or  courts 
of  juftice. 

1  he  queen  being  abfent,  'tis  a  needful  fitnelsi 
That  we  adjourn  this  court  to  further  day= 


By  the  king's  authority  alone,  and  by  'lis  writs, 

they  ari  affembled,  and  by    him  alone   are  they 

prorogued  and  dilluived  }  but  each  lioufe  may  ad., 

journ  itUif.  Bacon, 

z.  To 

A  D  J 

a.  To  put  ofF;  to  defer  ;  to  let  flay  to  a 
future  time. 

Then,  Jupiter,  thou  king  of  gods, 
Why  hail  thou  thus  adjourned 

The  graces  for  his  merits  due, 
Being  all  to  dolours  turn'd.  Shairff,  Cymh. 

Crown  high  the  goblets  with  ■  chearful  draught: 
Enjoy  the  ptcfcnt  hour,  adjcurm  the  ftiture  thought. 

Dry  den. 

The  formation  of  animals  being  foreign  to  my 

purpofe,  1  Ihall  adjourn  the  confidcrari'^n  of  it  t ) 

another  occafion.         H^oodxoard's  t/atural  H'ljlory. 

Adjo'urnment.w./  [adjournement, Fr. ] 

I.  An  aflignment  of  a  day,  or  a  putting 

off  till  another  day. 

Mjiurnmtnt  in  tyre,  an  appointment  of  a  day, 
when  the  jultices  in  eyre  mean  to  fit  again. 


3.  Delay  ;    procrafUnation  ;    difmilTion  to 
.    a  future  time. 

We  will  and  we  will  not,  and  then  we  will  not 
again,  and  we  will.  Ac  this  rate  wc  run  our  lives 
out  in  adjournments  from  time  to  time,  out  of  a 
fantaftical  levity  that  holds  us  off  and  on,  betwixt 
hawk  and  buzsard.  L^BJlrange. 

A'oiTQVs.adj.  \_aJipofus,'LaX.'\  Fat.  Di3. 
A'dit.  rt.f.  [adirui,  Lat.]    A  paffage  for 
the  conveyance  of  water  under  ground  ; 
a  palTage  under  ground  in  general ;  a 
term  among  the  minemen. 

For  conveying  away  the  water,  they  ftand  in  aid 

of  fundry  devices  j  as,  ad'tis,  pumps,  and  wheels, 

^   driven  by  a  llrtram,  and  interchangeably  tilling  and 

emptying  two  buckets.  Careiv> 

The  delfs  would  be  fo  flown  with  waters  (it  be- 
ing imj^olTible  to  make  any  adits  or  fouglis  to  drain 
them)  that  no  gins  or  machines  could  fulHce  to  lay 
and  keep  them  dry.  ^ay, 

Adi'tion.  n.f.  [from  adeo,  aJiium,  Lat.] 

The  aft  of  going  to  another.  DJ3. 

7*0  Adju'dge.  "v.  a,  [adjudico,  Lat.] 

I .  To  give  the  thing  controverted  to  one 

of  the  parties  by  a  judicial  fentence  ; 

with  the  particle  to  before  the  perfon. 

The  way  of  difputing  in  the  fchools  is  by  in- 
iifting  on  one  topical  argument  j  by  the  fuccefs 
of  which,  victory  is  adjudged  to  the  opponent, 
or  defendant.  Locke* 

The  great  competitors  for  Rome, 
Cxfar  and  Pompey,  on  Pharfalian  plains. 
Where  ftern  Bellona,  with  one  final  flroke, 
jtdjudg'd  the  empire  of  this  globe  to  one.  Ptillips. 

z.  To  ientence,  or  condemn  to  a  punifh- 
ment ;  with  to  before  the  thing. 

But  though  thou  art  adjudged  to  the  death  ; 
Yet  I  will  favour  thee  in  what  I  can.         Shakeff. 

3.  Simply,  to  judge ;  to  decree ;  to  de- 

He  adjudged  him  unworthy  of  his  friendfliip, 
purpofing  Hiarply  to  re\'enge  the  wrong  he  had  rc- 
ceivfd.  Kncllcs. 

rsADJU'DICATE.  -v. a.  [adjudico,  Lat.] 
To  adjudge  ;  to  give  fomething  contro- 
verted to  one  of  the  litigants,  by  a  fen- 
tence or  decifion. 

A  D  J  u  D I  c  a't  I  o  n  .  h.  /  [adjudicatio,  Lat.  ] 
The  aft  of  j  lodging,  or  of  granting 
fomething  to  a  litigai^t,  by  a  judicial 

To  A'djuoate.  'V.  a.  [adjugo,  Lat.]  To 
yoke  to ;  to  join  to  another  by  a  yoke. 

A'djument.  ». /.  \_adjumentum,  Lat.] 
Help  ;  fupport.  DiS. 

A'DJUNCT.  n.f.   [adju>i3um,  Lit.] 
I.  Something  adherent  or  urtited  to  an- 
otixer,  though  not  e^entially  part  of  it. 

A  D  J 

Leirn'mg  is  but  tt\  adjunff  to  ourfelf. 
And  where  wc  arc,  our  learning  likewife  is*     Shak. 

But  1  make  hafte  to  connder  you  as  ab(lra£)ed 
from  a  court,  which  (if  you  will  give  me  leave  to 
ufe  a  term  of  logick)  is  only  an  adjunSi)  not  a 
propriety,  of  happincfs.  Dryden, 

The  talent  of  difcretion,  in  its  feveral  adjunHs 
and  circumftances,  is  no  where  fo  ferviccable  as  to 
the  clergy.  Snvift. 

2.  A  perfon  joined  to  another.  This  fenfe 
rarely  occurs. 

He  made  him  the  aObciate  of  his  heir-apparent, 
together  with  the  lord  Cottington  (as  an  adjurd 
of  fingular  experience  and  truft)  in  foreign  travels, 
and  in  a  bufinefs  of  love.  fVofton. 

A'djunct.  adj.  United  with;  imme- 
diately confequent. 

So  well,  that  what  you  bid  me  undertake. 
Though  that  my  death  were  adjunli  to  my  afl, 
I'd  do  "t.  Sbakefp.  King  John, 

Adju'nction.  n.f.   \adjun3io,  Lat.] 

\ .  The  aft  of  adjoining,  or  coupling  to- 

2.  The  thing  joined. 

Adju'nctive.  n./.  [adjunSi'vut,  Lat.] 

r.  He  that  joins. 

2.  That  which  is  joined. 

Adjura'tion.  n.f.    [ae/juratio,  hat.] 

1 .  The  aft  of  adjuring,  or  propofing  an 
oath  to  another, 

2.  The  form  of  oath  propofed  to  another. 

When  thefe  learned  men  faw  ficknefs  and  frenzy 
cured,  the  dead  raifed,  the  oracles  put  to  filence, 
the  dxmons  and  evil  fpirits  forced  to  confefs  tfiem- 
felvcs  no  gods,  by  perfons,  who  only  made  ufe  of 
prayer  and  adjurations  in  the  name  of  their  cruci- 
fied Saviour  ;  how  could  they  doubt  of  their  Sa- 
viour's power  on  the  like  occafions  ? 

Mdifm  on  the  Cbrifiian  Religion. 
To   ADJU'RE.    -v.  a.    [adjuro,    Lat.]     To 
impole  an  oath  upon  another,  prefcrib- 
ing  the  form  in  which  he  (hall  fwear. 

Thou  know'ft,  the  magiftrates 
And  princes  of  my  country  came  in  perfon. 
Solicited,  commanded,  threaten'd,  urg'd, 
jidjur'd  by  all  the  bonds  of  civil  duty. 
And  of  religion,  prcfs'd  how  juft  it  was, 
How  honourable.  MiJton. 

■    'Ve  lamps  of  heaven  !  he  faid,  and  lifted  high 
His  hands  now  free,  thou  venerable  Iky  ! 
Ye  facred  altars !  from  whofe  flames  1  fled. 
Be  all  of  vou  adjured.  Dryden. 

To  ADJU'ST.  'V.  a.   \adj after,  Fr.] 

1.  To  regulate  ;  to  put  in  order  ;  to  fettle 
in  the  right  form. 

Your  Lordlhip  removes  all  cur  difliculties,  and 
fupplies  all  our  wants,  fafter  than  the  mod  vi- 
fionary  projector  can  adjujl  his  fchemes.       Siuift. 

2.  To  reduce  to  the  true  ftate  or  Itandard  ; 
to  make  accurate. 

The  name's  of  mixed  modes,  for  the  moft  part, 
want  llaniiards  in  nature,  whereby  men  may  re^ify 
and  adjufi  their  fignification  \  therefore  they  an- 
very  various  and  doubrfu'.  Locke. 

3.  To  make  conformable.  It  requires  the 
particle  to  before  the  thing  to  wliich  the 
conformity  is  made. 

As  to  the  accomplilhment  of  this  remarkable 
prophecy,  whoever  reads  the  account  given  by  Jo- 
iephus,  without  knowing  his  charadte.,  and  com- 
pares it  with  what  our  Saviour  foretold,  would 
think  the  hiftorian  had  been  aChrlft'an,  and  that 
he  had  nothing  elfe  in  view,  but  to  adjufi  the  event 
to  the  prediAion.  jiddif  n. 

Adju'stment.  n.f.  [adjiiftement,  Fr.] 
I.  Regulation;  the  aft  of  putting  in  me- 
thod ;  fcttlement. 

The  farther  and  clearer  adjufiment  of  this  affair, 
I  am  conftraincd  to  adjourn  to  the  larger  treatife. 




2.  The  ftate  of  being  put  In  method,  or 

It  is  a  vulgar  idea  we  have  of  a  watch  or  cloclc, 
when  we  conceive  of  it  as  an  inftrument  made  to 
Ihew  the  hour  :  but  it  is  a  learned  idea  which  the 
watch-maker  has  of  it,  who  knows  all  the  feveral 
parts  of  it,  together  with  the  various  connexions 
and  adjufimentt  of  each  part.  ff^aiti't  Logiik, 

A'djutant.  n.  /.  A  petty  officer,  whofe 
duty  is  to  ainit  the  major,  by  diftribut- 
ing  the  pay,  and  overfeeing  the  punilh- 
ment,  of  the  common  men. 
To  ADJU'TE.  1*.  a.  [adju-vo,  adjufum, 
Lat.]  To  help  ;  to  concur  :  a  word  not 
now  in  ufe. 

For  there  be 
Six  bachelors  as  bold  as  he, 
j^juting  to  his  company  ; 
And  each  one  hath  his  livery. 

BenJonftM't  Undervioods, 

Adju'tor.  »./  [aJJutor,  Lit.]  A  helper. 


Adju'tory.  ad;,  [ad/uteriiu.  Lit.]  That 

which  helps.  Di^. 

Adju'trix.  »./  [Lat.]   She  who  helps. 

A'djuvant.  adj.  [adjwvant.  Lit.]  Help, 
ful  ;  ufeful.  Dia. 

To  A'djuvate.  o;.  a.  [adjwvo,  Lat.]  To 
help;  to  further;  to  put  forward. 


Admb'asuremEnt.  n. /.  [See  Mea- 
sure.] The  adjuftment  of  proportions  ; 
the  aft  or  praftice  of  meafuring  accord- 
ing to  rule. 

Admeajurement  is  a  writ,  which  lieth  for  the 
bringing  of  thofe  to  a  mediocrity,  that  afutp  more 
thai!  their  part.  It  lieth  in  two  cafes  :  one  is 
termed  admeajurement  of  dower,  where  the  widow 
of  the  deceafed  holdethfrom  the  heir,  or  his  guar- 
dian, more  in  the  name  of  her  dower,  than  bc- 
longeth  to  her.  The  other  is  admeujurement  of 
pafture,  which  lieth  between  thofe  that  have  com- 
mon of  paliure  appendant  to  their  freehold,  or 
common  by  vicinage,  in  cafe  any  one  of  them,  or 
more,  do  furcharge  the  common  with  more  cattle 
than  they  ought.  Ccwd/m 

In  fome  counties  they  are  not  ipuch  acquainted 
\fhh  admeafuremnl  by  acre;  and  thereby  the  writs 
contain  twice  or  thrice  fo  many  acres  mure  than 
the  land  hath.  Bacon* 

Admensu  R  a'tion.  n.f.  [ad ind menfura, 
Lat.]  The  aft,  or  praftice,  of  meafuring 
out  to  each  his  part. 
Admi'nicle.  n.f.    [adminicuhm,  Lat.] 
Help  ;  fupport ;  furtherance.  DiS. 

Admi  Ni'cuLAR.     adj.    [from   adminicu- 
lum,h<iX.]  That  which  gives  help.  Diff. 
To  ADMl'NISTER.  -v.   a.     [adminifro, 

1.  To  give  ;  to  afford  ;  to  fupply. 

I.ct  zephyrs  bland 
Adminifler  y       ■  tepid  genial  airs  ; 
Naught   fear  i.c  from   the   welt,    whofe  gentle 

Difdofes  well  the  earth's  all-tceming  womb. 


2.  To  aft  as  the  minifter  or  agent  in  an^r 
employment  or  office  ;  generally,  but 
not  always,  with  fome  hint  of  fubordi- 
nation  :  as,  to  adminifter  the  govern- 

For  forms  of  government  let  fools  contefl, 
Whate'er  is  beft  adninifler'd,  is  bell-.  Pofe, 

3.  To  adminiller  juflicej  to  diflribute 

4.  To 


4.  To  admlnifter  the  facraments,  to  dlf- 
penfe  them. 

Have  not  they  the  old  popifh  cuftom  of  adtrini- 
Jl'ring  the  bleiTcd  facrament  of  the  holy  eucharift 
with  wafer-cakes  ?  Hosier. 

5.  To  adminifter  an  oath  ;  to  propofe  or 
require  an  oath  authoritatively  ;  to  ten- 
der an  oath. 

Swear  by  the  duty  that  you  owe  to  heav'n. 
To  keep  the  oath  that  wc  adminifter,     Shakefpeare. 

6.  To  adminifler  phyfic  j  to  give  pnyfic 
as  it  is  wanted. 

1  was  carried  on  men's  ihoulders,  adminijlering 
phylick  and  phlebotomy.  Wafcri  Voyage. 

7.  To  adminifter  to  ;  to  contribute  ;  to 
bring  fupplies. 

I  rouft  not  omit,  that  there  is  a  fountain  rifing 
in  the  upper  part  of  my  garden,  which  forms  a 
little  wandering  rill,  and  adminiflirs  to  the  pleafure, 
as  well  as  the  plenty,  of  the  place.  SpeSItitor. 

8.  To  perform  the  office  of  an  adrainiftra- 
tor«  in  law.    See  Aoministrator. 

Neal's  order  was  never  performed,  becaufe  the 
executors  durft  not  adminijler. 

•Arbuthnot  and  Pope, 

To  Admi'nistrate.  1/.  «.  \adminiftro, 
Lat.]  To  exhibit ;  to  give  as  phyfick. 
Not  in  ufe. 

They  have  the  fame  effefts  in  medicine,  when 
inwardly  admtmjirated  to  animal  bodier. 


Administra'tion.  n.f.  [aJminiftratio, 


1.  The  aft  of  adminiflering  or  condufting 
any  employment  ;    as,    the  condufting 

.     the  public  affairs  ;  difpenling  the  laws. 

I  then  did  ufe  the  perfon  of  your  fjther ; 
The  image  of  his  power  lay  then  in  me  : 
And  in  th'  admtn'ijl ration  oi  \\\i  law, 
While  I  was  bufy  for  the  commonwealth. 
Your  highnefs  pleafcd  to  forget  my  place. 


In  the  rtiort  time  of  hii  adminjftratiottt  he  ihone 
fo  powe- fully  upon  me,  chat,  like  the  heat  of  a 
RuQian  fummer,  he  ripened  the  fruits  of  poetry  in 
a  cold  clima'c.  Dry'dtti, 

2.  The  aftive  or  executive  part  of  govern- 

It  may  pafi  for  a  maxim  in  ftate,  that  the  ad- 
miniftrai'um  cannot  be  placed  in  too  few  hands,  nor 
the  legiflature  in  too  many.  Stvift, 

3.  Colleftively,  thofe  to  whom  the  care 
of  public  affairs  is  committed  ;  as,  the 
adminiftration  has  been  oppofed  in  par- 

4.  Dillribution  ;  exhibition  ;  difpenfation. 

There  is,  in  facraments,  to  be  obferved  their 
force,  and  their  form  of  adminifiratioH,  Hocker, 
By  the  univerfal  admini/lrathn  of  grace,  begun 
by  our  blelTed  Siviour,  enlarged  by  his  apoftles, 
carried  on  by  their  iromediaic  fuccefTors,  and  to 
be  completed  by  the  reft  to  the  wo-ld's  end  j  all 
types  that  darkened  this  faith  are  enlig'itcned. 

•Sprat's  St-rm'jnt, 

Administrative.   aJj.  [from  admini- 

ftraie.'\     That  which  adminillers;  that 

by  which  any  one  adminillers. 

Aduinistra'tor.    n.f,    \adminiflrator , 

1.  Is  properly  uken  for  him  that  has  the 
goods  of  a  man  dying  inteftate  com- 
mitted to  his  charge  by  the  ordinary, 
and  is  accountable  for  the  fame,  when- 
ever  it  fhail  pleafe  the  ordinary  to  call 
upon  him  thereiinto.  Conuell. 

He  was  wonderfully  diligent  to  enquire  and  ob- 
ferve  what  became  of  the  king  of  Arragon,  in 
hoUijig  Che  kingdom  of  Caftille,  and  whether  he 


did  hold  It  in  his  own  right,  or  as  admmfirator  to 
his  daughter.  Bacon's  Henry  VH. 

2.  He  that  officiates  in  divine  rites. 

I  feel  my  confclence  bound  to  remember  the 
tleath  of  Chrift,  with  fome  fociety  of  Chriftians  or 
other,  Cnce  it  is  a  moft  plain  command  j  whether 
the  perfon,  who  diftributes  thcfe  elements,  be 
only  an  occafional  or  a  fettled  adminijfrator. 


3.  He  that  condufts  the  government. 

The  rcfidence  of  the  prince,  or  chhf  adttiim^ra- 
ror  of  the  civil  power.  Sioift, 

Admi'nistr ATRix.  ti, /.    [Lat.]      She 
who  adminillers  in   confequence   of   a 
Administra'torship.  n.f.    [from  «^- 
miniftrator,'\     The  office  of  adminiHra- 
Admirabi'lity.  n,f.  \admirabilis,  Lat. ] 
The  quality  or  ftate  of  being  admira- 
ble. Dia, 
A'dmirable.    adj.     [admirabilis,    Lat.] 
To  be  admired  ;,  worthy  of  admiration  ; 
of  power  to  excite  wonder  :  always  ta- 
ken in  a  good  fenfe,  and  applied  either 
to  perfons  or  things. 

The  more  power  he  hath  to  hurt,  the  more  ad- 
m'lrakle  is  his  praife,  that  he  will  not  hurt. 

God  was  with  them  in  all  their  adiiitions,  and, 
at  length,  by  working  their  admirable  deliverance, 
did  teftify  that  they  ferved  him  not  in  vain. 


What  admiraili  things  occur  in  the  remains  of 

feveral   other   phllofophers  !    Short,   I  conftfs,  of 

the  rules  of  chriftianity,   but  generally  above  the 

lives  of  chriftians.  Soutb'i  Sermotii. 

You  can  at  moft 
To  an  indiff  rent  lover's  praife  pretend  : 
But  you  would  fpoil  an  admirible  friend.     Drydin. 
A'dmirableness.  n,/.  [from  admirable.'] 
The  quality  of  being  admirable  ;   the 
power  of  raifing  wonder. 
A'dmirablv.    adni,      [from   admirable.] 
So  as  to  raife  wonder ;  in  an  admirable 

The  theatre  is  the  moft  fpacious  of  any  I  ever 
faw,  and  fo  admirably  well  contrived,  that,  from 
the  very  depth  of  the  ftage,  the  loweft  found  may 
be  heard  diftin£tly  to  the  fart  he  ft  part  of  the  au- 
dience, as  in  a  whifpering  place  j  and  yet,  raife 
your  voice  as  high  as  you  pleafe,  there  is  nothing 
like  an  echo  to  caufe  the  leaft  crmfufion.     Mdifcr.. 

A'DMIRAL.  ».  y:  [amiral,  Fr,  of  un. 
certain  etymology.] 

1.  An  officer  or  magiftrate  that  has  the 
government  of  the  king's  navy,  and  the 
hearing  and  determining  all  caufes,  as 
well  civil  as  criminal,  belonging  to  the 
fea.  Coxuell. 

2.  The  chief  commander  of  a  fleet. 

He  alfo,  in  battle  at  fea,  overthrew  Rcdericuj 
Rotundus,  admiral  of  Spain,  in  which  fight  the 
admiral,  with  his  fon,  were  both  flain,  and  feven 
of  his  gallies  taken.  Knolles. 

Make  the  fea  (nine  with  gallantry,  and  all 
The  Englilh  youth  (lock  to  tUc'n  admiral.    fVaikr. 

3.  The  fhip  which  carries  the  admiral  or 
commander  of  the  fleet. 

The  admiral  galley,  wherein  the  emperor  him- 
fclf  Wis,  by  great  mifchance,  ftruck  upon  a  fand. 


A'dmiralship.  ».  /  [from  admiral.] 
The  office  or  power  of  an  admiral. 

A'dmi  RALTY.  11./.  [amiraulle,  Fr.]  The 
power,  or  officers,  appointed  for  the  ad- 
miniftration of  naval  affairs. 

Aumira'tion,  a./,  [admiralio,  Lat.] 


1.  Wonder;  the  aifl  of  admiring  or  won- 

Indu'd  with  human  voice,  and  human  fenfe, 
Reafonjng  to  admiration.  Milton* 

The  paftions  always  move,  and  therefore,  con- 
fequently,  pleafe ;  for,  without  motion,  there  can 
be  no  delight :  which  cannot  be  confidercd  but  as 
an  aftive  palfion.  When  we  view  tho^  elevated 
ideas  of  nature,  the  refult  of  that  view  M  admira~ 
tioit,  which  is  always  the  caufe  of  pleafure. 


There  is  a  pleafure  in  admiration,  and  this  is 
that  which  properly  caufeth  admiration,  when  we 
difcover  a  great  deal  in  an  objedl  which  we  un- 
derftand  to  be  excellent}  and  yet  we  fee,  we  know 
nn  how  much  more  beyond  that,  which  our  un- 
derftandings  cannot  fully  reach  and  comprehend. 


2.  It  is  taken  fometimes  in  a  bad  fenfe, 
though  generally  in  a  good. 

Your  boldnefs  I  with  admiration  fee  ; 
What  hope  had  you  to  gain  a  queen  like  me? 
Becaufe  a  hero  forc'd  me  once  away. 
Am  I  thought  lit  to  be  a  fecond  prey  ?       Dryden, 
To  ADMI'RE.    v.  a.    [admiro,  Lat.  ad- 
mirer, Fr.] 

1 .  To  regard  with  wonder :  generally  in 
a  good  fenfe. 

'Tis  here  that  knowledge  wonders,  and  there  is 
an  admiration  that  is  not  the  daughter  of  igno- 
rance. This  indeed  ftupidly  gazeth  at  the  un- 
wonted effe&  i  but  the  philofophic  paftion  truly 
admires  and  adores  the  fup.cme  efficient. 


2.  It  is  fometimes  ufed,  in  more  familiar 
fpeech,  for  to  regard 'vtith  lo've. 

3.  It  is  ufed,  but  rarely,  in  an  ill  fenfe. 

You  have  difplac'd  the  mirth,  broke  the  good 
With  moft  admir'd iiCorder.         Shakefp.  Macbeth. 

To  Admi're.  'v.n.    To  wonder  J  fome- 
times with  the  particle  at. 

The  eye  is  already  fo  perfect,  that  I  believe  the 
reafon  of  a  man  would  eafily  have  refted  here,  and. 
admird  at  his  own  contrivance.  Ray  on  the  Creation. 
Admi'rer.  71,/,   [from  admire.] 

1.  The   perfon   that  wonders,  or  regard* 
with  admiration. 

Neither  Virgil  nor  Horace  would  have  gained 
fo  great  reputation,  had  they  not  been  the  friends 
and  admirers  of  each  other.  Addijoti. 

Who  moft  to  (hun  or  hate  mankind  pretend. 
Seek  an  admirer,  or  would  lix  a  friend.  Pope. 

2,  In  common  fpeech,  a  lover. 
AoMi'  [from  admire,]  With 

admiration  ;  in  the  manner  of  an   ad- 

The  king  very  lately  fpoke  of  him  admiringly 
and  mournfully.    Sbakrfp.  All's  ivelltbatendsivill. 

We  may  yet  further  admiringly  obfervc,  that  men 

ufually  give  frcelieft  where    they  have  not  given 

before.  Boyle* 

Admi'ssible.    adj.     [admitio,    admijfum,. 

Lat.]    That  which  may  be  admitted. 

Suppofe  that  this  fuppofition  were  admijfible,  yet 
this  would  not  any  way  be  inconliftent  with  the 
eternity  of  the  divine  nature  and  e(rence. 

Hale's  Origin  of  Mankind^ 
Admt'ssion.   n.f,   [admi^o,  L3.t.] 

1 .  The  aft  or  praftice  of  admitting. 

There  was  alfo  enacted  that  ciiaritable  law,  for 
the  admi£ion  of  poor  fuitors  without  fee  ;  whereby 
poor  men  became  rather  able  to  vex,  than  unable 
to  fue.  Bacon's  Henry  VII* 

By  means  of  our  folitary  (ituation,  and  our  rare 
admf£ion  of  ftrangers,  wc  know  molt  part  of  the 
habrtable  world,  and  arc  ourfclves  unknown. 

Bacon's  Ne^u  Atalantii . 

2.  The  ftate  of  being  admitted. 

My  father  faw  you  ill  deligns  purfue ; 
A«d  jny  admillm  fljow'd  his  feat  of  you.  Dryden. 




Cri  «iid  tlwn  tjcrcife  man's  hopts  with  the  ex- 
pcfijiions  of  a  btttcr  paruJifi',  or  i  more  intimitr 
^dmij/icK  to  himfelf.  Staib't  Strmeni. 

Our  kin;  defcendi  from  Jove  i 
Aod  hither  are  we  come  by  bis  command, 
To  crave  iutwtjjittt  in  your  happy  land.         Dryden, 

3.  Admittance  ;  the  power  of  entering,  or 
being  admitted. 

All  finings  have  fome  degt«  of  heat,  none  ever 
freezing,  no  not  in  the  longeft  and  fevereft  frofts ; 
efpeclally  thofe,  where  there  is  fuch  a  fite  and  dif- 
pofition  of  the  ftrata  as  gives  free  and  cafy  ad- 
mffan  to  this  heat.      WixdiUard'%  Natural  IliJIoiy. 

4.  {In  the  ecclefiaftical  law.]  It  is,  when 
the  patron  prefents  a  cierk  to  a  church 
that  is  vacant,  and  the  bi(hop,  upon 
examination,  admits  and  allows  of  fuch 
clerk  to  be  fitly  qualified,  by  faying, 
AJmitto  ie  habilem.       Ayliffe' s  Parergon. 

5.  The  allowance  of  an  argument ;  the 
grant  of  a  pofition  not  fully  proved. 

To  ADMI'T.  1'.  a.  [aJmitto,  Lat.] 

1.  To  fuifer  to  enter  ;  to  grant  entrance. 

Mirth,  admit  me  of  thy  crew.  Milton. 

Does  not  one  table  Bavius  ftill  cdmit  T        Pipe. 

9.  To  fufFer  to  enter  upon  an  office  ;  in 
which  fenfe  the  phrafe  of  admijpon  into  a 
eollege.  Sec.  is  ufed. 

The  trcafurcr  found  it  no  hard  matter  fo  far  to 
terrify  hiiri,  that,  for  the  king's  fervice,  as  was 
pretended,  he  admitted,  for  a  fix-clerk,  a  pcrfcn 
recommended  by  him.  C/arindm. 

3.  To  allow  an  argument  or  pofition. 

Suppofe  no  weapon  can  thy  valour's  pride 
Subdue,  that  by  no  force  thou  may'ft  be  won, 
jUmt  no  ftcel  can  hurt  or  wound  thy  fide, 
And  be  it  hcav'n  bath  thee  fuch  favour  done. 

This  argument  is  like  to  have  the  lefs  effcit  on 
tne,  feeing  I  cannot  eafily  admit  the  inJcrence. 


4.  To  allow,  or  grant  in  general  j  fome- 
times  with  the  particle  of. 

If  you  once  admit  if  a  latitude,  that  thoughts 
may  be  exalted,  and  images  raifed  above  the  life, 
that  leads  you  infenfibly  from  your  own  principles 
to  mine.  Drydtn. 

Admi'ttable.  adj.  \ixom  admit. "]  The 
perfon  or  thing  which  may  be  admitted. 
Btciufe  they  have  not  a  bladder  like  thofe  wc 
cfcf::rvein  others,  they  have  no  gall  at  all,  is  a  pa- 
rilogifm  not  admiitabli,  a  fallacy  that  nceis  not 
the  fun  to  fcatter  it.  Bmvn. 

The  clerk,  who  is  prcfcnted,  ought  to  prove  to 
the  bllhop,  that  he  is  a  deacon,  and  that  he  has 
orders  j  otherwife,  the  bifliop  is  not  bound  to  ad- 
mit him ;  for,  a>  the  law  then  ftood,  a  deacon  was 
4idmittatle.  yiynfe's  Parergon. 

Admi'ttance.  n.f.   [(rom  admit .'] 
1.  The   aft  of  admitting  ;    allowance  or 
permilTion  to  enter. 

It  cannot  enter  any  man's  conceit  to  think  it 
lawful,  that  every  man  which  Uilcth  .'hould  take 
upon  him  charge  in  the  church;  and  th-refbrc  a 
folemn  admittance  is  of  fuch  neceflity,  that,  without 
it,  there  can  be  no  church-polity.  Hooter. 

A»  to  the  admittance  of  the  weighty  elaftic  parts 
ef  the  air  into  the  blood,  through  the  coats  of 
the  veffels,*!  feems  contrary  to  experiments  upon 
deaJ  bodies.  jlrtuthnct  on  Alimentu 

i.  The  power  or  right  of  entering. 

■       If  I  do  line  one  of  their  hands .' — 'tis  gold 

Which  buys  admittarce.        Staieffeare'i  CymMint. 
Surely   a  daily  expectation  at  ihc  £jtc,  is  the 
readied  way  to  gain  admittance  into  the  houfc. 
_,  Souths  Sermons. 

There's  news  from  Bertran  ;  he  dcfircs 
Admittance  to  the  king,  and  criti  aloud, 
TJ»s  day  liaU  end  our  fears.  Dryden. 

There  are  fome  ideas  which  hitt  adp:!tt:!net  on^y 
through  one  fenfe,  which  is  peculiarly  adapted  to 
receive  them.  Loeie. 

J.  Cuftom,  or  prerogative,  of  being  ad- 
mitted to  great  perfons  :  a  fenfe  now 
out  of  ufe. 

Sir  John,  you  are  a  gentleman  of  excellent 
breeding,  of  great  admiilanci,  authentick  in  your 
place  and  perfon,  generally  allowed  for  your  many 
warlike,  couttllke,  and  learned  preparations. 


4.  Conceflion  of  a  pofition. 

Nor  could  the  Pythagorean  give  eafy  admittance 
thereto  j  for,  holding  that  fcparate  fouls  fuccef- 
fivcly  fupplied  other  bodies,  they  could  hardly  al- 
low the  raifiog  of  fouls  from  other  worlds. 

Btztvn's  Vulgar  Errours. 
To  Adui'x.  ni,  a.    [adnti/ceo,    Lat.]     To 

mingle  with  fometbing  elfe. 
Admi'xtion.  n.f.    [from  ezdtnix.]    The 
union   of  one    body  with    another,  by 
mingling  them. 

All  metals  may  be  calcined  by  ftrong  waters, 
or  by  admixtion  of  fait,  fulphur,  and  mercury. 


The  elements  at«  no  where  pure  in  thcfe  lower 
regions  ;  and  if  there  is  any  free  from  the  admix- 
tion of  another,  fure  it  is  above  the  concave  of  the 
moon.  Glanville. 

There  is  no  way  to  make  a  ftrong  and  vigorous 
powder  oi  faltpetre,  without  the  admixtion  of  ful- 
phur. Bmvns  Vulgar  Errct/n. 

Admi'xtore.  »./.  [from  admix.]  The 
body  mingled  with  another  ;  perhaps 
fometimes  the  aft  of  mingling. 

Whatever  acrimony,  or  amaritudr,  at  any  time 
redounds  in  it,  niuft  be  derived  from  the  admixture 
of  another  Iharp  bitter  fubftance. 

Harijey  en  Confumptions. 
A  mafs  which  to  the  eye  appears  to  be  nothing 
but  mere  finople  earth,  Ihall,  to  the  fmell  or  taftc, 
difcover  a  plentiful  a(/mixr«r?  of  fulphur,  alum,  or 
fome  other  mineral.  fVoodward's  Natural  Hijl-^ry. 
To  ADMO'NISH.  -v.  a.  {admoneo,  Lat.] 
To  warn  of  a  fault ;  to  reprove  gen- 
tly ;  to  counfel  againft  wrong  prac- 
tices ;  to  put  in  mind  of  a  fault  or  a 
duty  ;  with  the  particle  of,  or  againjl, 
which  is  more  rare  ;  or  the  infinitive 
mood  of  a  verb. 

One  of  his  cardinals,  who  better  knew  the  in- 
trigues of  aft'airs,  adm:n\Jixd  him  againji  that  un- 
ikilful  piece  of  ingenuity.  Decay  of  Piety. 

He  e/* their  wicked  ways 
Shall  them  admonip,  and  before  them  fet 
The  paths  of  righteoufnefs.  Milton. 

But  when  he  was  admowjhcd  by  his  fubjeCl  to 
defcerdf  he  came  down,  gently  cirdiiig  in  the  air, 
and  finglng,  to  the  ground.  Drydcii. 

Admo'nisher.  h.  /.  [from  admonijh.'] 
The  perfon  that  admoniflies,  or  puts 
another  in  mind  of  his  faults  or  duty. 

Horace  was  a  mild  admonijher  ;  a  court-fatirifl 
fit  for  the  gentle  times  of  Augudus.  Dryden. 

Admo'nishmsnt.  tt.  f.  \from admoniff}.'] 
Admonition  ;  the  notice  by  which  one 
is  put  in  mind  of  faults  or  duties  :  a 
word  not  often  ufed. 

But  yet  be  wary  in  the  ftudious  care.— 
—Thy  grave  admonijhments  prevail  with  me. 

Siakfpeare's  HetryV.  p,  i. 
To  th'  infinitely  Good  wc  owe 
Immortal  thanks,  and  his  admonijhment 
Receive,  with  folemn  purpofe  to  obfcrvc 
Immutably  his  fuv«rcign  will,  the  eud 
Of  what  we  are.  Milicn, 

Admoni'tion.    ».  f.     [aJmon'tio,  Lat.] 
The  hint  of  a  fault  or  duty  ;  counfel ; 
gentle  reproof. 
They  muft  give  our  teachers  leave,  for  the  laving 

ef  fouls,  to  intermingle  fometimes  with  othee 
more  neccfiary  thingr,  aJa-nition  concerning  thcfe 
not  unncccifaiy.  Ilcoitr. 

From  this  admonition  they  took  only  occafion  to 
redouble  their  fault,  and  to  ll':cp  again ;  fo  that, 
upon  a  fccond  and  third  admomticr,  they  had  no- 
thing to  plead  for  their  unfcalbnabl;  drowfinel";. 

Sc!irb*s  Sermons, 
Admoki'tioner.  n.f.  [from  adntenition.'] 
A  liberal  difpenfer  of  admonition  ;   a 
general  advifer.     A  ludicrous  term. 

Albeit  the  admtniticners  did  fcem  at  firft  to  lik* 
no  prcfciipt  form  of  prayer  .it  all,  but  thought  it 
the  bed  that  their  minifter  Jhould  always  be  left  at 
liberty  "to  pray,  as  his  own  difcrction  did  fcr\c, 
their  defender,  and  his  all'ociatcs,  have  fithence 
piopofcd  to  the  world  a  form  as  themfclves  did 
like.  Hooker, 

A  D  M  o'  N I T  o  R  Y .  adj.  [admotittoriuj,  Lat .  ] 
That  which  admonifhes. 

The  fcntence  of  reafun  is  either  mandatory, 
ihewing  what  muft  be  done  ;  or  elfe  permillive, 
declaring  only  what  may  be  done  j  or,  thirdly,  ad' 
monitory,  opening  what  is  the  moll  convenient  for 
us  to  do.  Hookir. 

Admurmur a'tion.  ft./,  [admurmtiro, 
Lat.]  The  aft  of  murmuring,  or  whif- 
pering  to  another.  Z)/.-7. 

To  Admo've.  v.  a.  \_admovco,  Lat.]  To 
bring  one  thing  to  another.  A  word 
not  in  ufe. 

if,  unto  the  powder  of  loadftone  or  iron,  wc  oif- 
m'-vc  the  north-pole  of  the  loadllooe,  the  powders, 
cr  fmall  divifions,  will  ercdt  and  conform  them- 
felves  thereto.  Brown's  Vulgar  Errcurs. 

Ado',  n.f.  [from   the  verb  to  do,  with  a 
before  it,  as  the  French  affaire,  from  i. 
I.  Trouble,  difficulty. 

He  took  Clitophoii  prifoner,  whom,  with  mucK 
ado,  he  keepeth  alive;  the  Helots  being  viKain- 
oufly  cruel.  Sidney, 

They  moved,  and  in  the  end  pcrfuaded,  with 
much  ado,  the  people  to  bind  themfelves  by  folemn 
oath.  Hooker, 

He  kept  the  borders  and  marches  of  the  pale 
with  much  adoj  he  held  many  parliaments,  wherein 
fundry  laws  were  made.  Sir  fohn  Davics, 

With  much  ado,  he  partly  kept  awake ; 
Not  fufTring  all  his  eyes  repofe  to  take.  '    Dryden, 

z.  Euftle  ;  tumult  ;  bufinefs  ;  fometimes 
with  the  particle  about. 

Let's  follow,  to  fi.e  the  end  of  this  ado,  Sbaiefp, 

All  this  ado  about  Adam's  fatherhood,  and   the 

greatnefs  of  its  power,  helps  nothing  to  cttablifh 

the  power  of  thofe  that  govern.  Locke, 

3.  It  has  a  light  and  ludicrous  fenfe,  im- 
plying more  tumult  and  (how  of  bufinefs, 
than  the  affair  is  worth  :  in  this  fenfe  it 
is  of  Lite  generally  ufed. 

I  made  no  more  ado,  but  to:ik  all  their  feven 
points  in  my  taigct,  thus.  S'.^ak./p.  Henry  IV. 

We'll  keep  no  great  ado^^^a  friend  or  two- 
It  m.iy  be  thought  wc  held  him  ca:elcfsly, 
Being  our  kinfman,  if  wc  revel  much.        Sbatefp, 

Come,  fays  Pufs,  without  any  more  ado,  'tis 
time  to  go  to  breakfafi ;  cats  don't  live  upon  dia- 
logues. L'EJtrange, 

Adolk'scence.  \n.f.  \adolefceiitia,  Lat.] 
Adole'scency.  i  The  age  fucceeding 
childhood,  and  fucceeded  by  puberty  ; 
more  largely,  that  part  of  life  in  wKich 
the  body  has  not  yet  reached  its  full  per- 

He  was  fo  far  from  a  boy,  that  he  was  a  man 
born,  and  at  his  full  ftaturc,  if  we  believe  Jofe, 
phus,  who  places  him  in  the  \i!i  adoUfuncy,  and 
makes  him  twenty-five  years  old.  Brown^ 

,  The  fons  muft  have  a  tedious  time  of  childhood 
and  aiolefccncc,  before  they  can  either  tiismftlves 



sflift  their  parents,  or  encourage  them  with  new 
hows  of  poflerity.  Beniley. 

To  ADCyPT.  %:  a.  {adopto,  Lat.] 

1,  To  take  a  fonby  choice  ;  to  make  him 
a  fon,  who  was  not  fo  by  bixth. 

Were  none  of  all  my  f»    ler's  fiftera  left; 
Navi  were  I  of  my  mother's  Icin  bereft; 
None  by  an  uncle's  or  a  grandame*s  Hcie, 
Yet  I  could  fome  adopted  heir  provide.      Drydcn. 

2.  To  place  any  perfon  or  thing  in  a  nearer 
relation,  than  tbey  have  by  nature,  to 
foraething  elfe. 

Whether,  ad<ff>ud  to  fomc  neighboring  ftar. 
Thou  roirft  above  us  in  thy  wand'ring  race. 

Or,  in  proceflion  fix'd  and  regular, 
Mov'd  with  the  hcav'ns  majellic  pace; 
Or  cdird  to  more  celeilial  blifs, 
Thou  trcad'ft,  with  leraphims,  the  vaft  abyfs. 


We  are  feldom  at  eafc  from  the  foUcitacion  of 
our  natural  or  adopted  delires  ;  but  a  conrtant  fuc- 
ccfiinn  of  uneafinclTes,  out  of  that  (lock,  which 
natural  wants,  or  acquired  habits,  have  heaped  up, 
take  the  will  in  their  turns.  L^cle. 

Ado'ptedlv.  a</i;.  [{rom  aJof ted.']  Af- 
ter the  manner  of  fomething  adopted. 

Ad'.ptfdly^  as  fchool-maids  change  their  names, 
By  vain,  though  apt,  aftcdion.  Sb^, 

Ado'pter.  71./.  [from  adopt.]  He  that 
gives  fome  one  by  choice  the  rights  of  a 

Ado'ption".  )i./.  [adoptio,  Lat.] 

1.  The  aft  of  adopting,  or  taking  to  one's 
felf  what  is  not  native. 

2.  The  ftate  of  being  adopted. 

My  bed  (hall  be  abufed,  my  reputation  gnawn 
at ;  and  I  fliall  not  only  receive  this  villainous 
wrong,  but  ftand  under  the  adoption  of  abominable 
terms,  anS  by  him  that  does  me  the  wrong. 

She  purpos'd, 
When  (he  had  fitted  you  with  her  craft,  to  work 
Her  fon  into  th'ijrf»/)/»)iof  the  crown.  SbaieJ'paire. 
In  every  att  of  our  Chriftian  worihip,  we  are 
taught  to  call  upon  him  under  the  endearing  cha- 
rafler  of  our  Father,  to  remind  us  of  our  adoption, 
that  we  are  made  heirs  of  God,  and  joint  heirs  of 
Chriil.  J?9jfm'j  Set^ons. 

Ado'ptive.  adj.   [adoplivtts,  Lat.] 

1.  He  that  is  adopted  by  another,  and 
made  his  fon. 

It  is  impnflible  an  cleftlvc  monarch  fhould  be  fo 
free  and  abfoiute  as  an  hereditary  ;  no  more  than 
it  is  poflible  for  a  father  to  have  fo  full  power  and 
in;ereft  in  an  adopii-vt  fon,  as  in  a  natural.      Bac.n. 

2.  He  that  adopts  another,  and  makes  him 
his  fon. 

An  adopted  fon  cannot  cite  bis  adoptive  father 

into  court,  without  his  leave.      Ayhffe's  Parcrgon. 

Ado'rable.  adj.   [adorable,  Fr.]      That 

which  ought  to  be  adored  ;  that  which 

IS  worthy  of  divine  honours. 

On  thefc  two,  the  love  of  God,  and  our  neigh- 
bour, hang  both  the  law  and  the  prophets,  fays 
the  adorable  Author  of  Chriftianity ;  and  the 
Apoftle  fajs,  the  end  of  the  law  is  charity.  Cheyne. 
Ado'r  ABLENESS.  n.  f.  [from  odoraLle.] 
The  quality  of  being  adorable  ;  wor- 
thinefs  of  divine  honours. 
Aoo'rably.  adii.   [from  adoraiie.]    In  a 

manner  worthy  of  adoration. 
AdOra'tion.   n./.    [adoratio,  Lit.] 
i.  The  external  homage  paid  to  the  Divi- 
nity, diftinft  from  mental  reverence. 

S>lemn  aad  ferviceable  worfhip  we  name,  for 

d.ftindion    /ake,    whatfoever    bclongeth    to    the! 

church,  or  publick  focicty,  of  Cod,  by  way  ot 

external  adoration.  Hooker.. 

It  is  poffible  to  fuppofe,  that  thofe  who  believe 

VO  L.   I. 


a  fupreme  excdlent  Being,  may  yet  ^ive  him  no 

i«t6rnal  adoration  at  all.  StillingJI.e'. 

2.  Homage  paid- to  perfons  in  kigh  place 
or  efteem. 
O  ceremony,  fltew  me  but  thy  worth : 

What  is  thy  tolli  O  ar/nriirij/;/ 
Art  thou  nought  elfe  but  place,  degree,  and  form, 
Creating  awe  and'  fear  in  other  men  ? 
Wherein  thou  art  lefs  happy,  being,  fear'd,: 
Than  they  in  fearing. 

What  drink'ft  thou  oft,  inftcad  of  homage  fweet, 
But  poifin'd  flattery  ?    .;    S kakefpeare't- Henry  V. 
To  ADO'RE.  -J.  a.    [adoro,  Lat.] 

1 .  To  worfhip  with  external  homage  ;  to 
pay  divine  honours.- 

The  mountain  nymphs  and  Themis  they  adore, 
And  from  her  oracles  relief  implore.  Dryden- 

2.  It  is  ufed,  popularly,  tO' denote  a  high 
degree  of  reverence  or  regard  ;  to  reve- 
rence ;  to  honour ;  to  love. 

The  people  appear  adorirtg  their  prince,' and  their 
prince  oi/ariBj  God.  T<r//fr,  N"  57. 

Make  future  times  thy  equal  aft  adore. 
And  be  what  brave  Orcflss  was  before. 

Pcpe^t  Odyffey. 
Ado'rement.  n.J".  [h&m  adore.l    Ado- 
ration ;  worfhip  :  a  word  fcarcely  ufed. 

The  priefts  of  elder  times  deluded  their  apprc- 
henCons  with  fouth-faying,  and  fuch  oblique  ido- 
latries, and  won  their  credulities  to  the  literal  and 
downright  edorement  of  cats,  lizards,  and  beetles. 
Brti'tunt  Vulgar  Errours. 
Ado'rer.   »./   [from  adore.] 

1 .  He  that  adores  ;  a  worfhippcr  ;  a  term 
generally  ufed  in  a  low  fenfe  ;  as,  by 
lovers,  or  admirers. 

Being  fo  far  provoked  as  I  was  in  France,  I 
would  abate  her  nothing  ;  though  I  profcfs  myfelf 
her  adorer,  not  her  friend.     Skahfpeare^t  Cymbdine. 

Whilft  as  th'  approaching  pageant  does  appear, 
And  echoing  crowds  fpeak  mighty  Venus  near ; 
I,  her  adorer,  too  devoutly  fland 
Fail  on  the  utmoft  margin  of  the  land.         Prior. 

2.  A  worfhipper  ;  in  a  ferious  fenfe. 

He  was  fo  levere  an  adorer  of  truth,  as  not  to 
dilfemble ;  or  to  fufrer  any  man  to  think  that  he 
would  do  any  thing,  which  he  refolved  not  to  do. 


To  ADO'RN.  1/.  a.   [adorno,  Latin.] 

1 .  To  drefs ;  to  deck  the  perfon  with  or- 

He  hath  clothed  me  with  the  garments  of  falva- 
tion,  he  hath  covered  me  with  the  robcof  rjghteouf- 
nefs,  as  a  bridegroom  dcckcth  hiinfelf  with  orna- 
ments, and  as  a  bride  adornctb  hcrfelf  with  her 
jewels.  ljeiah,\x\.  10. 

Vet  'tis  not  to  adprn  and  gild  each  part, 
That  Ihcws  more  coft  than  art ; 
Jewels  at  nofc  and  lips,  but  ill  appear.         Cvzvfey. 

2.  To  fet  out  any  place  or  thing  with  de- 

A  gallery  adorned  with  the  piftures  or  ftatues  ot 
the  invention  of  things  ufeful  to  human  life.  Citvley, 

3.  To  embellifh  with  oratory  or  elegance 
of  language. 

I'liis  will  fupply  men's  tongues  with  many  new 
things,  to  be  named,  adorned,  ind  dcfcribcd,  in 
their  difcourfc.  Sprat. 

Thoufands  there  arc  in  darker  fame  that  dwell, 
Whofe  names  fome  nobler  poem  (hall  adorn  j 
For,  tho'  unknown  to  me,  tlicy  fure  fought  well. 


Ado'rn.  adj.  [from  the  verb.]  Adorned; 
decorated  :  a  word  peculiar  to  Milton.  ' 

She'll  to  realities  yield  all  her  (hows, 

Made  fo  adorn  for  thy  delight  the  more.     Milton. 

Ado'rkmHnt.  n./.  [from  adorn.]    Orna-| 

nient ;   embelliihment ;   elegance  :    not 

now  in  ufe. 

This  attribute  waj  not  givjn  to  tJie  earth,  while 

A  D  V 

!t  was  confufed  ;  nor  to  the  heavens,  before  they 
had  motion  and  ador/jment. 

Raleigh's  Hi/lory  of  the  IVorld. 
She  held  the  very  garment  of  Hofthumus  in  moi-e 
refpeft  than  my  nobb  and  natural  perfon,  together 
with  the  adornment  of  my  qualities. 

Skakejpeare's  Cymbeline. 
Ado'wn.  ad'v.  [from  a  and  donx/n.]  Down  ;. 
on  the  ground. 

Thrice  did  (he  fink  hdoivn  in  deadly  found. 
And  thrice  he  her  rcviv'd  with  bufy  pain. 

Fitiry  ^een, 
Ado'wn.     prep.        Down;    towards    the 
ground  j  from   a   higher   fituation  to* 
wards  a  lower. 

In  this  remembrance  Emily  ere  day 
Arofe,  and  drefs'd  herfelf  in  rich  array; 
Fre(H  as  the  month,  and  as  the  morning  fair, 
Adotvn  her  fhouldcrs fell  her  lengthof  hair,  Drydeiti. 
Adre'ad.  adii.    [from  a  and  dread -y  as, 
ajide,  athirji,  ajleep.]     In  a  ftate  of  fear  ; 
frighted  ;  terrified  :  now  obfolete. 

And  thinking  to  make  all  men  adreadto  fuch* 
one  an  enemy.,  who  would  not  fparc,  nor  fear  to 
kill  (b  great  a  prince.  Sidney, 

Adri'ft.  adhi.  [from  a  and  drift,  from 
drive.]  Floating  at  random  i.  as  any 
impulfe  may  drive 

Then,  (hall  this  m«unt 
Of  paradife,  by  might  of  wares,  be  mov'd 
Out  of  his  place,  puih'd  by  the  horned  Hood; 
With  all  his  verdure  fpoii'd,  and  trees  adrift 
Down  the  great  river,  to  tlie  opening  gulf, 
And  there  take  root.  Mi!t9n% 

It  feem'd  a  corps  adrift  to  didant  fight ; 
But  at  a  diftance  who  could  judge  aright .'  Dryden, 

The  cuftom  of  frequent  refleftion  will  keep 
their  minds  from  running  adrift,  and  call  their 
thoughts  home  from  ufelcfs  unattentive  roving. 

Loche  on  Educatioftf 

JDRO'ir.  adj.  [French.]  Dextrous  j 
aftive  ;  fkilful. 

An  adroit  ftout  fellow  would  fometimes  deftroy 
a  whole  family,  with  juftice  apparently  againft 
him  the  whole  time.  Jervat'i  Don  ^itixote. 

Adroi'tness.  ».y;  [from  adroit.]  Dex- 
terity }  readinefs ;  aftivity.  Neither 
this  word,  nor  adroit,  feem  yet  com- 
pletely naturalized. 

Adry'.  adii.  [from  a  andi  dry .]  Athirft; 
tbirfty  ;  in  want  of  drink. 

He  never  told  any  of  them,  tlial  he  was  hia 
humble  fcrvant,  but  his  well-wi(hcr  ;  and  would 
rather  be  thought  a  malecontcnr,  than  drink  the 
king's  health  when  he  was  not  adry.         SpeElator. 

Adsciti'tious.  adj.  [adj'citittus,  Lat.] 
That  which  is  taken  in  to  complete 
fomething  elfe,  though  originally  ex- 
trinfick  ;  fupplemental ;  additional. 

Adstri'ction.  n.  f.  [adJiriSio,  Lat. J 
The  aft  of  binding  together ;  and  ap- 
plied, generally,  to  medicaments  and 
applications,  which  have  the  power  of 
making  the  part  contraft. 

To  ADVA'NCE.  rv.  a.   [avancer,  Fr.] 

1.  To  bring  forward,  in  the  local  fenfe. 

Now  morn,  her  rofy  fteps  in  th'  cadern  clime 
Advancing,  fow'd  the  earth  with  orient  pearl. 


2.  To  raife  to  preferment ;  to  aggrandize. 

He  hath  been  ever  conftant  in  his  courfe  of  ad., 
vancing  me ;  from  a  private  gentlewoman  he 
made  me  a  marchionefs,  and  from  a  marchlonefs  a 
queen  ;  and  now  he  intends  to  crown  my  innocency 
with  the  glory  of  martyrdom.  Bacon. 

The  declaration  of  the  greatnefs  of  Mordecai, 
whercunto  the  king  advanced  him.       EJihir,  x.  c, 

3.  To  improve 

What  lawi  caa  be  advifed  o»we  proper  and  ef. 
f  ftftual 

A.  D  V 

fcdual  to«/v«m  tJM  nature  of  nan  to  ittliighen' 
pcrfc£lion,  than  thcfc  f  reccpts  of  Chriftianicy  f 


4.  To  heighten ;  to  grace ;  to  give  luftrc  to. 

As  the  calling  dignifies  the  man^  io  the  man 
much  more  advancei  his    calling*      As   a    gar- 
ment, chough  it  warms  the  body,  has  a  return 
'    with  an  advantage,  being  mu(b  more  warmed  by 
It.  South' i  StrmQniM 

5.  'Xo  forward  ;  to  accelerate. 

Thefc  three  laft  were  flower  than  the  ordinary 
Indian  wheat  of  itfelf;  and  ihis  culture  did  rather 
retard  titan  tdiMiict,  Bacep. 

15.  To  propofe  ;  to  offer  to  the  pi^blick  ;  to 
■bring  to  view  or  notice. 

'PhL-don  1  hight,  quoth  hi:,  an4  do  adwinet 
My  ancefby  from  famous  Coradin.     Fairy  Sjitn. 
\  dare  not  advanu  my  opinion  ag.-^inll  the  judg- 
ment of  fo  great  an  author  ;  but  1  tlilnk  it  fair  to 
(cave  the  decifion  to  the  publick.  Drydrn. 

Some  ne^er  advame  a  judgment  of  their  own. 
But  catch  the  fp  eading  notion  of  the  town.   Ppfe. 
To  Adva'wce.   1;.  n. 
1.  To  come  forward. 

At  this  the  youth,  whofe  vent'rous  foul 
No  fears  of  maglcic  art  controul, 

Ath-anc*d  in  open  fight.  Fane}. 

%.  To  make  improvemen't. 

They  who  would  advance  in  knowledge,  and 
not  deceive  and  fwcll  thcmfelves  with  a  little  arti- 
culated air,  ihould  not  take  words  for  real  entities 
in  nature,  till  they  can  frame  clear  and  diliin£l 
ideas  of  tbofe  entities.  Locke. 

Adva'»ce.  »./   [from  To  advance.] 
I.  The  aft  of  coming  forward. 

All  the  foot  were  put  into  Abington,  with  a  re- 
folution  to  quit,  or  defend,  the  town,  according 
to  the  manner  of  the  enemy's  advance  towards  it. 


So,  like  the  fua*s  advance j  your  titles  fhow ; 
Which,  as  he  rifcs,  does  the  warmer  grow.     IValler. 

a.  A  tendency  to  come  forward  to  meet  a 
lover  ;  an  aft  oi  invitation. 

In  vain  are  all  the  pradis'd  wiles. 
In  vain  thofe  eyes  would  love  impart; 

Not  all  th'  advances,  aU  the  fmiles. 
Can  move  one  unrelenting  heart.  'ffa!Jh, 

His  genius  was  below 
The  &ill  of  cv'ry  common  beau ; 
Who,  though  he  cannot  ff^H,  is  wife 
i£nough  to  read  a  lady*s  eyes  j 
>nd  will  each  accidental  glance 
Jaterpret  for  a  kind  advance.  S-zvift 

He  has  defcribed  the  unworthy  paRion  of  the 
.goddefs  Calypfo,  and  the  indecent  advances  (ne 
made  to  detain  him  from  his  own  country.      Po/-e. 

That  prince  applied  h.mfell  ftrft  to  the  Church 
•f  England,  and  upon  their  let'ufal  to  fail  in  with 
his  meafures,  made  the  like  advanus  to  the  Dif- 
fenters.  Hwift. 

3.  Gradual    progreflion  ;    rife   from   one 
point  to  another. 

Our  Saviour  railed  the  ruler's  daughter,  the  wi- 
dow's fpn,  and  Laiarus)  the  firil  of  thefe,  when  <hc 
l^d  juil>)  j  the  fccond,  as  he  was  carriea  V) 
■tl)c  grave  an  his  bier;  and  lie  third,  after  lie 
■Veen  fome  time  buried.  And  having,  by  thefe 
.gradual  advances,  m;in:fefted  h.s  divine  pov,er,  lu' 
at  lallexe  :ed  the  hi^h.ll  and  molt  gbriuus  degree 
of  it;  and  laifcd  hnnfeifalfo  by  bis  own  all-quick-' 
.cning  viitue,  and  accord'.jjg  tj  his  own  exprefs  1  re-  .Auerhnry. 

M49  of  Ihidy  and  thought,  that  reafnn  ri^hr, 
and  arelovers  of  truth,  doniake  n9  great  <:</ir<in,rs 
in  tlipir  d.fcoveries  of  it.  Locke. 

.4.  Improvement ;    progrefc  towards  per  ; 

The  principle  and  oi>je£l  of  the  greared  impor- 
tance in  the  world  10  the  good  of  mankind,  and. for 
tne  adv.inif  and  pcrfi£ling  of  human  nature.    Ha!e. 
..Al>.YA'ii,CElvtE:NT.  n.f.   [a-vancemmt ,  Ft.] 
J.  The  aft  of  coming  forward. 

"Xikit    lefiocinFnt    luiti'-cs   diuljf   advaBtmunis, 

A  D  V 

and,  1  hope,  In  time,  will  raife  sur  language  to 
the  utmoft  perfc^ion.  Stvifr. 

2.  Theilateofbeingadvanced;  preferment. 

The  Percles  of  the  North 
Finding  his  ufurpation  moil  unjuil, 
Endeavour'd  my  advaxcemtnt  to  the  throne. 


3.  The  aft  of  advancing  another. 

In  bis  own  grace  he  doth  exalt  himlelf 
More  than  in  your  advancemcnf. 

Sbokcjpeare'i  King  Lear, 

4.  Improvement ;  promotion  to  a  higher 
ftate  of  excellence. 

Nor  can  wc  conceive  it  unwelcome  unto  thofe 
worthies,  who  endeavour  the  advancement  of  learn- 
ing. Brctun  i  Vulgar  Erroun. 

5.  Settlement  on  a  wife.     This  fenfe  is 
now  difufed. 

The  jointure  or  advancement  of  the  lady,  was  the 

third  part  of  the  principality  oi  Wales,         Bacon. 

Adva'ncer.  ft./,   [from  advance.]     He 

that  advances  any  thing  ;  a  promoter  ; 


Soon  after  the  death  of  a  great  officer,  who  was 
judged  no  advancer  of  the  king's  matters,  the  king 
faid  to  his  folicitor,  Tell  me  truly,  what  fay  you 
of  your  coufin  that  is  gone  ?  Bacon. 

'The  reporters  arc  greater  advancers  of  defama- 
tory deligns,  than  the  very  firft  contrivers. 

Government  of  the  Tongue. 

ADVA'NTAGE,  «./  [advantage,  Fr.] 

1.  Superiority  ;  often  with  of  or  over  be- 
fore a  perfon. 

In  the  pra^ical  prudence  of  managing  fiich  gifts, 
the  laity  may  have  fome  ad'vantage  over  the  clei^y  j 
whofe  experience  is,  and  ought  to  be,  lefs  of  this 
world  than  the  other.  Sprat, 

All  other  forts  and  fefls  of  men  would  evidently 
have  ths  ad-vantage  of  us,  and  a  much  furer  title 
to  happinefs  than  we.  Atterbury* 

2.  Superiority  gained    by   ilratagcra,    or 
unlawful  means. 

"The  common  law  hath  left  them  this  benefit, 
whereof  they  make  advantaget  and  wrert  it  to 
their  bad  purpofcs.  Sftnjer^i  State  bfjrtland. 

But  fpecialiy  he  took  advantage  of  the  night  for 
fuch  pr!vy  att-mpts,  infomuch  that  the  bruit  of 
hismanlinefs  was  fpread everywhere.  2  Af^atv.  viii.7. 

Great  malice,  backed  with    a    great    intercfl  j 

yet  can  h.jve  no  ada<antage  oi  a  man,  but  from  his 

own  cjtpcdlations  of-fomething  that  rs  without  him, 

Sautb^i  Sermnni, 

As  foon  as  he  was  got  to 'Sicily,  they  fent  for 
him  back  j  dcfigning  to  take  advantage,  and  pro- 
f.'cute  him  in  the  abfcnce  of  his  friends.       Swift, 

3.  Opportunity;  convenience. 

Give  me  adi.\.>2tage  of  fome  brief  difcourfe 
With  Defdfmona  alone.  Sbakefpeare, 

4.  Favourable  circumftances. 

Like  jewels  to  ad-vantage  fet, 
Her  beauty  by  the  ihadc  does  get.  fVulUr, 

A  f.;cc,  which  is  ovcr-fluihed,  appears  to  ad- 
vantage in  the  dcepefl  fcarlet ;  and  the  datkefl 
complexion  is  not  a  little  alleviated  by  a  black 
hood.  Addtjon, 

True  wit  is  nature  to  ad-uantage  drcfs*d, 
Wh.1t  oft  was  thought,  but  he'er  fo  well  exprefs'd. 

5.  Superior  excellence. 

A  man  born  with  fuch  advantage  of  conf^itu- 
tion,  that  it  adulterates  not  the  images  of  h'snalnd. 


.6.  Gain  ;  profit. 

Sot  tnuu  i^M\,  what  advantage  will  it  be  unto 

thee,  and  whatifrofit  ih^ll  I  hayc,  ifl  be  cicanfcd 

.from  my  fin  ?  ^ci. 

•Ceriain   it   is,  that  advantage  now  fits  in   the 

room  oi  conicience,  end  (leers  all. 

South's  Strmom^ 

7,   Overplas  ;  fomething  more  than  the 
mere  lawful  gain. 
Wo  owe  thee  much  }  within  this  waU  of  fleib 

A  D  V 

There  is  a  foul  counti  thee  her  creditor, 
Aui  with  advantage  means  to  pay  thy  love. 

Yo«  fa!d,  you  neither  lend  nor  borrow 
Upon  advantage.         Shakeff.  Merchant  of  Venice. 

8.  Preporideration  on  one  fide  of  the  com- 

Much  more  (hould  the    confideration    of  this 

fiattern  arm  us  with  patience  againft  ordinary  ca- 
amities ;  efpecially  if  we  confider  his  example 
with  this  advantage,  that  though  his  fufterings 
were  wholly  undefervcd,  and  not  for  himfcif  but 
for  us,  yet  he  bore  them  patiently.  Tillotjon. 

To  Adva'nt ACE.  f.  «j.  [from  the  noun.] 

1.  To  benefit. 

Convey  what  I  fet  down  to  my  lady  :  it  fhall 
advantage  rtsore  than  ever  the  bearing  of  letter 
did.  Hhakefpeare* 

The  trial  hath  endamag'd  thee  no  way. 
Rather  more  honour  left,  and  more  cfteem  ; 
Me  nought  advantag'd,  miffing  what  I  aim*d. 


The  great  bulincfs  of  the  fenfes  being  to  make 
us  take  notice  of  what  hurts  or  advantages  the 
body,  it  is  wifely  ordered  by  nature,  that  pain 
Ihould  accompany  the  reception  of  feveral  ideas. 


Wc  Ihould  have  purfued  fome  other  way,  more 
effectual,  for  dlltreffing  the  common  enemy,  and 
advantaging  ourfelves.  Swift. 

2.  To  promote ;  to  bring  forward ;  ta 
gain  ground  to. 

The  lloics  that  opinioned  the  fouls  of  wife  men 
dwelt  about  the  mocn,  and  thofe  of  fools  wander- 
ed about  the  earth,  advantaged  the  concert  of  this 
effe^.  Broivns  Vulgar  Errjurs. 

To  ennoble  it  with  the  fpirit  that  infpires  the 
Royal  Society,  were  to  advantage  it  in  one  of  the 
beft  capacities  in  which  it  is  improveablc. 

Clanville''s  Scepjii  Scientifca. 

Adva'ntageable.  adj.  [from  advan- 
tage.]   Piofitable  ;  convenient ;  gainfuL 

As  It  is  advantageahle  to  a  phyfician  to  be  call- 
ed to  the  cure  of  declining  difeafe,  fo  it  is  for  a 
commander  to  fupprefs  a  fedition  which  has  pair- 
ed the  height.  Sir  y.  Hayiiard, 
Adva'ntaced.  adj.  [from  To  advan- 
tage.] Poflefled  of  advantages  ;  com- 
modioufly  fituated  or  difpofed. 

In  the  muft  advantaged  tempers,  this  difpofition 
is  but  comparative ;  whereas  the  moil  of  men  la- 
bour under  difadvantagcs,  which  nothing  can  rid 
them  of.  Glanville. 

Adva'ntage-sround.  n.f.  Ground 
that  gives  fuperiority,  and  opportuni- 
ties of  ^Innoyance  or  refillance. 

This  excellent  man,  who  ftood  i)ot  upon  the 
adv.^niage-ground  before,  from  the  time  of  his 
promotion  to  the  archbifhoprick,  provoked  or  un- 
derwent the  envy,  and  reproach,  and  malice,  of 
men  of  all  qualities  and  conditions^  who  agreed 
in  nothing  eifc.  Clarendon. 

ADVANTA''cEOUS.aii)'.  [ezvoHtageux,  Fr.] 

1.  Of  advantage;  profitable;  ul'eful;  op- 
portune ;  convenient. 

The  time  of  Ccknefi,  or  afHiiflion,  is,  like  the 
co:j1  of  the  day  to  Adam,  a  feafon  of  peculiar  pro- 
priety for  the  voice  of  God  to  be  he  rd ;  and  may 
be  impr.ived  into  a  very  advantageous  opportunity 
of  begetting  or  increafing  fpiritual  Mfe.    Hamnattdt 

.    Here  perhaps 
Some  advantageous  ai5l  msy  be  achicvM 
By  fuddcn  onlet,  ciiKe,-  with  hell-tire 
To  wafte  his  wh^'le  creation;  or  polTefs 
All  as  our  own.  Milton. 

2.  It  is  uied  with  relation  to  perfons,  and 
followed  by  to. 

Since  every  painter  paints  himfeirin  his  own 

works,  His  advantageous  to  him  to  know  himfelf, 

to    the   end  that  he   may  cultivate   thofe  talents 

which  make  his  genius.  Dryden* 

AoVAMTA'ciOUSLlf.  <J</i/.  ^from  ad-van- 

I  tageoiis.\ 

A  D  V 

tagtcus.]    Coftveniently  ;  opportunely  ; 

it  was  ad-vaxtagnufiy  fituMeJ,  th«ie  boirtg  an 
faly  pifiage  from  it  to  India,  by  ll-a.  Arhutbnil. 
Advanta'ceousn'ess.  n. /.  [from  ad- 
-vantageous.]  Quality  of  being  advan- 
tageous ;  profirable^efs ;  ufefulnefs ; 

The  laft  property,  which  qualifies  Cod  for  the 
fitteft  objeft  of  our  love,  is  the  jd'VanuzMufnrf, 
of  hM  to  us,  both  in  th.  prefent  and  the  future 
»•     AV,rr-.»r^  B'yl''' Seraphic Lo-vc. 

To  ADVE'NE.  -v.  «.  [ad-^emc.  Lat.]  To 
accede  to  fortefhing  ;  to  become  part 
cffomethingeUe,  without  being  effen- 
tial ;  to  be  fuperadded. 

A  caofe  confiaercd  in  judicatnre,  is  ftilcd  an 
accident.)  caufe ;  and  the  accidental  o(  any  aO, 
i»  faid  to  be  whatever  ailvtms  to  the  aa  itfelf  al- 
ready lubUantiatad.  .  ^yliff,-!  P^rtrg^. 
Adve  KiENT.  (uij.  [ad-ueniens,  Lat.]  Ad- 
vening; coming  from  outward  caufes  ; 

Being  thus  divided  from  truth  in  ttemCelves, 
they  are  yet  farther  removed  by  d-vmni  decep- 
tion ;  for  they  are  dally  mocked  Into  errour  by 
fubt,er  dcvifers.  Brnun',  Vulgar  Errourl. 

If  to  fuppofe  tlie  foul  a  diftinft  fubft.mce  from 
the  body,  and  extrlnHcally  ad-vcnUni,  be  a  gren 
error  m  philofuphj,  almoft  all  the  w.irlj  ha'h 
been  midakea.  GU„^UU,  Vamiy  of  D^gmaiifm. 
Advent,  n. /.  [from  adventuj  ;  that  is, 
adv€«ius  Rfdrmprorh.]  The  name  of  one 
of  the  holy  feafons,  fignifying  the  com- 
tngi  that  is,  the  coming  of  our  Saviour  ; 
which  is  made  the  fubjeft  of  our  devo- 
tion during  the  four  weeks  before  Chrift- 
.  ""^V  Common  Prayer. 

Adventine.  adj.  [from  aducnio.  ad- 
•ventum.]  Adventitious  ;  that  which  is 
extnnfically  added  ;  that  which  comes 
from  outward  caufes  j  a  word  fcarcely 
in  ufe.  ' 

A^  V 

A  D  V 

As  tor  the  peregrine  heat,  it  is  thus  far  true, 
that,  ,f  the  proportion  of  the  aj^venrine  heat  be 
greatly  predominant  to  the  natural  heat  and  fpirits 
Of  the  body.  It  tendcth  to  diffolution  or  notable  al- 
teration, „ 

A  r  JjiSCCK. 

^?'''"J!""'-  "''J-  {'"^■^""ii'"'.  Lat.] 
i  hat  which  advenes ;  accidental  ;  fu- 
pervenient;  cxtrip/ically  added,  not 
euentially  inherent. 

Difcafes  of  continuant  get  .in  ad-vt^whu, 
ftreng.h  from  cuftom,  bef.dej  their  material  caufe 
irom  thf  humours.  d 

Though  we  may  call  the  obvious  coloursTa"-* 
tural,  and  the  others  attvtmitim, ;  yet  fucli 
changes  of  colours,  from  whatfoevep  caufe  thev 
proceed,  may  be  properly  taken  in.  Bovli 

li  his  blood  boil,  and  th'  aA-umkkus  fire 
*ais  d  by  high  meats,  and  higher  win*»,  require 
10  temper  and  ailay  the  burning  heat ; 
Waters  are  brought,  which  by  dccoaion  get 
Newcoolncft.  Drd 

M   up  by  lapidaries,  th.-re  are  not  above  three  or 

lTLc\  "'  °?r','  :»«•',■'-"*•«»,  as  Z 
fcre^;  a'^''  '"''  ^'/'^J*'  "»«''«  from  the  dlf- 
fcrem   admixture    of  other  *fo«,/i,;»,    mineral 

Adve  ;,./  [ftomad-venio.  Latin.] 
The  thing  or  perfon  that  comes  from 
without :  a  word  not  now  in  ufe 

malt'.'lt  ""i'"'  *"  "■"  '■''  '"^"y'  ''•"'thrt  there 
may  be  elb.«-toom  wough  for  them,  and  for  the 
mavtntnra  aifo,  „ 

Adve'ntual.   ajj.    [from  ad-vtr^.]    Re 
fating  to  the  feafon  of  advent 
i  do  atfo  daily  «ft  o«  other  collc«  j  ar,  n^e 

ly,  the  coljefts  ad-ventnal,  quadra?e(imal,  pafchal. 
or  ptntecofta!,  for  their  proper  fe.ifonr. 

ADVE'NTURE.  „./  [Prench^^'"'"'""-^"'" 
I .    An  accident ;    a  chance ;    a   hazard  • 
an  event  of  which  we  have  no  direc- 

The  general  fummoned  three  cables ;  one  def- 
perate  of  fuc«ar,  and  not  Jefirous  to  difputc  the 
defence,  prefentiy  yielded  ;  but  two  ftood  upon 
tJieir  ad'Vevtarc.  Hciiu  -  ^ 

2.  In  this  fenfe  is  ufcd  the  phrafe,  a/^// 
ad-ventures;  [a  I' adventure,  Fr.]  By 
chance  ;  without  any  rntiocal  fcheme. 

_  Blows  flew  at  all  adventurci,  v.-ounds  and  deaths 
g^ven  and  taken  unexpcaed;  many  fcarce  know- 
ing their  enemies  from  their  friends.  Hay-ward. 
Where  the  mind  does  not  perceive  pmbable 
conneilion,  there  men's  opinions  are  the  ctfefts 
of  chance  and  hazard,  of  a  mind  floating  at  all 
td-Lc«iura,  without  choice  and  without direaion. 

1.  Th«  occafjon  of  cafual  events  ;  an  en- 
terpnfe  in  which  fomething  muft  be  left 
to  hazard. 

For  I  moa  love,  and  am  refolv'd  to  try 
My  fate,  or,  failing  in  th'  advexiure,  die. 
rpi.  .  ,  DrydiK. 

4-  I  his  noun,  with  all  its  derivatives,  is 
frequently  written  without  «a'j  as,  -ven- 
ture, -venturous. 

To  Adve'nture.  -v.  n.  [ad-venturer.  Fr.] 

1.  To  try  the  chance;  to  dare. 

Be  not  angry, 
Moft  mighty  princefs,  that  I  have  ad-vntur'd 
To  try  your  taki  ng  ftf  a  falfe  report.  Sbak,fp,ari. ' 
ilK  tender  and  delicate  woman  amorg  you,' 
which  would  not  advtr^iure  to  ftt  the  fole  of  her 
foot  upon  the  ground,  for  delicatenefs  and  tender- 
cr     K  '  Ucutir.  xiviii.  i6. 

Tff  Adventure,  -v.  a.  To  put  into  the 
power  of  chance. 

For  my  father  fought  for  you,  and  advtr.turj 
his  life  for,  and  delivered  you  out  of  the  hand  of 
Mldian.  ^    , 

it  is  otten  nfed  with   the  reciprocal 
pronoun  ;   as,  he  ad-ventured  him/elf. 
Adventurer.   „.  /    [ad-.entur,er,  Yr.^ 
tic  that  feeks  occafions  of  hazard  ;  he 
that  puts  himfelf  in  the  hands  of  chance. 

He  IS  a  great  advctiiurtr,  faid  he. 
That  hath  bis  fword  through  hard  alTay  foregone. 

The  king!  of  England  did  not  make  thfc™. 
queft  of  Ireland  ;  it  was  begun  by  particular  ad- 
■v<ntur,ri,  and  other  voWntanes,  who  came  to  feck 
their  fortunes,  S-rJ.Da-vU,. 

He  intended  to  ha«,d  his  own  aSion,  that  fo 

wl"?r       J  H  ".''K*-'  «i"  'd^tmurers,  who  elfe 

were  like  to  be  Icf.  forward.  RaUM-. 

Had  It  not  been  ft>r  the  Bfiti/h,  which  the  ittc 

war.  drew  over,  and  udn^,„,ur.r,  or  loldiers  feated 

been  left  delhtutc.  \  ^",  * 

0»r  merchant,  ihall  ng  more  ad-ve»t'rcr,  be. 

Adventuresome,  adj.  [from  adien- 
t'lre.]  I  he  fame  with  ad-venturous:  a 
low  word,  fcarcely  ufed  in  writing. 

Adve  nturesomeness.  n.f.  [from  ad- 
-venture/ome.]  The  quality  of  being  ad- 
vcnturefome.  j)-^ 

Advzstvuovs.  adj.  [nd-ventureux,  Fr. ] 

I.  He  that  IS  inclined  to  adventures  ;  and, 
confequently,  bold,  daring,  courageous. 

At  land  »nd  fca,  in  many  a  doubtful  fight. 
Was  never  known  a  mo,,: ad-vint' rou,  knight : 
Who  oftner  drew  hi,  fw«d,  and  always  for  ths 

2.  Applted  to  things,  that  which  is  full 
of  hazard;  which  requires  courage; 

But  I've  already  troubled  you  too  long. 
Nor  dare  attempt  a  more  advent'rms  fong. 
My  humble  veife  demands  a  fofter  theme  j 
A  pamtcd  meadow,  or  a  purling  ftream.     Jddifo,,. 
Adventurously,   adv.    [from  adven- 
turous.]     After  an    adventurous   man- 
ner;  boldly;  daringly. 

They  are  both  hanged;  and  fo  would  this  be, 
if  he  durft  fteal  any  thing  adwviuro;iJty. 

A'pVERB.  n.f.  [adverbium,  Lat.]  A  word 
joined  to  a  verb  or  adjeftive,  and  folely 
applied  to  the  ufe-of  qualifying  and  re- 
ftraining  the  latitude  of  their  fignifica- 
tion,  by  the  intimation  of  fome  circui^i- 
ftance  thereof;  as,  of  quality,  manner, 
degree.  Clarke's  Latin  Grammar. 

Thus  we  fay,  he  runs/wi/ily ;  the  bird 
flies  aJo/t  ;  he  lives  -virtuoujly. 
Adve'rbial.     adj.    [ad-verbialis,    Lat.] 
That  which  has  the  quality  or  ftrufture 
of  an  adverb. 

Adve'rbially.  adv.  [adverhialiter,  Lat.] 
Like  an  adverb ;  in  the  miitner  of  an 

I  fliould  think  alta  was  joined  advtrhially  with 
trcmu,  did  Virgil  make  ufe  of  fo  equivocal  « 
'^l'"^^'^-  Jddlfon. 

Adve'rsable.  a<^'.  [from  ad-ver/e.]  Con- 
trary to  ;  oppofite  to.  Dia. 

ADVERSARIA.  „./.  [Lat.  A  book,  as 
It  fliould  feem,  in  which  Debtor  and 
Creditor  were  fet  in  oppofition.]  A 
common-place  ;  a  book  to  note  in.    ' 

Thefe  parchments  are  fuppofed  to  have  been  St. 
VM\%ad-,,,rf,rh.  Buir,  Sertfons. 

Adversary.  »./  [ad-ver/ai  re,  Fr.  ad- 
'ver/arius,  Lat.]  An  opponent  ;  an- 
tagonift  ;  enemy  :  generally  applied  to 
thofe  that  have  verbal  or  judicial  quar- 
rels ;  ^  as,  controvertifts  or  litigants : 
fometimes  to  an  opponent  in  fmgle  com- 
bat. It  may  fometimes  imply  an  open 
profeffion  of  enmity  ;  as  we  fay,  a  fecret 
enemy  is  worfe  than  an  open  ad-vtr/ary. 

Yet  am  I  noble,  as  the  ad-verfaj 
I  come  to  cope.  Shakcjf  care's  Kwg  Lear. 

ihole  rites  and  ceinnonies  of  the  church, 
therefore,  which  were  the  felf-fame  now  thit  ther 
were  when  holy  and  virtuous  men  maintained 
them  agajnft  profnne  and  deriding  adterfarUs,  her 
own  children  have  in  dcrifion.  H^j,^^ 

Mean  while  th'  ad-tjerfary  of  God  and  man, 
Satan,  with  thoughts  inflam'd,  of  highcft  defign. 

An  ad'jcrfary  malfes  a  ftnfler  fcarch  into  us. 
and  d.fcnvers  every  flaw  and  imperfedtion.  in  out 
tempers.  A  friend  exaggerates  a  man's  virtues  ; 
an  enemy  inflames  his  crimes.  Add\fon. 

A D  V e'r s  A  t  I  v E .  adj.  [adver/ati-vus,  Lat.l 
A  tem  of  grammar,  applied  to  a  word 
whic^i  makes  fome  oppofition  or  variety  • 
as,  m  this  fcntencc;  This  diamond  i, 
or.ent,  but  it  is  rough.  But  is  an  adver. 
Jaiive  conjunction. 

A'd  V  E  R  s  E .  adj.   [  ad-verfus,  Lat.  ] 

^..^^Pa"*^.,"  ^^^  ""'^  '*»«  accent  on 
the  firft  fyllable;  in  verfe  it  is  ac- 
cented on  tlie  firll  by  Shake/peare ;  on 
either,  indifTerently,  by  M,7/.„  ;  on  .the 
lait,  by  DrjJen ;  on  the  firft,  by  Rof. 
P  2 

!•  A£iiag 

A  D  V 

1.  AfUng  with  contrary  direftions ;  as, 
two  bodies  in  colliflon. 

Wu  I  for  this  nigh  wreckt  upon  the  fea. 
And  twice,  by  adtttrft  winds,  from  England's  bank 
Drove  back  again  unto  my  native  dime  }    Sbaktfp. 

As  when  two  polar  winds,  blowing  advrrfcy 
Upon  the  Cronian  fea  together  drive 
Mountains  of  ice.  Afilttn. 

With  cjvirje  blaft  upturns  them  from  the  fouth, 
Notus  and  Afer.  Milton. 

A  cloud  of  fmoke  envelopes  either  hoft, 
And  all  at  once  the  combatants  are  loll ; 
Darkling  they  join  <irfi;«r/c,  and  Ihock  unfcen  ; 
Xlourfers  with  couriers  julUing,  men  with  men. 


Z.  Figuratively,  contrary  to  the  wi(h  or 
defxre  ;  thence,  calamitous  ;  affliflive  ; 
pernicious.    It  is  oppofed  to pro/feroui. 

What  if  he  hath  decreed,  that  I  ihall  iirll 
Be  try'd  in  humble  ftate,  and  things  adnierfr  ; 
By  tribulations,  injuries,  infults, 
Contempts,  and  fcorns,  and  fnares,  and  violence. 

Some  the  prevailing  malice  of  the  great, 
Unhappy  a>en,  or  adverfe  fate, 
Sunk  deep  into  the  gulfs  of  an  afflided  ftate. 


5.  Perfonally  opponent ;  the  perfon  that 
countera^ls  another,  or  contefts  any 

Well  Ihe  faw  her  father  was  grown  her  adverfe 
yarty  ;  and  yet  her  fortune  fucb,  as  flie  muft  fa-  ^ 
vour  her  rivals.  Sidmy, : 

'A'dversely.    atl-v,  [from  ad'verfe7\    In' 

an  adverfe  manner  ;  oppofitely  ;  unfor- 

tonately.  ' 

Whit  I  thirfk,  1  utter,  and  fpcnd  my  malice  in 

my  breath.     Jf  the  drink  you  give  me  touch  my 

jaUtte  ad-uerfeiy,  I  make  a  crooked  face  at  it. 


Adve'rsity.  n./.  \_ad'vtrfiti ,  Fr.]  M- , 
fliftion  ;  calamity  ;  that  is,  oppofition 
«o  our  wifhes. 

a.  The  caufe  of  our  forrow  ;  affllflron  ; 
'  misfortune.  In  this  fenfe  it  may  have 
a  plural. 

Let  me  embrace  thefe  foMradverJrties, 
for  wife  men  fay,  it  is  the  wifefl  courfe. 

Sbakefpeare^ s  Hertry  VI. 

3.  The  ftate  «fur^ap{)inefs  ;  mifery. 

Concerning  deliverdnce  itfclf  fioiR  all  advcrfiryy 
we  ufe  not  to  fay  men  are  in  ad-verjit^y  v.'henf*iever 
.they  feel  any  fmall  hindcrance  of  their  welfare  in; 
this  world,  but  when  fome  notable  alfliiSion  cr 
-crofs,  fame  great  calamity  or  trouble,  befalletit 
them.  Htukin, 

Sweet  are  the  ufes  of  adverfiiy^ 
Which,  like  the  tosd,  ugly  and  venomous, 
'Wears  yet  a  pxf  cious  jewel  in  his  head. 


A  remembrance  of  the  good  ufe  he  had  made 
©f  profpcrity,  contributed  to  fupport  his  mind  ur,-' 
der  the  heavy  weight  oi Adverjity,  which  then  lay 
upon  him.  Attt.rhury, 

Vo  ADVE'RT.  -v.  n.  [aJ-verto,  Lat.]  To 
attend  to  ;  to  regard  ;  to  obfcrve  ;  with 
the  particle  ie  before  the  objedt  of  re- 

The  mind  of  man  ijeing  not  capable  at  once 
to  advert  to  more  than  one  thing,  a  particular  view 
and  examination  of  ftich  an  innumerable  number 
K)f  vail  bodice,  will  alTord  matter  of  admiration. 
Ray  en  the  Creation, 
Now  'to  the  univerfal  whole  advert ; 
The  earth  regard  as  of  that  whole  a  part ; 
In  which  wide  frame  more  noble  worlds  abound  ; 
Wicnefa,  ye  glorious  orbs,  which  hang  around. 


We  fomctimes  fay,'  Ta  advert  ihi  mind 
to  an  -^jeS. 

A  f)V 

Adve'rtbnce.  »./.  [from  <ufc«-/.]    At- 
tention><o  ;  regard  to  ;  confideration. 
ChriRianity  may  make  Archimedes  his  chai- 
-  lenge  ;  give  it   but  where  it  may  fet   its    foot-; 
allow  but  a  fober  advertence  to  its  propofals,  and  it 
will  move  the  whole  world.  Decay  ofPieiy. 

Adve'rtency.  w./.  ['vert.'l  The 
fame  with  advertence.  Attention  ;  re- 
gard ;  heedfulnels. 

Too  much  advertency  is  not  your  talent ;  or 
clfe  you  had  Hed  irom  that  text,  as  from  a  rock. 

Adve'rt£NT.  adj.  [from  ad-vert.']     At- 
tentive ;  vigilant ;  heedful. 

This  requires  choice  parts,  great  attention  of 
mind,  fcqueftration  from  the  importunity  of  fecu- 
lar  employments,  and  a  long  advertent  and  deli- 
berate connexing  of  confequents. 

■Hale^s  Origin  of  Mankind. 

To  ADVERTrSE.  v.  a.  [ad-vertir.  Fr. 
It  is  now  fpoken  with  the  accent  upon 
the  laft  fyllable  ;  but  appears  to  have 
been  anciently  accented  on  -the  fe- 

1.  To  inform  another;  to  give  intelli- 
gence ;  witli  an  accufative  of  the  per- 
fon informed. 

The  bifliop  did  require  a  rcfpite. 
Wherein  he  might  the  king  Ills  lord  adveriije. 
Whether  our  daughter  were  legitimate. 


As  I  by  iriends  am  well  flJvertj/ii/, 
Sir  Edmund  Courtney,  and  the  haughty  prelate, 
With  many  more  confederates,  are  in  arms.    Sbak. 

The  king  was  not  fo  fliallow,  nor  fo  ill  advcr- 
tifed,  as  not  to  perceive  the  intention  of  the  French 
king.  Bacon. 

I  hope  ye  will  advertife  me  fairly  of  what  they 
diflikf.  J^igh- 

2.  To  inform  ;  to  give  notice  ;  with  q/" 
before  the  fubjeft  of  information. 

Ferhatcs,  underftanding  that  Solyman  expefled 
more  aflurcJ  advertifement,  onti>  the  other  BafTas 
declared  the  death  of  the  emperor;  o/"  which  they 
/i</ai<Tri/i</ Solyman,  filming  thofe  Jetters  with  all 
their  hands  and  feals. 

Knol/ei's  Hi/iory  of  tie  Turk!. 

They  were  to  advertife  the  chief  hero  of  the 
difti-efTes  of  his  fubjedls,  occafioned  by  his  ab- 
fence.  Drydcn. 

3.  To  give  notice  of  any  thing,  by  means 
of  an  ttdwertifement  in  the  public  prints  ; 
as.  He  advertifed  bis  loft. 

Adverti'sement,  or  Adve'rtise- 
MENT.  n.f.  [adverliffement,  Fr.] 

1.  Inftruftion  ;  admonition. 

— 'Tis  all  men's  office  to  fpeak  pati.nce 
To  thofc,  that  wring  under  the  load  of  forrow; 
But  no  man's  virtue  nor  fufficiency. 
To  be  fo  moral,  when  he  fhall  endure 
The  like  himfcif :  therefore  give  me  no  counfel ; 
My  grie'fs  are  louder  than  advertifemcnt. 

St/ikcfprare^s  Much  ado  about  Nothirg. 

Cyras  was  once  minded  to  have  put  Crcefus  to 
death  ;  but  hearing  him  report  the  adveitifeinent 
of  Solon,  he  fparcd  his  liCe. 

Aiiit'i  'Dcfcripticn  ef  tbe  IVerld. 

2.  Intelligence ;  information. 

Then,  as  a  cunning  prince  that  ufeth  fpics, 
If  they  return  no  news,  doth  nothing  know ; 

But  if  they  make  advertifemer.t  of  lies, 
The  prince's  counfel  all  awry  do  go. 

Sir  y-ybn  Daviei. 

He  had  received  advertifttnent,  that  the  party, 
which  was  fent  for  his  relief,  had  received  fome 
bru)h,  which  would  much  retard  their  march. 

■ '     '^  ■  V'arendan.' 

The  drum  and  trumpet,  by  their  feveral  founds,' 
fcrve  for  many  kinds  ot  advertifements,  in  military 
affairs!  the  bells  ferve  to  proclaim  afcarc-flre;  andj 
IB  iume  places,  water-bteacheS}  the  <itpartuie  of 

A  D  V 

a  min,  woman,  ot  child  ;  time  of  divine  fervic*; 
the  hour  of  the  day;  day  of  the  month.      Holder, 

3.  Notice  of  any  thing  publilhed  in  a  pa- 
per of  intelligence. 
Adverti'ser.  n./.  [czdverli/eur,  Fr.] 

1 .  He  that  gives  intelligence  or  information. 

2.  The  paper  in  which  advertifements  arc 

Adve'rtisinc,  or  Ad  vert  I's  inc. /ar/. 
adj.  [from  ad-verti/e."]  Aftive  in  giving 
intelligence  ;  monitory :  a  word  not 
now  in  ufe. 

As  I  was  then 
Mvertifing,  and  holy  to  your  bufinefs. 
Not  changing  heart  with  habit,  1  am  lliU 
Attornied  at  your  fcrvice.  Sbakefp.  Meaf.for  Meaf. 

To  Adve'sperate.  'v.n.  [^ad-ve/pero,  Lat.] 
To  draw  towards  evening.  Di3. 

Advi'ce.  n.  /.  [avis,  ad-vis,  Fr.  from  ad- 
"vifo,  low  Lat.] 

1.  Counfel;  inlirnftion  :  except  that  in- 
ftrudion  implies  fuperiority,  and  adt>ice 
may  be  given  by  equals  or  inferiors. 

Break  we  our  Watch  up,  and,  by  my  advice^ 
Let  us  impart  what  we  liavc  fcen  to-night 
Unto  young  Hamlet.  Sbaktfp.  Hamlet, 

0  troubled,  weak,  and  coward,  as  thou  art! 
Without  thy  poor  advice,  the  lab'ring  heart 

To  worfe  extremes  with  fwifter  fteps  would  run  ; 
Not  fav'd  by  virtue,  yet  by  vice  undone.        Prior, 

2.  Refleftion  i  prudent  confideration  :  as, 
he  always  afts  with  good  adi'ice. 

What  he  hath  won,  that  he  hath  fortified  : 
So  hot  a  fpeed,  with  fuch  advice  difpos'd. 
Such  temperate  order,  in  fo  fierce  a  courfe. 
Doth  want  example.  Sbakefp.  Kiirg  yattt. 

3.  Confultation  ;  deliberation  :  with  the 
particle  •wili. 

Great  princes,  takii;g  -advice  tvitb  workmen, 
with  no  Icfs  cofl,  fet  their  things  together. 

Baccn*s  FJ/iiyr. 

4.  Intelligence:  as,  the  merchants  received 
ad-vice  of  their  lofs.  This  fenfe  is  ibme- 
what  low,  and  chiefly  commercial. 

Advi'ce-boat.  n.f.    A  veflel  employed 

to  bring  intelligence. 
Advi'sable.  adj.  [from ad-vife. ]  Prudent ; 

fit  to  be  advifed.  •  ' 

Some  judge  it  advifahle  for  a  man  to  account 
with  his  heart  every  day ;  and  this,  no  doubt,  is 
the  bed  and  lurcft  courfe;  for  ftill  ihe  oftner,  the 
better.  .  Soutb^i  Sermonu 

It  is  not  advifahle  to  reward,  whe.c  men  have 
the  tendcmefs  not  to  punifh.     L'EJirange's  Fablet, 

Anvi'sABLENEss.  »./.  [^ttom  advi/able.l 
The  quality  of  being  advifable,  or  lit ; 
fitnefs  ;   propriety. 
To  ADVrSE.   -v.  a.  [aJ-vl/er,  Fr.] 
I..  To  counfel :  with  the  particle  to  before 
the  tiling  advifed. 
If  you  do  ftir  abroad,  go-Brm'd. 

Arm'd,  brother! 

Brother,  1  advife  you  to  the  bed. 

Sbakefp.  f^ing  Lear, 

1  would  advife  all  gentlemen  to  learn  merchants 
account!,  and  not  to  think  it  a  fkill  that  belongs  not 
to  them.  Locke, 

When  I  confider  the  fcruplcs  and  cautions  I  here 
lay  in  your  way,  methinks  it  looks  as  if  1  advifed 
you  to  fomcthing  which  I  would  have  oilered  at, 
but  in  effefl  nut  done.  Locke. 

2.  To  give  information  4  to  inform  ;  to 
make  acquainted  with  an^y  thing  :  often 
with  the  particle  o/'before  the  thing  told. 

'i'^ou  were  advis'd,  his  flelh  was  capable 
Of  wiunds  and  fcirs ;  and  that  his  forward  fpirit 
Would  liftjiim,  whccemoft  trade  of  danger  rang'd. 


A  D  V 

A  D  U 

A  D  U 

Such  difcourfe  bring  on« 
As  may  advife  him  o/"his  happy  (lace; 
Happinefs  in  his  pow'r,  left  free  to  will. 

ParaJi/e  Loft. 
A  pofting  mcflenger  difpatch'd  from  hence, 
0/"this  fair  troop  advit'd  their  aged  prince. 

Dryden^s  ^ne'id. 
To  Advi'se.  v.  n. 

1 .  To  confult :  with  the  particle  luith  be- 
fore the  perfon  coaiulted  ;  as,  be  adiiijed 
txjhh  his  companions. 

2.  To  confider  4  to  deliberate. 

Advife  if  this  be  worth 
Attempting,  or  to  fit  in  darknefs  here, 
Hatching  vain  empires. 

Miltni's  Parad'ife  Ltfi,  b.  ii. 
Av>vist.T>. participial  adj.  [from  ad'vift.'\ 

1 .  A Aing  with  deliberation  and  defign  ; 
prudent ;  wife. 

Let  his  travel  appearrather  in  bis  difcourfe,  than 
in  his  apparel  or  gefture  ;  and,  -in  his  difcourfe, 
let  him  be  rather  adnjijed  in  his  anfwers,  than  for- 
-ward  to  tell  ftories.  Bacon  t  Efjays. 

Th*  Almighty  Father,  where  he  fits 
Shrin'd  in  his  fanftuary  of  heav'n  fecure, 
Confulting  on  the  fum  of  things  forefeen. 
This  tumult,  and  permitted  a>l,  ad-vh^d, 

Faradijl  LoJI,  b.  vi. 

2.  Performed  with  deliberation  J  done  on 
purpole  ;  adled  with  defign. 

By  that  which  we  work  naturally,  as,  when  we 
breathe,  fleep,  and  move,  we  fet  forth  the  glory 
of  God,  as  natural  agents  do  ;  albeit  we  have  no 
-cxprefs  purpofe  to  make  that  our  end,  nor  any  ad- 
vijid  determinatioa  therein  to  follow  a  law. 

Hunker,  b.  i.  p.  49. 
In  my  fchool-days,  when  I  had  loft  one  Ihaft, 
1  (hot  his  fellow  of  the  felf-fame  flight. 
The  felf-fame  way,  with  more  advijtd  watch. 
To  find  the  other  forth  ;  by  vent'ring  both, 
I  oft  found  both.         Stakiff.  Mtrcbant  of  Venice. 
Advi'sedly.  ad'v.  \^ioai  adv[fed.'\    So- 
berly ;  heedfully  ;    deliberately  ;  pur- 
pofely  ;  by  defign  ;  prudently. 

'J'his  h(Xi\c,tidvifcdly  read  and  diligently  followed 
-but  one  year  at  home,  would  do  more  good  than 
three  years  travel  abroad.  Ajcham. 

Surprife  may  be  made  by  moving  things,  when 
the  pirty  is  in  hade,  and  cannot  ftay  to  confii*;r 
edvijedlj  of  that  which  is  moved. 

Bacortf  EJfay  xxiii. 
Thou  (iileft  fecond  thoughts  (by  all  allowed  the 
bcl^)  a  relapfe,  and  accufett  conflancy  of  mifchief 
in  what  is  natural,  and  adnjijedly  undertalcen. 

^';V  Jnbn  SuckTirg. 

Advi'sedness.  n./.  [from  ad'vi/ed.]  De- 
liberation ;  cool  and  prudent  procedure. 

While  things  are  in  agitation,  private  men  may 
modeftly  tender  their  thoughts  to  the  confideration 
of  thofe  that  are  in  authority;  to  whofe  care  it 
belnngeth,  in  prefcribing  concerning  indilf^rent 
things,  to  proceed  witli  all  juft  advijedncji  and  mo- 
deration. Sauttderjon^i  'Judgment  in  one  t^inv. 

Advi'sement.  n./.  [ad-v i/eme«e,  Fr.] 
I.  Counfel ;  information. 

Mote  I  wote, 
What  ftrange  adventure  do  ye  now  purfue  ? 
Perhaps  my  fuccour,  or  advijement  meet, 
Mote  {lead  you  much.  Fairj  Siueen. 

I  will,  according  to  your  ad'vljtment,  declare  the 
«Til5,  which  fcem  mod  hurtful. 

Sffnfer't  Stall  of  Ireland. 

a.  It  is  taken  likewife,  in  old  writers,  for 
prudence  and  circumfpedlioa.  It  is  now, 
in  both  fenfes,  antiquated. 

Advi'ser.  n.y".  [(roai  ad'vi/e,']  The  per- 
fon that  advifes,  or  gives  counfel  j  a 

Mac,  free  from  court-compli»nc«,  he  walks, 
Aad  with  hUniclf,  his  beft  advifer,  ttlki. 


They  never  fail  of  their  moll  artful  and  indefa- 
tigable addrefs,  to  filence  the  impertinent  advifer, 
whofe  feverity  awes  their  exceffes. 

Rijgers^s  Sermons. 
AduLa'tiON.  n./.   [adulation,  Fr.  adula- 
tio,  Lat.]   FLittery  ;  high  co.aipliment. 

O  be  ficic,  great  Greatnefs  I 
And  by  thy  ceremony  give  thee  cure. 
Think'il  thou  the  fiery  fever  will  go  out 
With  titles  blown  from  adulation  ? 

Staic^earc's  Henry  V. 
They  who  flattered  him  moft  before,  men'ioned 
him  now  with  the  greateft  bitternefs,  without  im- 
pudng  the  leaft  crime  to  him,  committed  fmce  the 
time  of  that  exalted  adulation,  or  that  was  not  ihen 
as  much  knowa  to  them,  as  it  could  be  now. 


Adula'tor.  ?;./  [adulator,  Lat.]  A  flat- 
terer. Dm. 

A'dulatory.  adj.  [adulatorius,  Lat.] 
Flattering;  full  of  compliments. 

ADU'LT.  adj.  [adu/tus,  Lat.]  Grown  up; 
paft  the  age  of  infancy  and  weaknefs. 
They  would  appear  Icfs  able  to  approve  themfelvcs, 
not  only  to  the  confeflbr,  brjt  even  to  the  catechill, 
in  their  adult  age,  than  they  were  in  their  minority  ; 
as  having  fcarce  ever  thought  of  the  principles  of 
their  religion,  fmce  they  conned  them  to  avoid 
correction.  De^ay  of  Piety. 

The  earth,  by  thefe  applauded  fchools,  'tis  faiJ, 
This  fingle  crop  of  men  and  women  bred  ; 
Who  g  own  adult,  fo  chance,  it  feems,  enjoin'd. 
Did,  male  and  female,  propagate  their  kind. 


Adu'lt.  n.f.  A  perfon  above  the  age  of 
infancy,  or  grown  to  fome  degree  of^ 
ftrength  ;  fometimes  full  grown:  a  word 
ufed  chiefly  by  medicinal  writers. 

The  deprefiion  of  the  cranium,  without  a  frac- 
ture, can  but  feldom  occur ;  and  then  it  happens 
to  children,  whofe  bones  are  more  pliable  and  foft 
than  thofe  of  adults,  Sharp's  Surgery. 

.■^Dtj'LTNESS.  n.f.  [from  adult.'\  The 
ftate  of  being  adult.  See  Adoles- 
cence. Dm. 

To  Adu'lt ER.  v.  a.  [adulterer,  Fr.adul- 
tero,  Lat.]  To  commit  adultery  with 
another  :  a  word  not  claffical. 

His  challewife 
He  iiifa/rff-i  ftill :  his  thoughts  lie  with. a  whorr. 

Ben  yonjon. 

Adu'lter  ANT.  ».  y;  [adulteraiii,  Lat.] 
The  perfon  or  thing  which  adulterates. 

7»  Adu'lterate.  'V.  a.  [adulterer,  Fr. 
adultero,  Lat.] 

1.  To  commit  adultery. 

But  fortimc,  ohi 
yidullcralet  hourly  with  thine  uncle  John. 


2.  To  corrupt  by  fome  foreign  admixture; 
to  contaminate. 

Common  pot-alhcs,  bought  of  them  tiiat  fell  it 
in  Ihops,  who  arc  not  f.>  foolifhly  kiiavilh  as  to 
adulterate  them  with  (alt-petrc,  which  is  much 
dearer  thaii  p<-.t-alhei.  Boyle. 

Cuulil  a  man  be  compofcd  to  fuch  an  advantage 
of  conilitutii'H,  that  it  Ihould  not  at  all  adulterate 
the  images  of  his  mind  ;  yet  this  fecond  nature 
would  altcrthe  crafis  of  liis  undeiftinding. 

■  Glanville's  Scepjh  Scienrifi.a,  c»  xvi. 

The  prefent  war  has  fo  adulterated  our  tongue 

with  llrangc  words,  that  it  would  be  impoflible  for 

one  of  our  great-grandfathers  to  know  what  his 

pofterity  have  been  doing.     .  Spcilaior. 

Adu'lter  ate.  adj.  [from  To  adulterat^e.'] 

I.  Tainted  with  the  guilt  of  adultery. 

I. am  pofTcls'd  with  an  adulterate h\ot\ 
My  blood  is  mingled  with  the  grime  of  luft; 
Being  ftruropetcd  by  thy  contagion. 

Sbakcjpcartt  Cmedy  ofEp-ori, 

—That  inceftuous,  that  adulterate  beaft. 

I.  Corrupted  with  fome  foreign  mixture. 

It  does  indeed  differ  no  more,  than  the  makef 

of  adulterate  wares  does  from  the  vender  of  them. 

Govirnment  of  the  Tmgue. 

They  will  have  all  their  gold   and  filver,  and 

may  keep  their  adulterate  copper  at  home. 

Swift's  Mifcellan'iet. 

Adu'lter  ate  NEss.n./[fromWa//^rart.] 

The  quality  or  ftate  of  being  adulterate, 

or  counterfeit. 

Adulter  a't  ion.  n.f.  [from  adulterate. ] 

1.  The  ait  of  adulterating  or  corrupting 
by  foreign  mixture  ;  contamination. 

To  make  the  compound  pals  for  the  rich  metal 
fimple,  is  an  adulteration,  or  counterfeiting  :  but 
if  it  be  done  avowedly,  and  without  dif^ju-fing,  it 
may  be  a  great  faviiig  of  the  richer  metal. 

Bacon's  Natural  Hifory,  No  798. 

2.  TJie  ftate  of  being  adulterated,  or  con- 

Such  tranflations  are  like  the  adulteration  of  the 

nbbleft  wines,  where  fomething  of  the  colour,  fpirit, 

and  flavour,  will  remain.  Feltcn  on  the  Clajpcs. 

Adu'lTerer.  n.f.  [adulter,  Lat.]     The 

perfon  guilty  of  adultery. 

With  what  impatience  mult  the  mufe  behold 
The  wife  by  her  procuring  hulband  fold  ; 
For  tho'  the  law  makes  null  th'  adulterer's  deed 
Of  lands  to  her,  the  cuckold  may  fucceed. 

Drydcn's  Juvenal. 

Adu'lteress.  n.f.  [from  adulterer.^  A 
woman  that  commits  adultery. 

The  Spartan  lady  replied,  when  (he  was  artced. 
What  was  the  punifljment  for  adulterrjps  f  There 
are  no  fuch  things  here. 

Government  of  the  Tongue,  §  3. 
Helen's  rich  attite, 
From  Argos  by  the  fam'd  aduli'refs  brought. 
With  golden  flow'rs  and  winding  foliage  wrought. 
Dryden's  Virgil, 

A  D  u'l  T  E  R I N  E .  tt.f.  [adulterine,  Fr.  adul- 
terinits,  Lat.]    A  child  born  of  an  adul- 
terefs  :  a  term  of  canon  law. 
Adu'lterous.«^'.  [adulter,  La.t.'\  Guilty 
of  adultery. 

Th'  adulterous  Antony,  moft  large 
In  his  abominations,  turns  you  off, 
And  gives  his  potent  regiment  to  i  trull. 
That  nofes  it  agaitill  us. 

Shakcjpeare's  Antony  and  Cleopatra, 

An   adulterous   perlon  is    tied  to  reftitufion  of 

the  injury,  fo  far  as  it  is  reparable  ■,  and  to  make 

provifion  for  the  children,  that  they  may  not  injure 

the  legitimate,  Taylor. 

Think  on  whofe  faith  th'  aduli'rous  youth  rely'd  ; 

Who  promii'd,  who  p rocur'd  the  Spartan  bride  ? 

Dryden's  JEneid. 

ADU'LTERY.  n.  f.  [adulterium,  Lat.] 
The  aft  of  violating  the  bed  of  a  mar- 
ried perfon. 

All  thy  domeflic  griefs  at  home  be  left, 
The  wife's  adult' ry,  with  the  fcivant's  theft; 
And  (the  moft  racking  thought  which  can  intrude) 
Forget  falfe  friends,  and  their  ingratitude. 

Dryden's  Juvenal^ 

Adu'mbrant.  adj.  [from  adumbrate.'\ 
That  which  gives  a  flight  refemblance. 

To  ADU'MBRATE.  -v.  a.  [adumbro,  Lat.] 
To  {hadow  out ;  to  give  a  flight  like- 
nefs  ;  to  exhibit  a  faint  refemblance, 
like  that  which  fliadows  afford  of  the 
bodies  which  they  reprefent. 

Heaven  is  defigned  for  our  reward,  as  well  as 
refcue  ;  and  therefore  Is  adumbrated  by  all  thofe 
pofitive  excellencies,  which  can  endear  or  recom- 
mend. Decay  of  Piety. 

Adumbra'ticn.  n.f.  [horn  adumbrate.} 

1 .  The 

A  D  V 

I.  The  aft  of  adumbrating,  or  giving  a 
flight  and  imperfeft  reprefentation.  See 


To  make  feme  adumbratitn  of  that  we  mean, 
it  it  rather  an  impullion  or  contufion  of  the  air, 
thao  an  elifioa  or  fedion  of  the  fame* 

Bae.  Nat.  Hip,  N"  iSr- 
X.  The  flight  and  imperfea  reprefentation 
of  a  thing  ;  a  faint  fltetch. 

The  eblervcrt  view  but  the  backfide  of  the  h  ing- 
ings ;  the  right  one  is  on  the  other  fide  the  grave  : 
and  our  knowledge  is  but  like  thofe  broken  ends ; 
at  bed  a  moil  confufeJ  adumbration. 

Clanville't  Scefjii  Scientifica. 

Thofe  of  the  firft  fort  have  fome  aJumbration 
of  the  rational  nature,  as  vegeublcs  have  of  the 
fenfible.  ««''''  Origin. 

Advna'tion.  »./.  [from  ad  and  «»«/, 
Lat.]  The  ftate  of  being  united ;  union  : 
a  word  of  little  ufe. 

When,  by  glaciation,  wood,  draw,  duft,  anJ 
water,  are  fuppofcd  to  be  united  into  one  lump, 
the  cold  does  not  caufe  any  real  union  or  attunalhti, 
but  only  hardening  the  aqueous  parts  of  the  liquor 
into  ice,  the  other  bodies,  being  accidentally  pre- 
(ent  in  that  liquor,  are  frozen  up  in  it,  but  not 
really  united.  BoyU. 

Aou'NCiTY.n./.  [«<A«»a>flx,  Lat.]  Crook- 
ednefs  ;  flexure  inwards  j  hookednefs. 

There  can  be  no  queftion,  but  the  aJunc'itj  of 
the  pounces  and  beaks  of  the  hawks,  is  the  caufe 
of  the  great  and  habitual  immorality  of  thofe  ani- 
mals. Arittibmt  and  Pope's  Mart.  Scrih. 
Avv'KQVi.adj.  [WawfBJ.Lat.]  Crooked; 
bending  inwards ;  hooked. 

The  birds  that  are  fpeakers,  are  pariots,  pies, 
jays,  daws,  and  ravens ;  of  which  parrots  have  an 
mdungut  bill,  hut  the  relV  not. 

Bacons  Nat.  Hi/I.  N°  238. 
A'dvocacy.  »./.  [from  advocate.]  The 
Z^  of  pleading  ;  vindication  ;  defence  : 
apology  ;  a  word  in  little  ufe. 

If  any  there  are  who  are  of  opinion  that  there 

Sre   no  antipodes,  or  that  the  ftars  do  fall,  they 

Ihall  not  want  herein  the  applaufe  or  advocacy  of 

Satan.  Brotuni  l^ulgar  Errourt,  h.  i. 

.    A'DVOCATE.    «./.    [adiwcatus,  hiit.] 

1 .  He  that  pleads  the  caufe  of  another  in 
a  court  of  judicature. 

An  advcca'i,  in  the  general  import  of  the  word, 
is  that  perfon  who  has  the  pleading  and  manage- 
ment of  a  judicial  caufe.  In  a  ftriS  way  of  fpeak- 
ing,  only  that  perfon  is  (tiled  advocate,  who  is  the 
patron  of  the  caufe,  and  is  often,-in  Latin,  termed 
togaliis,  and,  in  £ngli{h,  a  perfon  of  the  long 
robe.  ^yliffe's  Parergon. 

Learn  whatthou  ow'ft  thy  country  and  thy  friend  ; 
What's  ttquifite  to  fpare,  and  what  to  fpend  : 
Learn  this  ;  and,  after,  envy  not  the  (lore 
;.    0$  the  greas'd  tdvocaU  that  grinds  the  poor. 
1  ■rri  Drydcn's  Ptrjiuu 

2.  He  that  pleads  any  caufe,  in  whatever 
manner,  as  a  controvertift  or  vindicator. 

If  Oie  dares  trull  me  with  her  litcic  babo, 
I'll  (hew  't  the  king,  and  undertake  to  be 
Her  advocate  to  the  loud'ft.  Sbakefp.  riatttlct. 

Of  the  feveral  forms  of  government  that  have 
been,  or  are,  in  the  world,  that  caufe  fcems  com- 
m»iiy  the  better,  that  bas  the  better  advocate,  or 
Is.  advantaged  by  frelher  experience* 

Tcir/ile'i  Mifcellanies. 

3.  It  is  ufed  with  the  particle  for  before 
the  perfon  or  thing,  in  whofe  favour  the 
plea  is  offered. 

Foes  to  all  living  worth  except  your  own, 
And  advocates  fir  folly  dead  and  gone. 

Ptfc's  Bpijiks, 

4.  In  the  fcriptural  and  facrcd  fenfe,  it 
Hands  for  one  of  the  oiBces  of  our  Re- 

A  E 

^  Me  his  aJvocMi, 

And  propitiation  ;  all  his  works  on  me, 
•jood,  or  not  good,  ingraft.    Milton's  Parai.  Lcjl. 
Advoca'tion.  n.f.  [from  ad'vocate.']  The 
office  or  aft  of  pleading  ;  plea ;  apology. 

My  advocation  is  not  now  in  tune; 
My  lord  i»  not  my  lord  ;  nor  fliould  I  know  him. 
Were  be  in  favour,  as  in  humour,  alter'd. 

Shaktffeare's  Othello. 

Advola'tion.  ».  _/!   [advalo,  ad-volattmt, 

Lat.l     The  aft  of  flying  to  fomething. 

■^  Dia. 

Advolv'tion.  n.f.  [fl</W«/»e, Lat.]  The 

aft  of  rolling  to  fomething. 
Advo'utrv.  n.  f.  [avotttrie,    Fr.]     A- 

He  was  the  moft  perfidi*u9  man  upon  the  earth, 
and  he  had  made  a  marriage  compounded  between 
an  advontry  and  a  rape,  Bacen's  Henry  Vll. 

Advowe'.  n.f.  He  that  has  the  right  of 
advowfon.     See  Advowson. 

Advo'wson,  or  Advo'wzen,  n.f.  [In 
common  law.]  A  right  to  prefent  to  a 
benefice,  and  fignifies  as  much  as  Jus 
Patronatus.  In  the  canon  law,  it  is  fo 
termed,  becaufe  they  that  originally  ob- 
tained the  right  of  prefenting  to  any 
church,  were  great  benefaftors  thereto  ; 
and  are  therefore  termed  fometimes  Pn- 
troni,  fometimes  Advocati.  Convell. 

To  Adu're.  v.  n.  [aduro,  Lat.]  To  burn 
up  :  not  in  ufe. 

Such  a  degree  of  heat,  which  doth  neither  melt 
nor  ftorch,  doth  mellow,  and  not  adure. 

Bacon's  Nat.  Htji.ti"  319- 

Adu'st.  adj.  \aduftus,  Lat.] 

1.  Burnt  up;  hot  as  with  fire  ;  fcorched. 

By  this  means,  the  virtual  heat  of  the  water 
will  enter ;  and  fuch  a  heat  as  will  not  make  the 
body  adufl,  or  fragile.  Bacon. 

Which  with  torrid  heat. 
And  vapours  as  the  I^ibyan  air  adujl. 
Began  to  parch  that  temperate  clime. 

Milton's  Paradr  hoji. 

2.  It  is  generally  now  applied,  in  a  me- 
dicinal or  philofophical  fenfe,  to  the 
complexion  and  humours  of  the  body. 

Such  humours  arc  «(/»/,  as,  by  long  heat,  become 
of  a  hot  and  fiery  nature,  as  choler,  and  the  like. 


To  eafe  the  foal  of  one  oppreflive  weight. 
This  quits  an  empire,  that  embroils  a  ftate. 
The  farse  aduJI  complexion  has  impell'd 
Charles  to.thc  convent,  Philip  to  the  field.     Pope. 

Adtj'sted.  adj.  [See  Adust.] 

1.  Burnt;  fcorched;  dried  with  fire. 

Sulphurous  and  nitrous  foam 
They  found,  they  mingled,  and  with  fubtle  art 
Concofted,  and  adtijicd,  they  reduc'd 
To  bhckell:  grain,  and  into  ftore  convey'd. 

Paradife  Lojl. 

2.  Hot,  as  the  complexion. 

They  arc  but  the  fruits  of  aduficd  choler,  and 
the  evaporations  of  a  vindicative  fpirit.      Howell. 

Adu'stible.  adj.\(Tom  aduJl.]  That 
which  may  be  adufted,  or  burnt  up.  Di^. 

Abu'stion.  n.f.  [from  «(/»/?.]  The  aft 
of  burning  up,  or  drying,  as  hy  fire. 

This  is  ordinarily  a  confequcnce  of  a  burning 

colliquative  fever ;  the  foftcr  parts  being  melted 

away,  the  heat  continuing  its  adujiion,  upon  the 

drier  and  flefliy  parts,  changes  into  a  marcid  fever. 

Harvey  on  Confumptions. 

Adz.  n.f.     SeeAoDicB. 

AE,  or  M.  A  diphthong  of  very  fre- 
quent ufe  in  the  Latin  language,  which 
feems  not  properly  to  have  any  place  in 
the  Englifli  ;  fmcc  the  et  of  the  Saxons 

A  E  R 

has  been  long  out  of  ufe,  being  changed 
to  e  fimple,  to  which,  in  words  fre- 
quently occurring,  the  <jrof  the  Romans 
is,  in  the  fame  manner,  altered,  as  in 
equatir,  equinoSial,  and  even  in  Eneat. 
yE'ciLOPS.  H.f.  [ntytKu-^,  Gr.  fignifying 
goat-eyed,  the  goat  being  fubjeft  to  this 
ailment.]  A  tumour  or  fweHing  in  the 
great  corner  of  the  eye,  by  the  root  of 
the  nofe,  either  with  or  without  an  in- 
flammation :  alfo  a  plant  fo  called,  for 
its  fuppofed  virtues  againft  fuch  a  dif- 
temper.  ^incy. 

^gilops  is  a  tubercle  in  the  inner  canthui  of 
the  eye.  fVifeman's  Surgery, 

JE'glogv?..  n.  f.  [written  inftead  of 
eclogue,  from  a  mi(?aken  etymology.]  A 
pailoral ;  a  dialogue  in  verfe  between 

Which  moved  him  rather  in  plagues  otherwife 
to  write,  doubting,  perhaps,  his  ability,  which  he* 
little  needed,  or  minding  to  furnilh  our  tongue 
with  this  kind  wherein  it  faultcth. 

Spenfer^s  Pajlorals, 

JEgyvti'acvh.  n.f.  An  ointment  con- 
fifting  only  of  honey,  verdigreafe,  and 
vinegar.  ^inty. 

Ml,  or  Eal,  or  Al  [in  compound  names, 
as  Tia.)  in  the  Greek  compounds]  figni- 
fies all.  Or  altogether.  So  JElvjin  is  a 
complete  conqueror :  Albert,  all illujlrieus  : 
Aldred,  altogether  reverend  :  Alfred,  alto- 
gether peaceful.  To  tbefe  PammachiuSf 
Pancratius,  P amphilius ,  Sic.  do  in  fome 
meafure  anfwer.  Gibfon's  Camden^ 

Mhv  [which,  according  to  various  dia- 
lefts,  is  pronounced  ulf,  tuelph,  hulph, 
hilp,  helfc,  and,  at  this  day,  help]  im- 
plies afTiftance.  SoAElfiuin  is  'v'tSorious  ; 
and  j^lpuiold,  an  auxiliary  go-vernour  j 
j^lfgifa,  a  lender .  of  ajfjlance  :  with 
which  Boetius,  Symmachus,  Epicurus,  Sec 
bear  a  plain  analogy.    Gibfon's  Camden. 

jEni'gma.     See  Enigma. 

Ae'rial.   adj.    [ai'rius,  Lat.] 

1.  Belonging  to  the  air,  as  confining  of  it. 

The  thunder,  when  to  roll 
With  terrour  through  the  darkuirifl/hall, 

Paradife  Lcji. 
From  all  that  can  with  fins  or  feathers  fly. 
Thro'  the  aerial  or  the  wat'ry  {ky.  Prior. 

T  gathered  the  thicknefs  of  the  air,  or  aerial  in- 
terval, of  the  glafles  at  that  ring. 

Nrwtsn's  Opticktr 

Vegetables  abound   more  with  aerial  particics 

than  animal  fubftances.        jirhutbnot  on  Aliments. 

2.  Produced  by  the  air. 

The  gifts  of  heav'n  my  foU'wJng  fong  purfues^ 
Aerial  honey,  and  anibrolial  dews. 

Dryden's  firg,  Georf. 

3.  Inhabiting  the  air. 

Where  thofe  immortal  fliapcs 
Of  bright  aerial  fpirits  live  infpher'd. 
In  regions  mild,  of  calm  and  fercnc  air. 

Paradife  Regained, 

Aerial anim^U  maybe  fubdivideJ  into  birds  and 

flies,  ,  Lode. 

4.  Placed  in  the  air. 

Here  I'ubterranean  works^  and  cities  fee. 
There  towns  aer'uiJ  on  the  waving  tree. 

Pope's  Efpjy  tn  Man. 

5.  High  ;  elevated  in  fttuauon,  and  therc» 
fore  in  the  air. 

A  fpocious  city  ftood,  with  flrmeft  walls 
Sure  mounded,  and  with  numerous  turrets  crown'd. 
Aerial  fpires,  and  citadels,  the  feat 
Of  kings  and  heroes  refolute  in  war.        Philips. 


A  F  F 

A'ERtE.  n.  f.  [airie,  Fr.]  The  proper 
word,  in  hawks  and  other  birds  of  prey, 
for  that  which  we  generally  call  a  neft 
in  other  birds.  Coivell. 

Aero'logy.  n./.  [aie  and  \oy&;  Gr.] 
The  doctrine  of  the  *r. 

A'eromancv.  «./.  [aif  and  fia»)i?>  Gr.] 
The  art  of  divining  by  the  air.        Dii?. 

Aero'metry.  »./  [i^  and  (x/l^iV]  The 
art  of  meafuring  the  air.  DiiS. 

Aero'scopy.  ft./.  [a)ij  and  <r«V1«,  Gr.] 
The  obfervation  of  the  air.  DriS. 

.S'thiops-mineral.  «./  A  medicine 
fo  called,  from  its  dark  colour,  prepar- 
ed of  quickfilver  and  fulphur,  ground 
together  in  a  marble  mortar  to  a  black 
powder.  Such  as  have  ufed  it  moil, 
think  its  virtues  not  very  great,  ^incy. 

^ti'tes.  »./  [i(T^,  an  eagle.]  Eagle- 
ftone.  It  is  about  the  bignefs  of  a  chell- 
nut,  and  hollow,  with  fomewhat  in  it 
that  rattles  upon  fhaking.  ^imy. 

Afa'r.  adv.  [from  a  and  at.,  and/ar.] 
See  Far. 

1 .  At  a  great  diftance. 

So  ihaken  as  we  are,  fo  wan  with  care. 
Find  we  a  time  for  frighted  peace  to  pant, 
And  breathe  (hort-winded  accents  of  new  broils, 
To  be  commenc'd  in  ftroudj  afar  remote  ? 

Sbaiefpttirt'%  Henry  IV. 
We  hear  better  when  we  hold  our  breath  than 
contrary  ;  infomuch   as   in   liftening  to  attain  a 
foonil  tfir  off,  men  hold  th«ir  breith. 

Bacm'i  Natural  Htjiory,  N°  284. 

n.  To  or  from  a  great  diftance. 

Heftor  hiftcntd  to  relieve  his  boy  ; 
Difmifs'd  his  burnilk'd  helm  that  (hone  tfar. 
The  pride  of  warriours,  and  the  pomp  of  war. 


3.  From  afar  ;  from  a  diftant  place. 

The  rough,  furious  in  its  courfe, 
With  rapid  dreams  divides  the  fruitful  grounds, 
And/roBi  afar  in  hollow  murmur  (bunds. 

Addifon  on  holy. 

4.  Afar  off;  remotely  diftant. 

Much  fufpcfling  his  fecrct  ends,  he  entertained 
a  treaty  of  peace  with  Frante,  but  fecretly  and 
afar  off,  and  to  be  governed  as  occaiiors  (hnild 
\3xv.  Sir  J'^hn  HayivarJ. 

Afe'ard.  pJiTt'uifial  adj.    [from   to  fear, 

for  to  fright,  with  a  redundant.] 
a.  Frighted  ;  terrified  ;  afraid. 

He  loudly  bray'd,  that  like  was  never  heard. 
And  from  his  wide  devouring  oven  fer.t 
A  fhke  of  fire,  that  flafliing  in  hia  beard, 
Him  ail  amaz'd,  and  almoft  trnit  aftard. 

Fahy  Siutert. 
But  fell  me,  Hal,  art  thou  not  horridly  afiardf 
Thon  being  heir  apparent,  could  the  world  pick 
thee  out  three  fuch  enemies  again. 

Shaiefptari't  Henry  IV. 
Till  h«  cherifli  too  much  beard. 
And  make  Love,  or  me,  afrard. 

Ben  yanfoni  Underivsodj. 

2.  It  has  the  particle  of  before  the  objeft 
of  fear. 

Fear  is  defcribed  by  Spenfer  to  ride  in  armour, 
at  the  claihing  whereof  he  looks  afeard  o/himfelf. 


It  is  now  obfelete  ;  the    laft  author 
whom  I  have  found  ufing  it,  is  Sedley. 
jTFER.  n.f.  [Lat.]  The  fouth-weft  wind. 

With    adveric   blaft    upturni   them    from   the 
Notut  and  Afer,  black  with  thund'rous  clouds. 

Milieu' I  Paradife  Lifi.  It.  x. 

Afpab  j'lity.  n.f.  [affaiilile.  Ft.  af. 
fabilitai,  Lau    See  AFPAii«i.]    T'.e 

A  F  F 

quality  of  being  affable?  eafinefs  of 
manners;  courteoufnefs ;  civility  ;  con- 
defcenfion.  It  is  commonly  ufed  of 

Hearing  of  her  beauty  and  her  wit. 
Her  affaiiiity  and  bailifu!  nioderty, 
Her  wond'rous  qualities,  and  mild  behaviour. 


He  was  of  a  mod  flowing  courtefy  and  affabi- 
lity to  all  men,  and  fo  defirous  to  oblige  them, 
that  he  did  not  enough  confider  the  value  of  the 
obligation,  or  the  merit  of  the  perfon.         Clarend. 

All  inftinces  of  charity,  fwcecnefs  of  converfa- 
tloi',  affabil'uy,  admonition,  all  (ignifications  ol 
tendernefs,  care,  and  watchfulnefs,  mud  be  ex- 
prefl'ed  towards  children.  Taylor. 

It  is  impoilible  for  a  publick  minifter  to  be  fo 
open  and  eafy  to  all  his  old  friends,  as  he  was  in 
his  priva;e  condition  ;  but  this  may  be  helped  out 
by  an  affability  of  addrefs.  VEjirangi. 

A'FFABLE.  adj.  [affable,  Fr.  affahilis, 

1.  Eafy  of  manners;  accoftable ;  cour- 
teous ;  complaifant.  It  is  ufed  of  fu- 

He  waj  affable,  and  b«th  well  and  fair  fpoken, 
and  would  ufe  ftrange  fweetnefs  and  blandilh- 
ment  of  words,  where  he  delired  to  afFe^  or  per- 
fuade  any  thing  that  he  took  to  heart.  Baccn. 

Her  father  is 
An  affable  and  courteous  gentleman. 

Shaktjft.  Tarn*  Shrew. 

Gentle  to  me  and  affable  hath  been 
Thy  condefcenfion,  and  (liall  be  honour'd  ever 
With  graceful  memoty.  Mit'tan'i  Par.  Lo/1,  b.  viii. 

2.  It  is  applied  to  the  external  appear- 
ance; benign;   mild;  favourable. 

Augudus  appeared,  loi-king  round  him  with  a 
fcrene  and  affable  countenance  upon  all  the 
writers  of  his  age.  Tatlir. 

A'ffableness.  n.  f.  [from  affable. '\ 
Courtefy ;  affability. 

A'ffably.  adv.  [from  affable.']  In  an 
.  affable  manner ;  courteoufly  ;  civilly. 

A'fpabrous.  adj.  [affabre,  Fr.]  Skil- 
fully made ;  complete ;  iinilhed  in  a 
workman-like  manner.  DUl. 

Aff abula'tion.  n.f.  \affabulatu>,  Lat.] 
The  moral  of  a  fable.  Dia. 

Affa'ir.  n.f,  [affaire,  Fr.]  Bufinefs  ; 
fomething  to  be  managed  or  tranlafted. 
It  is  ufed  for  both  private  and  public 

1  wai  not  born  for  courts  or  great  affairi ; 
I  pay  my  debts,  believe,  and  fay  my  prayers.    Pofie. ' 

A  good  acquaintance  with  method  will  greatly 
alTiii  every  one  in  ranging,  difpofing,  and  manag- 
ing all  human  affairs.  tVatti's  Lcg'uk.  St.  John's  (kill  in  date  affairs. 
What  Orm'>nd's  valour,  Oxford'^  cares, 
To  aid  their  (inking  country  lent. 
Was  all  dcftroy'd  by  one  cv  -nt.  Sivift. 

To  Afpe'ar.  v.  n.  [from  affer,  Fr.]  To 
confirm  ;  to  give  a  fandion  to ;  to 
eftablifti :  an  old,  term  of  law. 

Bleed,  bleed,  poor  country  ! 
Great  tyranny,  lay  thou  thy  balis  furc; 
For  gnodncfs  ilares  not  check  thee  ! 
His  title  is  offrar'd.  Sbattfp.  Marheth. 

Affe'ct.  n.f.  [from  the  verb  nffeB.] 
1.  Affeftion  ;  pafllon  ;  fenfation. 

It    leemcth  that   as  the  feet  have  a   fymprthy 
with   the   head,    fo   the  wrifts  have  a  fympathy 
with  the  heart;  we  fee  the  affeds  and  pallions  of  i 
the  heart  and  fpirits  are  notably  difclofed  by  the 
pulfe.  Bacon's  Natural  Hifliry,  a"  ij-j. 

z.   Quality;  circumftance. 

1  (ind  it  difficult  to  make  out  one  fmgle  ulcer, 
as  authors  defcrifae  it,  without  other  fjmptoms  or 
affea-.  joined  to  it.  ifijcman. 

A  F  F 

This  IS  only  the  antiquated  worJ  for 
To  AFFE'CT.  t/.  a.  [affe^er,  Fr.  affdo, 
affeilum,  Lat.] 

1 .  To  aft  upon  ;  to  produce  effefts  in  any 
other  thing. 

The  fun 
Had  (ird  his  precept  fo  to  move,  fo  /hine. 
As  might  afftSi'Cm  earth  with  cold  and  heat, 
Scarce  tolerable.  Milton's  Paradife  Lojf,  h.  x, 

The  generality  of  men  are  wholly  governed  by 
names,  in  matters  of  good  and  evil ;  fo  far  ae 
thefe  qualities  relate  to,  and  aff^^,  the  a£^ions  of 
men.  Soutb's  Sermons. 

Yet  even  thofe  two  particles  do  reciprocally 
afftB  each  other  with  the  fame  force  and  vigour, 
ii  they  would  do  at  the  fame  didance  in  any  other 
fituation  imaginable.  Ben'ley's  Sermons, 

2.  To  move  the  paffions. 

As  a  thinking  man  cannot  but  be  very  much 
affc3cd  with  the  idea  of  his  appearing  in  the  pre- 
fence  of  that  Being,  whom  none  can  fee  and  live; 
he  mud  be  much  more  affiSled,  when  he  con- 
liders,  that  this  Being,  whom  he  appears  before, 
will  examine  the  actions  of  his  life,  and  reward  or 
puni(h  bim  accordingly. 

AJdijon,  SpeBai»r„  N»  513. 

3.  To  aim  at ;  to  endeavour  after :  fpoken 
of  perfons. 

Atrldes  broke 
His  filence  next,  but  ponder'd  ere  he  fpoke  : 
Wife  are  thy  words,  and  glad  I  would  obey. 
But  this  proud  man  affells  imperial  fway. 

Dryden's  Iliad. 

4.  To  tend  to;  to  endeavour  after;  fpoken 
of  things. 

The  drops  of  every  fluid  affiSl  a  round  figure^ 
by  the  mutual  attraftion  of  their  parts  ;  as  the 
globe  of  the  earth  and  fea  affeHs  a  round  figur*, 
by  the  mutual  attra(3ion  of  its  parts  by  gravity. 

Neivton's  Optich. 

5.  To  be  fond  of;  to  be  pleafed  with; 
to  love;  to  regard  with  fondnefs. 

That  little  which  fomc  of  the  heathen  did 
chance  to  hear,  concerning  fuch  matter  as  the 
facred  Scripture  plentifully  containeth,  they  did 
in  wonderful  fort  affe^.  Hookerj  b,  i. 

There  is  your  crown  ; 
And  he  that  wears  the  crown  immortally, 
Ixing  guard  it  yours  !   If  I  affcfi  it  more. 
Than  as  your  honour,  and  as  your  renown. 
Let  me  no  more  from  this  obedience  rife. 

Sbakefpcare' s  Henry  IV. 

Think  not  that  wars  wc  love,  and  drift;  affeB  ; 
Or  that  we  hate  fweet  peace.  Fairfax,  b»  ii, 

-None  but  a  woman  could  a  man  diredl 
To  tell  us  women  what  vie  mo<i  affefl. 

Dryd.  mfe  of  Batb. 

6.  To  make  a  Ihew  of  fomething ;  to 
ftudy  the  appearance  of  any  thing  j 
with  feme  degree  of  hypocrify. 

Another  nymph,  amongd  the  many  fair, 
Before  the  reft  affeaed  dill  to  ftand. 
And  watch'd  my  eye,  preventing  my  command. 


Thcfe  often  carry  the  humour  fo  far,  till  their 
afffSled  coldncfs  and  indifFcrcncc  quire  kills  all- the 
fondnefs  of  a  lover.       Addifon,  Speffator,  N°  j  7 1. 

Coquet  and  coy  at  once  her  air. 
Both  dudicd,  though  both  li^em  negledled ; 

Carelefs  (he  is  with  artful  c^e, 
AffcSling  to  feem  una(feftcd.  Congreve, 

The  confcious  hulband,  whom  like  fymptomi 
Charges  on  her  the  guilt  of  their  dlfeafe  ; 
Affiiiing  fury,  adls  a  madman's  part. 
He'll  ri|i  the  fatal  fccret  from  her  heart.  Gran-vlllr. 

7.  To  imitate  in  an  unnatural  and  con- 
ftrained  manner. 

Sj  enfer,  in  affiBing  the  ancients,  writ  no  lan- 
guage ;  yet  1  would  have  him  read  for  his  matter, 
but  as  Virgil  read  £noius. 

Stnjonjun'i  D'lfcoveries, 

8.  T* 

A  F  F 

8.  To  convift  of  fome  crime ;  to  attaint 
with  guilt ;  a  phrafe  merely  juridical. 

By  the  civil  law,  if  a  dowry  with  a  wife  be  pro- 
ttiifed  and  not  paid,  the  hultand  is  not  obliged  to 
•llow  her  alimony.  But  if  her  parents  (hall  be- 
come infolvent  by  fome  misfortune,  (he  (lull  have 
alimony,  unlefs  you  can  affifi  them  with  fraud, 
in  promifing  what  they  knew  they  were  not  able 
to  perform.  Ayliffc's  Partr^m. 

AFFECTA'TiON.  «./.  [offiiHalio,  Lat.J 
I.    Fondnefs  ;    high    degree    of    liking; 
commonly  with  fome  degree  of  culpa- 

In  things  of  tlieir  own  nature  indifferent,  if 
either  councils  or  particular  men  have  at  any 
■  time,  with  found  judgment,  mifliked  conformity 
between  the  church  of  God  and  infiJcls,  the  caufe 
thereof  hath  been  fomewhat  clfe  than  only  affrc- 
tathn  of  diflimilitude.  Huetf,  k,  iv.  ^  7. 

*.  An  artificial  Ihew  ;  an  elaborate  ap- 
pearance ;  a  falfe  pretence. 

It  has  been,  from  age  to  age,  an  afiHalion  to 
love  the  pleafurc  of  folitude,  among  thole  who 
cannot  pofTibly  be  fuppofed  qualifi'd,  for  pafling 
life  in  that  manner.  Sftfialor,  N"  264. 

Affe'cted.  participial  adj.  [  from  affi3.'\ 
I.   Moved;    touched  with  affedtion  ;    in- 
ternally difpofed  or  inclined. 
No  marvel  then  if  he  were  ill  affiBtd. 

Sbake/f,  King  Lear, 
The  model  they  feemed  afftfftd  to  in  their  di- 
reftory,  was  not  like  to  any  of  the   foreign  re- 
formed churches  now  in  the  world.         Clarendon, 

X,  Studied  with  over-much  care,  or  with 
hypocritical  appearance. 

Thefe  antick,  lifping,  affeBed  f\\inX3S\ss,  thefe 
■new  tuners  of  accents.     Shakr/p.  Rcmeo  and  Juliet . 

5.  In  a  perfonal  fenfe,  full  of  affeflation  ; 

as,  an  affeSed  lady. 
Affe'ctedly.  adv.  [from  affeiled.'] 

1.  In  an  aifefted  manner;  hypocritically  ; 
with  more  appearance  than  reality. 

Perhaps  they  are  affeHedly  ignorant ;  they  arc 
fo  willing  it  (hould  be  true,  that  they  have  not  at- 
tempted to  examine  it. 

Gmernmeitt  of  the  Tongue,  §  5. 

Some  indeed  have  been  fo  amBedly  vain,  as  to 
jfountetfeit  immortality,  and  have  (lolen  their 
deathf  in  hopes  to  be  efteemed  immortal. 

Brcnvn'i  Vulgar  Errours,  h.  vii.  c.  10. 

By  talking  fo  familiarly  of  one  hundred  and  ten 
thoufand  pounds,  by  a  tax  upon  a  few  commo- 
dities, it  is  plain,  you  arc  either  naturally  or  af- 
feOedl)  Ignorant  of  our  condition.  Sivifi. 

2.  Studioufly  ;  with  laboured  intention. 

Some  mifperiuafions  concerning  the  divine  at- 
tributes, tend  to  "the  corrupt  nj  men's  manners, 
a»  if  they  were  deligned  and  afftBtdty  chofen  for 
that  purpofe.  Duay  t,f  Piety. 

Affe'ctedness.  n.  /.  [from  affiled.'] 
The  quality  of  being  affefted,  or  of 
making  falfe  appearances. 

AFFE'CTION.  «./  [etffeaio,,,  Fr.  ajec- 
tio,  Lat.] 

1.  The  ftate  of  being  affedled  by  any 
caufe,  or  agent.  This  general  fenfe  is 
little  in  ufe. 

Some  men  there  arc  love  not  a  gaping  pig  j 
Some  tliat  are  mad  if  they  behold  a  cat ; 
And  others,  when  the  bag-pipe  fings  i'  th'nofe, 
Cannot  contain  their  urine,  for  afftFl'ion. 

Shaktff.  Mtrthatit  of  Venice. 

2.  Paffion  of  any  kind. 

Then'gan  the  Palmer  thus;  moft  wretched  mm, 
That  to  affcBient  Joes  the  bridle  lend  ; 

In  their  beginning  they  are  weak  and  wan, 
But  foon  through  fufferance  grow  to  fearful  end. 

Fairy  Siueen. 

Impute  it  to  my  late  foUtaty  life,  which  is  prone 

»fft£liinu  Sidney,  k.  i. 

A  F  F 

jlfftHicni,  at  joy,  grief,  fear,  and  anger,  with 
fuch  like,  being,  at  it  were,  the  fundry  falhions 
and  forms  of  appetite,  can  neither  rife  at  the 
conceit  of  a  thing  Indifferent,  nor  yet  choofe  but 
rife  at  the  fight  of  fome  things.  Honker,  h.  i. 

To  fpeak  truth  of  Ciefar, 
I  have  not  known  when  his  affcCJicn:  fway'd 
More  than  his  reafon.  Shakeff.  Julius  Cafar. 

Zeal  ought  to  be  compofed  of  the  higheft  de- 
geees  of  pious  affcftions ;  of  which  fome  are  mil- 
der and  gentler, Tome  (harper  and  more  vehement. 
Sprat^i  Sermons. 

I  can  prefent  nothing  beyond  this  to  your  af- 
fedions,  to  excite  your  love  and  defirc.       Tilhlfin. 

3.  Love  ;  kindnefs  ;  good-will  to  fome 
perfons  ;  often  with  to  or  ttrjjardi  be- 
fore the  perfon. 

I  have  acquainted  you 
With  the  dear  love  I  bear  to  fair  Ann  Page, 
Who  mutually  hath  anfwer'd  my  affcBion. 

Shakcfp.  Merry  tfives  of  fVindfor. 
My  king  is  tangled*  in  affeHion  to 
A  creature  of  the  queen's,  l.idy  Anne  BuUen. 

What  warmth  is  there  in  your  affeliiom  totiards 
any  of  thefe  princely  fuitors  ? 

Sbakefp.  Merchant  of  Vt  nice. 
Make  his  intercft  depend  upon  mutual  ajffiSion 
and  good  correfpondence  with  others. 

Collier  on  General  Kindnefs. 
Nor  at  firft  fight,  like  moft,  admires  the  fair; 
For  y<  u  he  lives,  and  you  alone  (lull  (hare 
His  laft  affcBion,  as  his  early  care.  Pofe. 

4.  Good-will  to  any  objeft ;  zeal ;  paf- 
lionate  regard. 

I  have  realbn  to  dlllruft  mine  own  judgment, 
as  that  which  may  be  overborn  by  my  zeal  and 
affcBion  to  this  caufe.  Bacin. 

Set  your  affcBion  upon  my  words ;  de(ire  them, 
and  ye  (hall  be  inrtruited.  IVijUom,  vi.  11. 

His  integrity  to  the  king  was  without  biemi(h, 
and  his  affefiion  to  the  church  fo  notorious,  that 
he  never  dcferted  it.  Clarendon. 

All  the  precepts  of  Chriflianity  command  us  to 
moderate  our  p.idions,  to  temper  our  a^eBicnt  to- 
•wards  all  things  below.  Temple. 

Let  not  the  mind  of  a  ftudent  be  under  the 
influence  of  warm  affeBi''*  to  things  of  fenfe, 
when  he  comes  to  the  ft  arch  of  truth. 

Walts' s  Improvement  of  the  Mind. 

5.  State  of  the  mind,  in  general. 

There  grows. 
In  my  moft  iU-compos'd  afftfiim,  fuch    . 
A  l^anchlcfs  avarice,  that  w'ere  I  king, 
1  (hould  cut  o(i*the  nobles  for  their  lands. 

Shahfpeare's  Af.uhetb. 
The  man  that  hath  no  mufick  in  hirafelf. 
Nor  is  not  mov'd  with  concord  of  fweet  founds. 
Is  At  for  treafons,  ftratagems,  and  fpoils ; 
The  motions  of  his  fpirit  are  dull  as  night, 
And  his  affeiiicns  dark  as  Erebus : 
Let  no  fuch  man  be  trudcd. 

Sbakejp,  Mercb,  of  Venice. 

6.  Quality  ;  property. 

The  certaintyand  accuratenefs  which  is  attributed 
to  what  mathematicians  deliver,  muft  be  reftrained 
to  whac  they  teach,-  concerning  thofe  purely  ma- 
thematical difciplines,  arithmetick  and  geometry, 
where  the  affeBions  of  quantity  are  abftradtedly 
confidered.  Boyle. 

The  mouth  being  neccffary  to  conduit  the  voice 
to  the  fliapc  of  its  cavity,  necclTarily  gives  the 
voice  fome  particular  affeBion  of  found  in  its  paf- 
fagc  before  it  come  to  the  lips. 

Holder's  Elements  of  Speech. 

God  may  have  joined  immaterial  fouls  to  other 
kinds  of  bodies,  and  in  other  laws  of  union  ;  and, 
from  thofe  different  laws  of  union,  there  will 
arife  quite  different  affcBions,  and  natures,  and 
fpecies  of  th^:  compound  beings.     Bentlfy's  Sermons, 

7.  State  of  the'body,  as  afted  upon  by  any 

It  feemed  to  me  a  venereal  gonorrheea,  and  others 
thought  it  arofe  from  fome  fcorbutical  affeBion. 

fVifextn'i  Surgery. 

A  F  F 

8.  Lively  reprefentation  in  painting. 

AffeBion  is  the  lively  reprefentment  of  any  paf- 
fion whatfocvet,  as  if  the  figures  (lood  not  upon  * 
cloth  or  board,  but  as  if  they  were  afting  upon  a 
ftage.  ,    ,        ffctton's  ArcbittBure. 

9.  It  is  ufcd  by  Shakefpeare  fometime* 
for  afftBatio't. 

There  w  is  rothing  in  it  that  could  'indift  the 
author  of  eiffeBicn.  Stakcfptart. 

Affe'ction ATE.  adj.  [affeaionne,  Fr. 
from  affeilion.'\ 

1 .  Full  of  auedlion ;  ftrongly  moved-j 
warm  ;  zc3:lou$. 

Ii>  Iheif  love  of  God,  and  defire  to  pleafe  himi 
men  can  never  be  too  affcBicnatc :  and  it  is  as 
true,  that  in  their  hatted  of  Cn,  men  may  be 
fom^t-mcs  too  p-afiinnatc.  Spratt's  Sermons* 

2.  Strongly  inclined  to;  difpofed  to; 
with  the  particle  to. 

As  for  the  parliament,  it  prefently  took  (ire, 
being  cffeB'ionate,  of  o.U,  rt  the  war  of  France. 

Bacons  Henry  VII, 

3.  Fond  ;  tender. 

He  found  me  fitting,  beholding  this  pifiure,  I 
know  not  with  how  afeBiorate  countenance,  but, 
I  am  fure,  with  a  mcll  affcBioiuste  mind.     Siiny, 

Away  trey  fly 
AffcBionate,  and  undefiring  bear 
The  mod  delicious  morfel  to  their  young. 

Tliomfms  Spring. 

4.  Benevolent ;  tender. 

When  we  reflcdl  on  all  this  aJfcBionate  care  of 
Providence  for  our  happincfs,  with  what  wonder 
muft  we  obfervc  the  little  effjft  it  has  on  men  ! 

R'-gcrs's  Sermons, 
Affe'ctjon ATELY.    adv.    [from  ajic- 
t innate.]     In    an    affeftionate    manner ; 
fondly  ;  tenderly  ;  benevolently. 
Affe'ction  ateness.    rt. /.    [from    af- 
feBionate."]    The  quality  or  ftate  of  be- 
ing afFeftionate  ;  fondnefs ;  tendernefs  ; 
good-will  ;   benevolence. 
Affe'ction  ED.  adj.   [from  aJeSlien.] 

1 .  AfFefted ;  conceited.  This  fenfe  is 
now  obfolete. 

An  affeBioned  afs  that  cons  ftate  without  book, 
and  utters  it  by  great  fwaths. 

Shaktfpejre's  Ttvelftb  Night, 

2.  Inclined  ;  mentally  difpofed. 

Be  kindly  affeBioned  one  to  another. 

Rom.  xii.  lo. 

Affe'ctiously.  ad'v.  [from  nffeB.}  In 
an  affeSing  manner.  Dii}. 

Affe  ctive.  adj.  [from  affcSt.]  That 
which  affefts  ;  that  which  ftrongly 
touches.    It  is  generally  uled  for  painful. 

Pain  is  fo  uneafy  a  fentiment,  that  very  little 
of  it  is  enough  to  corrupt  every  enjoyment;  and 
the  effeft  Cod  intends  this  variety  of  ungrjteful 
and  affeBive  fentiments  (hould  have  on  us,  is  to 
reclaim  our  atfcflions  from  this  valley  of  tears. 


Affectuo'sity.  »./.  [from  ajfciluous ."l 
Paffionatenefs.  Diil. 

Apfe'ctuous.  adj.  [from  affcil."]  Full 
of  paffion  ;  as,  an  affeauous  fpecch  :  a 
word  little  ufed. 

To  Affe're.  -v.  a.  [ajisr,  Fr.]  A  law 
term,  fignifying  to  confirm.  See  To 
A  !■■  F  E  A  R . 

Affe'rors.  n./.  [from  ajfere."] 

Such  as  are  appointed  in  court-leets,  &e.  upon 
oath,  to  mulft  fuch  a<  have  committed  faults  ar- 
bitrarily puni(hable,  and  have  no  exprefs  penalty 
fet  down  by  ftatute.  Ci/ivell, 

AFFI'ANCE.  n.f.  [affiance,  from  affier, 

I.  A  mwriage-contraft. 


A  F  F 

At  lift  fuch  grace  I  found,  and  meani  I  wrought, 
Thit  1  that  lady  to  my  fpoufe  had  won. 

Accord  of  friends,  confent  of  parents  fought, 
j^arce  made,  my  happincfs  begyn. 

Fairy  ^emj  i.  n. 

2.  Truft  in  general;  confidence;  fecure 

Tb^  duke  Is  virtuous,  mild,  and  too  well  given 
To  dream  on  evil,  or  to  work  my  downfall.— 
^Ah  !    what's    more  dangeious  than  thi»  fond 

offi.;iice  f 
Seemi  he  a  dove  ?  his  feathcrj  are  but  borrowed. 
Sijkcf/.e.ire'i  Hctrry  VI. 

3.  Truft  in  the  divine  promifes  and  pro- 
teftion.  To  this  fenfe  it  is  now  almoft 

Religion  receives  man  into  a  covenant  of  gracp, 
where  there  is  pardon  reached  out  to  all  truly  pe- 
nitent finners,  and  afllHancc  prooufed,  and  en- 
gaged, and  beftowed  upon  very  cafy  conditions, 
vis.  humility,  prayer,  and  afijnce  in  him. 

Uopmond's  Fundmrurleh. 

There  can  be  no  furer  way  to  fucccfs,  than  by 
ffclain-.tng  all  confidence  in  ourleJvcs,  and  refer- 
jint;  the  events  of  things  to  God  with  an  implicit 
aftjnce,  Atterbury^s  Serrmnt* 

To  Affi'ance.   "v.  a.    [from   the  noun 

1 .  To  betroth  ;  to  bind  any  one  by  pro- 

mife  to  marriage. 

To  me,  fad  maid,  or  rather  widow  fad, 
He  was  a^anced  long  time  before. 

And  facred  pledges  he  both  gave  and  had  j 
Filfcj  errant  Icaighc,  infamous,  and  forefwore. 

Fa'try  Sluan, 

Her  ftiuld  Angelohavc  married,  was  a^anced  to 
her  b)  oath,  and  the  nuptial  appointed  ;  between 
which  time  of  the  contra^,  and  limit  of  the  fo- 
lemnity,  his  brother  was  wrecked,  having  in  that 
veiM  the  dowry  of  his  lifter. 

Shahjfearti  Meafurifar  Mtajure* 

I.  To  give  confidence. 

Strjngei- !  wh  e'er  thou  art,  fecurely  reft 
Affjnc'd  in  my  faith,  a  friendly  gued. 

Po/te's  OJ}Jpy- 
ArFl'AKCER.    K. /.   [from  affiance.]     He 
that  makes  a  contraft  of  marriage  be- 
tween two  parties.  Did. 
Affida'tion.  l"./.  [from  affii/o,  Lat. 
Akfida'ture.  J  See  Affied.]    Mutual 
coatraft  ;  mutual  oarh  of  fidelity.  Diil. 
Affida'vit.    »./  [njii/a'vit  figni&es,  in 
the  language  of  the  common    law,    he 
mode  talh.]    A  declaration  upon  oath. 

You  faid,  if  1  return'd  next  *fize  in  Lent, 
I  flioulu  be  in  remitter  of  your  grace  ; 
In  th'  interim  my  letters  (hould  take  place 
Of  nff.da-vin.  D',nne. 

Cjunt  Rechteren  Ih^uM  have  m.ide  ajjiAai-it 
that  his  fervants  had  been  aSronted,  and  then 
Monficur  Mcfiia^cr  wouid  have  dsne  him  juf^icc. 
Spiiliiior,  N '  4S I . 
Afpi'ed.  participial  adj.  [from  the  verb 
ojy,  derived  from  ajfido,  Lat.  Brafton 
uling  the  phrafe  afidare  mulieres.]  Join- 
ed by  coutraii  ;  affianced. 

Be  we  affuii-,  and  fuch  aHurancc  ta'en, 
Asrhallwithcithcrpart'*ia^reeni«ntltand.  Shaktjp. 
A  F  F I L  r  a't  I  o  N .  n.f.   [  from  ad  and  fiUui, 
Lat.]     Adoption;  the  aft  of  taking- a 
for..  Chamtcrs. 

A'ffinace.   n. /,    [ttffiaage,   I'r.]     The 
aft  of  refining  metals  by  the  cupel.  Dicl. 
Af  fi'ned.  adj.  [from  affinii,  Lat.]  Join- 
ed  by  affinity    to   another ;  related   to 

If  p  irtially  affin'd,  or  leagu'd  in  office, 
Thou  doft  deliver  more  or  lefs  than  truth, 
Thou  art  no  foldicr.  Sbahfprtri't  Oliilh. 

A  F  F 

Affi'nitv.  «.  /  [ajiitite.  Ft.  from  a/, 
f.nii,  Lat.] 

1.  Relation  by  marriage;  relation  con- 
trafted  by  the  h'jibaud  to  the  kindred 
of  the  wife,  and  by  the  wife  to  thofe  of 
the  hufband.  It  is  oppofed  to  conjan- 
guinity,  or  relation  by  birth. 

In  this  fenfe  it  has  fometiraes  the  par- 
ticle •■with,  and  fometimes  to,  before  the 
perfon  to  whom  the  relation  is  contraftcd. 

Tliey  had  left  none  alive,  by  the  blindnefs  of 
rage  killing  many  guiltlefs  perfons,  cither  fir 
affir'ity  ta  the  tyrant,  or  enmity  to  the  tyrant-kil- 
lers. Sidney,  b.  ii. 

And  Solomon  made  affinity  taith  Pharaoh  king 
of  Egypt,  and  took  Pharaoh  s  daughter. 

I  Kings,  iii.  I. 

A  breach  was  made  with  France  itfelf,  notwith- 
ftanding  f)  (irait  an  rjiriy,  fo  lately  accomplilhed ; 
as  if  indeed  (according  to  that  pleafant  maxim  of 
ftate)  kingdoms  were  never  married.  fyomn. 

2.  Relation  to  ;  connexion  with  ;  refera- 
blance  to  :  fpoken  of  things. 

The  Britifh  tongue,  or  Welfh,  was  In  ufe  only 
in  this  iflar.d,  having  great  affinity  luitt  the  old 
Callick.  Camden. 

All  things  that  have  affinity  toiih  the  heavens, 
move  upon  the  center  of  another,  which  they  be- 
nefit. Bacon,  Effiay  xxiv. 
The  art  of  painting  bath  wonderful  affinity  with 
that  of  poetry.  Dryd.  Dufrcjnoy,  jfrtf. 
Man  is  more  diftinguilhed  by  devotion  than  by 
reafon,  as  feveral  brute  creatures  difcover  fome- 
thing  like  reafcn,  thou^jh  they  betray  not  any 
thing  ttut  bears  the  Icall  affinity  tn  devotiutu 

MJipn,  Sfecl.  No  zoi. 
Tc  AFFI'RM.  V.  n.   [affirmo,  Lat.]      To 
declare  ;    to  tell   confidently  :   oppofed 
to  the  word  deny. 

Yet  their  own  authors  faithfully  affirm. 
That  the  land  Salike  lies  in  Germany, 
Between  the  floods  of  Sala  and  of  Elve. 

Sbakejf.  Henry  V. 
To  Affi'rm.  «y.  a, 

1 .  To  declare  pofitively ;  as,  to  affrm  a 

2.  To  ratify  or  approve  a  former  law,  or 
judgment :  oppofed  to  rcverfe  or  repeal. 

The  houfe  of  peers  hath  a  power  of  judicature 
in  fome  cafes,  properly  to  examine,  and  then  to 
affirm  ;  or,  if  there  be  caufe,  to  revcrfc  the  judg- 
ments wliich  have  been  given  in  the  court  of  king's 
bench.  Bacm'i  Ad-vice  10  Sir  G.  fi/lien. 

In  this  fenfe  we  fay,  fo  affirm  the  truth. 
Afpi'r  M  ABLE.  «i^'.  \ixc3m.  affirm.]  That 
which  may  be  affirmed. 

Thofe  attributes  and  coucepcrons  that  were  ap- 
plicable and  offirmabU  of  him  'vhen  prefcnt,  arc 
now  affirmable  and  applicable  to  him  though  pal^. 
Haters  Origin  of  Mankind. 

Affi'rmance.  n.f.  [from  affirm.]  Con- 
firmation :  oppofed  to  repeal. 

Thio  AatutE  did  but  rel'.orc  an  ancient  fta- 
tute,  which  was  itfelf  alio  made  but  in  affirmance 
of  the  common  law.  Bacnn. 

Appi'hmant.  n.f.  [itom  affirm.]  The 
perfon  that  affirms  ;  a  declarer.      Diil. 

Affi  rma'tion.  n.f.   [affirmatio,  hat.] 

1.  The  aft  of  affirming  or  declaring  :  op- 
pofed to  negation  or  denial. 

This  gentleman  vou*.hes, upon  warrant  of  bloody 
affirmation,  hik  to  be  more  virtuous,  and  lefs  at- 
temptable,  than  any  of  our  ladies. 

Sbate/peare't  Cymhirme. 

2.  The  pofition  afftrmed. 

That  he  ShM  receive  nu  benefit  from  Chrift,  is 
the  affirmation  whereon  his  dcfpair  is  founded  ;  and 
one  \\ay  of  removing  this  difmal  apprehenlion,  is, 
to  cgnvinu  lum,  that  Chriil't  de«tli,  if  he  per- 

A  F  F 

form  the  condition  required,  {hall  certainly  belong 
to  him.  Hammcnd^i  Fundametitalu 

3.  Confirmation  :  oppofed  to  repeal. 

The  learned  in  the  laws  of  our  land  obferve, 

that  out  ftatutes  fometimes  are  only  itic  affirmation, 

or  ratification,  of  that  which,  by  common  law,  was 

held  before.  Hooker. 

Affirmative,  adj.   [fiom  ^^rw.] 

1,  That  which  affirms,  oppofed  to  uega- 
fi've  ;  in  which  fenfe  we  ufe  the  affirma- 
tii'i  abfolutely,  that  is,  the  affirmati-ve 

for  the  affirmative,  we  are  now  to  anfwer  fuch 
proofs  of  theirs  as  have  been  before  alleged. 


Whether  there  are  fuch  beings  or  not,  'ti^  juffi- 
cient  for  my  puvpofe,  that  many  have  bcl'ev.d 
the  affirmative.  Dryd.n. 

2,  That  which  can  or  may  be  affirmed  :  a 
fenfe  ufed  chiefly  in  fcience. 

As  in  algebra,  where  a/^rma/ii<«  quantities  va- 
nlflr  or  ccafe,  there  negative  ones  begin;  fo  in 
mechanick?,  where  attradion  ceafes,  there  a  re- 
pulfive  virtue  ought  to  fucceed.  Netut.  Opt. 

3,  Applied  to  perfons,  he  who  has  the 
habit  of  affirming  with  vehemence  ;  po- 
fitive ;  dogmatical. 

Be  not  confident  and  affirmative  in  an  uncer- 
tain matter,  but  report  thmgs  modeftly  and  tem* 
peratcly,  according  to  the  degree  of  that  perfua- 
fion,  which  is,  or  ought  e>  be,  begotten  by  the 
efficacy  of  the  authority,  or  the  realon,  inducing 
thee.  Taylor. 

AFFi'RMATlvBLy.  «</*.  [from  affirnux' 
ti-ve.]  In  an  affirmative  manner;  on 
the  poUtive  fide  ;  not  negatively. 

The  reafon  of  man  hath  no  fuch  reftiaints 
concluding  not  only  affirmatively,  but  negatively; 
not  only  affirming,  there  is  no  magnitude  beyond 
the  lall  heavens,  but  alfo  denying,  theie  is  any 
vacuity  within  them.  Brown  i  Vtilgar  Errours. 
Affi'rmer.  ».  /.  [from  affirm.]  The 
perfon  that  affirms. 

If  by  the  word  virtue,  the  affirmer  intends  our 
whole  duty  to  God  and  man  ;  and  the  denier,  by 
the  vi-ord  virtue,  means  only  courage,  or,  at 
moft,  our  duty  toward  our  neighbour,  without  in- 
cluding, in  the  idea  of  it,  the  duty  which  we  owe 
to  God.  fVatts't  Logitkt 

To  AvFl'x.  -v.  a.  [affigo,a^xHm,'L^i>.] 

1.  To  unite  to  the  end,  or  apojieriori;  to 

He  that  has  fettled  in  his  mind  determined 
ideas,  with  names  affixed  to  them,  will  be  able 
to  difcern  their  difTerences  one  from  another. 


If  men  conftantly  affixed  applaufe  and  difgrace 

where  they  ought,  the  principle  of  fliame  would 

have  a  very  good  influtnce  on  publick  conduftj 

though  on  fecret  viilinies  it  lays  no  rellraint. 

Rogtrs't  Sermam. 

2.  To  conneft  confequentially. 

The  d"£lrine  of  irrefiftibility  of  grace,  in  work, 
ing  whatfoever  it  works,  if  it  be  acknowledged, 
there  is  nothing  to  be  affixt  to  gratitude. 

Hammotid'i  Fundamentals 

3.  Simply  to  fatten  or  fix.     Obfulete. 

Her  modcli  eyes,  abafhed  to  behold 
So  many  gazers  as  on  her  do  Hare, 
Upon  the  lowly  ground  affixed  arc.  Spenfcr. 

Affi'x.  ?i.f.  [affixum,  hs-t.]  A  term  of 
grammar.  Something  united  to  the  end 
of  a  word. 

In  the  Hebrew  language,  the  nr.un  has  its  affixi, 
to  denote  the  pronouns  poiicHive  or  relative. 

C/jrie's  Latin  Grammar. 
Affi'xion,  n.f.  [from  affix.] 

1.  The  aft  of  affixing. 

2.  The  ftate  of  being  affixed.  ^  DiiT. 

a  AF^•LA'T^o^. 

A  F  F 

Afpia'tion.  »./.  [/7^o, /i^atum,  L».t.] 
The  kEL  of  breathing  upon  any  thinj;. 


jtFFLJTrS.  r.  f.  [Lat.]  Coromuni 
cation  oKthe  power  of  prophecy,. 

The  poet  writing  ngainrt  his  genius,  will  be 
nke  ■^  projliet  withoac  his  afiatus. 

SfcKct  nil  tbt  Oiiffiy. 
7'e    AFFLI'CT.  1'.  a.    [afiiao,  affliaum, 

I .  To  put  to  pain  ;    to  grieve ;   to  tor- 

It  tucheth  us  how  God  thought  fit  to  pliguc 

■  and   affi'iti   them;    it  doth  not  appoint  in  what 

form  and  manner  »•  ought  to  punifli  the  fin  ol 

idohtry  ir)  others.  Ihdlcr,  h.  v.  §  17. 

O  coward  conl'ciencc,  how  doft  thou  agliil  mc ! 
The  lights  burn  blue — Is  it  not  dead  mijiiight  ? 
Coid  tearful  drop«  tUnd  on  my  trembling  fle/h. 


Give  nnt  over  thy  mind  to  heavinefs,  and  affiiH 
not  thyfglfin  thireown  counfel.   Ecclus.  xxt.  zi. 

A  father  aJjUSltd  ivith  untimely  mourning,  when 
lie  hath  made  an  image  of  his  child  foon  taken 
awiy,  now  honoured  him  as  a  God,  which  was 
then  a  dead  man,  and  delivered  to  tliofe  that  were 
under  him  ceremonies  and  facrifices.  ffiftiuit, 

A  melancholy  tear  tiJliBs  my  eye. 
And  my  heart  labours  with  a  fudden  figh.    Prior. 
Z.  The  paffiv  e  to  be  nffliaed,  has  often  at 
before  the  caufal  noun ;  by  is  likewife 

'I  he  mother  was  fo  affllStd  at  the  lofs  of  a  fine 
boy,  who  was  her  only  fon,  that  (he  died  for  grief 
of  ".   ^  Add'Jan,  HfcB. 

Affli'ctrdness.  n.  f.  \itom  affliaed.'] 
The  ftate  of  affliftion,  or  of  being  af- 
flided  ;  forrowfulnefs  ;  grief. 

Afpli'cter.  ». /.  [from  a^;V7.]  The 
perfon  that  affliils. 

Affli'ction.  n.f.    [a^iaic,  Lzt.] 

I .  The  caufc  of  pain  or  forrow  ;  calamity. 

To  the  flclh,  as  the  apoftle  himfdf  granteth, 

all  afflmion  it  naturally  grievous ;  therefore  na- 

^,  tiire,  which  caufeth  fear,  tcacheth  to  pray  againft 

all  adverfity.  JUokcr,  h.  v.  §.4?. 

We'll  bring  you  to  one  that  you  have  cozened 
uf  m  )ney  ;  I  think  to  repay  that  money  will  be  a 
V-ing  ^fflirtm,  SL-Jkcffcare. 

2. 'The    ftate   of   forrowfulnefs;    mifery : 
'oppofed  toyoy  or  prc/perity. 

Bjfidci  you  know, 
Profperity's  the  vei-y  bond  of  love, 
Whofe  frelh   complexion,    and    whofe  heart   to- 
jff.l'Jkn  altera.  Shaieff,.  trimn's Tall. 

Where  fliall  we  find  the  man  that  bears  aMk- 


,   Great  and  majeftic  in  hit  grieft,  like  Cato  ? 

AdtlifaCi  Crf/c. 
Some  virtues  are  only  fccn  in  iiffliahr,  and  fomc 
in  profperily.  Mii}J'M,  Sptliaf.r,  ti't^y. 

Akfm'ctive.  a///,  [from  ajlia.]  That 
which  caufes  aihidtion  ;  painful ;  tor- 

Tiiey  tiund  martyrdom  a  duty  drefled  up  in- 
deed with  all  that  was  terrible  and  ajp.-flive  to 
huHjan  nature,  yet  not  at  all  the  lefs  a  duty. 

Nor  con  they  find 
;,/Whe«  tJ)  rcdre  thcmfclves,'or  where  appeafe    •  '. 
I   2!     'V^"''^' J'-'^"    c.irc  of  food,  expos  J 

To  windj,  and  ftorms,  and  jaws  of  fava^e  death. 

Reftlefs  Ptoferpine — 
—On  the  fpacious  land  and  liquid  main 
Spreads  (low  difeafc,  and  darts  aJllU'mi  pain. 


A'rrLWENCE.  ,,. /.  [aj^mtce,  Fr.  nfflu- 
*«//«,  Lat. J 

A  F  F 

1.  The  aft  of  flowing  to  any  place;  con- 
courfe.     It  is  almoft  always  ufed  figu 

I  (hall  not  relate  the  affvenic  of  young  nobles 
from  hence  into  Spain,  after  the  voice  of  our 
pri^tc  being  therr  liaJ  been  nnlfcd.  H^otrcr. 

2.  Exuberance  of  riches;  ftream  of  wealth ; 

Thofe  degrees  of  fortune,  whlch~give  fuUief! 
and  afflutncc  to  one  ftation,  may  be  want  and  pe- 
nury in  another.  Rcgcrt. 

Lit  joy  or  eafe,  let  affucree  or  content. 
And  the  gay  confcicnce  of  a  life  well  fpcnt, 
Calm  ev'ry  thought,  infpirit  ev'rj'  grace.        Poft. 

A'ffluency.  n.f.  The  fame  with /t/"- 

A'FFLUENT.  adj.  l^-ffiutnt.  Fr.  affluent, 

1 .  Flowing  to  any  part. 

Thefe  parts  are  no  more  than  fnundition-piles 
of  the  enfiiing  body;  which  are  afterwards  to  be 
increafcd  and  raifed  to  a  greater  bulk,  by  the 
a^K.w  blood  that  is  tranfmitted  out  of  the  mother's 
°^^'^.  }!aney  on  dnfimftiOK!. 

2,  Abundant ;  exuberant ;  wealthy. 

I  fee  thee,  Lord  and  end  of  my  defire. 
Loaded  and  bleft  with  all  the  ajftuenl  ilore, 
Which  human  vows  at  fmoking  (hrines  implore. 


A'ffluentness.  n.f.  [from  affluent.] 
The  quality  of  being  affluent.  Dia. 

A'fflux.  ti.f.  [affiuxus,  Lat.] 

1 .  Tlie  aft  of  flowing  to  fome  place  ;  af- 

2.  That  which  flows  to  another  place. 

1  he  caufe  hereof  cannot  be  a  fupply  by  pro- 
creations; crgt,  it  by  new  affiuxa  to 
London  out  of  the  country.  "*  Craunl. 

The  infant  grows  bigger  out  of  the  womb,  b\ 
agglutinating  one  affiux  of  blood  ^o.anotl)er. 

Harviy  en  Cvi:fumftwtii. 

An  animal  that  muft  lie  Hill,  receives  the  afflux 
of  colder  or  warmer,  clean  or  foul  \yater,  as  it  hap- 
pens to  come  to  it.  Locke.- 

Afflu'xion.  n.f.   [affluxioyhax,] 

1.  The  aft  of  flowing  to  a  particular 

2.  That  which  flows  from  one  place  to 

An  inflammation  either  fimple,    confifting  of 

an  ho:  and   fanguincous  affluxiou,  or  elfc  denomi- 

nablc   from  other   humours,  according  unto  the 

prcdomiaaocy  of  melancholy,  phlegm,  or  choler. 

Bro^vn^i  l^ulgar  Errouri. 

To  Affo'rd.  V,  a.  [ajourrer,  alfourra- 
ger,  Fr.] 

1.  To  yield  or  produce  ;  as,  the  fill  af- 
fords grain  ;  the  trees  afford  fruits.    This 

feems  to  be  the  primitive  fignification. 

2.  To  grant,  or  confer  any  thing;  gene- 
rally in  a  good  fenfe,  and  fometimes  in 
a  bad,  but  lefs  properly. 

So  foon  as  Maurmon  there  .irriv'd,  the  door 
To  him  did  open,  and  afforJ/J  way.  Fairy  Sluetn. 
This  is  the  coiifolatiun  of  all  good  men,  unto 
whom  his  ubiquity  a^r,/./i.  continual  comfirtand 
fecurity ;  and  this  is  the  alHiai.m  of  hell,  to  wham 
it  affiide'.h  dcfpair  and  rtmcdilefs  calamity. 

ISrcivrl'i  Vuhor  Err6urs. 

3.  To  be  able  to  fell.  It  is  uled  always 
with  reference  to  fome  certain  price  ;  as, 
/  can  afford  this  for  lefs  than  the  other. 

They  lisl  their  magazines  in  times  of  the  grcareft 
plenty,  that  li>  they  may  nj^ri/ cheaper,  nnd  in- 
Cfcafe  the  public  revenue  at  a  fmall  exp-nce  of  its 
■n^^'^'n'w'"!-  MJifon  m  Italy. 

4.  To  be  able  to  bear  expences ;  as,  tra- 

A  F  F 

ders  can  effird  more  fncry  in  peaee  than 

The  f.ime  errours  run  through  ill  families, 
where  there  is  wealth  enough  to  afford  that  their 
fons  may  be  good  for  twthing. 

S'U'ift  ^n  Motiirr  Education. 
To  AFFO'REST.  i/.  a.  [affcrcftare,  Lat.] 
To  turn  ground  into  forcft. 

It  appcareth,  by  Chana  dt  Forrfta,  that  he 
affirtjird  many  woods  and  waftes,  to  the  grievance 
of  the  fubjeft,  which  by  that  law  were  difaffo. 
retted.  S,r  Jihn  D:smcs  'n  Irtlaxi. 

Afforesta'tiok.  n.  f.  [from  afforeft.'] 

The  charter  de  Forcjlj  was  to  rcf  jj  m  the  en- 
croachments  made  in  the  time  of  RUbard  I.  and 
Henry  II.  who  had  made  new  ojftrejlar'ient,  and 
much  extended  the  rigour  of  the  foreft  laws. 

Halt's  C'.mvar.  Law  of  England. 
To  Affra'kchise.  i/.«.  {affrancbertYx.] 

To  make  free. 
To  AFFRA'Y.  -v.  a.  [effrayer,  or  effriger, 
Fr.  which  Menage  derives  from /V<7f cr  ; 
perhaps  it  comes  .  from  frigus.]  To 
fright ;  to  terrify  ;  to  ftrike  with  fear. 
This  word  is  not  now  in  ufe. 

The  fame  to  wight  he  never  would  difclofe. 
But  when  as  mongers  huge  he  would  difmay. 

Or  daunt  unequal  armies  of  his  foes, 
Or  when  the  flying  heavens  he  woiAd  affray. 

Fairy  Shtecn. 

AFFRA'Y,or  ApFRA'yMEfTT.  n.f  [from 
the  verb.] 

1.  A  tumultuous  aflault  of  one  or  more 
perfons  upon  others  ;  a  law  term.  A 
battle  :  in  this  fenfe  it  is  written //-ay. 

2.  Tumult;  confufion  :  out  of  ufe. 

Let  the  night  be  calm  and  quietf  >me. 
Without  tempcftuaus  ftorms  or  la  J  affray.  Sp!nfer. 

Afpri'ction'.  n.f.  [affriaio,  Lat.]  The 
aft  of  rubbing  one  thing  upon  another. 

I  have  divers  times  obferved,  in  wearing  filver- 
hilted  fwords,  that,  if  they  rubbed  upon  ray 
cloaths,  if  they  were  of  a  light-coloured  cloth, 
the  affriliiun  would  quickly  blacken  them ;  and, 
congruouily  hereunto,  I  have  found  pens  blacked 
almoft  all  over,  when  I  had  a  while  carried  them 
about  me  in  a  filver  cafe.  £y/«. 

To  Affri'ght.  "o.  a.  [See  Fright.] 

1.  To  afi^eft with  fear  ;  to  terrify.  It  gene- 
rally implies  a  fudden  impreffion  of  fear. 

Thy  name  affrights  me,  in  whofe  found  is  death. 
Sbakefprnre's  henry  VI, 
Godlike  his  courage  feem'd,  whom  nor  delight 
Could  foften,  nor  the  face  oi  Am'n  affright.  Waller. 

He,  when  his  country  (threaten'd  with  alarm] 
Requires  his  courage  and  his  conq'ring  arm. 
Shall,  more  tlian  once,  the  Punic  bands  affri/^bt. 
Dry/Un'i  j^neid. 

2.  It  is  ufed  in  the  paflive,  fometimes  with 
at  before  the  thing  feared. 

Thou  ftialt  not  be  affrigkud  at  them  :  for  thf 
Lord  thy  God  is  among  you.  Drut.vVi.  ai. 

3.  Sometimes  with  the  particle  iv/VA  be- 
fore the  thing  feared. 

As  one  affrigbt 
With  hetlilh  fiends,  or  furies  mad  uproar. 
He  then  uprofc.  Fairy  Slueai,  h.  ii.  car.t.  5. 

Afpri'cht.  n.f.   [from,  the  verb.} 
I.  Terrour;   fear.     This  word  is  chiefly 

As  the  moon,  doathed  With  cloudy  night,      ' 
Does  (liew  to  him  that  walks   ia   fear  and  fad 
affright.  Fairy  S^uten, 

Wide  was  his  parifh,  not  contraflcd  clofe 
In  ftieets,  but  here  and  there  a  draggling  houfe  ; 
Yet  ftill  he  was  at  hand,  without  rcqtieft. 
To  ferye  the  fick,  to  fuccour  the  diftrefs'd  ; 
Tempting,  on  /oot,  alone,  without  affright. 
The  dangcri  of  a  dirk  tcmpeftuous  mght. 

Dryden's  Faifeu 

2.  The 

A  F  F 

A  F  L 

A  F  O 

e.  The  caufe  of  fear;  a  terrible  objedl; 
dreadful  appearance. 

1  fee  the  gods 
Ufbra-d  our  fuff'rings,  and  woulj  humble  them. 
By  fending  thcfe  afrighti^  while  we  are  here, 
That  we  might  laugh  at  their  ridiculous  fear, 

B.  Jorf.  Catilhi. 

The  «-ir  at  hand  appeal  with  more  affright. 

And  rifes  cv'ry  moment  to  the  fight.  Dryd.  AEntiJ. 

Affri'ghtfui,.    ai/J.     [from    afrigbt.] 

Full  of  aft'right  or  terrour ;  terrible  ; 


There  is  an  ahfence  of  all  that  is  dcrtrufllTe  or 
effrigirful  to  humia  nature.  D^caycf  Pictv, 

Affri'chtment.  n.f.  [irom  aj'fight .^ 
t.  The  impreflion  of  fear;  terrour. 

Slie  awaked  with  the  effrighiment  of  a  dreama 

Paflionate  words  or  blows  from  the  tutor,  fill 

the  child's  mind  with  terrour  ar.d  uffrigbiirint ; 

which  immediately  takes  it  wholly  up,  np.d  leaves 

no  room  for  other  impreflion.  Locke. 

2.  The  ftnte  of  fearful nefs. 

Whether  thofe  that,  under  any  an^uifli  of 
mind,  return  to  or  doubtings,  have 
not  been  hypcrites.  Eantimr.d. 

To  AFFRO'NT.  v.  a.  [affronter,  Fr.  that 
is,   ad  front  em  Jlare  ;   ad  frontem  contu- 
tiuJiam  allidcre,  to  infult  a  man  to  his 
i.  To  meet  face  to  face  ;  to  encounter. 

■  This  feems  the  genuine  and  original 
fcnfe  of  the  word,  which  was  formerly 
indifferent  to  good  or  ill. 

We  haic  clofcly  fent  for  Hamlet  hither. 
That  he,  as  *twerc  by  accident,  may  here 
Affr^M  Ophelia,  Skahfpeare't  Hamlit. 

The  feditioui,  the  next  day,  offrintid  the  king's 
forces  at  the  cntiaice  of  a  highway ;  wliom  when 
tliL*y  found  both  ready  and  rcfolute  to  fight,  they 
dL-fir'^d  ent;rparlance.  Sir  Jr,tn  Hayivard, 

2.  To  meet,  in  an  boftile  manner,  front 
to  front. 

His  holy  rites  and  folemn  feails  profan'd, 
And  with  their  darknefs  durft  affnr.t  his  light. 

Paradijt  L;]i. 

3,  To  offer  an  open  infult;  to  offend 
avowedly.  With  refpecl  to  this  fenfe, 
it  is  obicrved  by  Cervantes,  that,  if  a 
m.m  ftrikes  another  on  the  back,  and 
then  runs  away,  the  perfon  fo  llruck  is 
\v.]\McA,\)W\.  nor.  affrDitled ;  a.n  affrcnt  dX- 
ways  implying  a  juftificationofthe  aft. 

Did  nijt  this  latjl  war  affrort  thy  coaft  .' 
Yet  fjtteil  ih.ou  an  idle  looker-on.  Fairfax,  i.  51. 

But  harm  precedes  not  fin,  only  our  foe. 
Tempting.  a^iCTtti  us  with  his  fool  cfteem 
Of  our  integrity.  Mi,'l'/n'i  Paradift  L'_H,  b.  ix. 

I  would  learn  the  canfe,  why  I'orrifmond, 
Wi;hln  my  palace  walls,  within  my  hearing, 
Almoft  within  my  fight,  affrtni)  a  prince, 
Wt.o  fbortly  Oiail  command  him. 

•  Drydtn'i  Uparijh  Friar. 

This  brings  to  mind  Faultina's  fondnel's  for  thi- 
gh liator,  and  is  interpreted  as  f;rire.  But  how 
can  one  imagine,  that  the  Fathers  would  have  dared 
t'l  affr:r.t  the  wife  of  Autelius  ?  Addijon. 

Afpro'nt.  n.f.  [from  the  ■^txh affront .'\ 

1.  Open  oppofition  ;  encounter:  a  fcnfe 
not  frequent,  though  regularly  deduci- 

■  ble  from  the  derivation. 

Frarlcfj  of  danger,  like  a  petty  god 
I  walk'd  ab'jul  admir'd  of  all,  and  dreaded 
0.1  boftilc  ground,  none  daring  my  affront, 

Samfon  A^'^fijlri, 

2.  Infult  offered  to  the  face  ;  contemptu- 
0U5  or  rude  treatment-;  contumely. 

He  wiiuld  of'rn  maiulaiu  I'lao'.ianus,  in  dnlr. ; 
»ffri,  to  hi»  fun.  Baeon'x  EJjayi. 

YouVedone  enough;  foryoudefign'd  my  chains: 
The  grace  is  vanifii'd,  but  th'  affront  remains. 

Drydof  s  Aitrengx.i:ht. 

He  that  is  found  reafonabic  in  one  tiling,  is  con- 
cluded to  be  fo  in  all  j  and  to  think  or  fay  otherwif?, 
is  thought  fo  unjurt  an  affrcr.t,  and  fo  fcnfelefs  a 
cenfurc,  that  nobody  ventures  to  do  it.  Locke. 

There  is  nothing  which  we  receive  with  fo  much 
rcluft.mce  as  advice  :  we  look  iipon  the  man  who 
gives  it  us,  as  offering  an  a/?/-';^?  to  our  uiiderftand. 
ing,  and  treating  us  like  children  or  idiots. 

Addifon'!  SfcStator,  N"  512. 

3.  Outrage  ;  aft  of  contempt,  in  a  more 
general  fenfe. 

Oft  have  they  violated 
The  temple,  oft  the  law  with  foul  affrnnn. 
Abominations  rather,    Mdr-n^s  Par.Tdife  Regained, 

4,  Difgrace  ;  (hame.  This  fenfe  is  rather 
peculiar  to  the  Scotti.1i  dialeft. 

Antonius  attacked  the  pirates  of  Crete,  and,  bv 
his  too  great  prcfumptinn,  was  defeated";  upon  the 
fenfe  of  which  affmni  he  died  with  grief. 

Ariutbr.ol  01:  Coins. 

Affro'nter.  ».yi  [{torn  affro/it.]  The 
perfon  that  affronts. 

At  f  no' XT t  KG. participial  aJJ.  [from  «/"- 
_/0-o»/.]  That  which  has  the  quality  of 
affronting  ;    contumelious. 

Among  words  which  fignify  the  fame  principal 
ideas,  fome  are  clean  and  decent,  others  unclean  ; 
fome  arc  kind,  others  are  a/froiitit:g  and  reproach- 
ful, becaufe  of  the  fccondary  idea  which  cuttom 
has  affixed  to  them.  lyal'i's  Logici. 

To  AFFLTSE.  -v.  a.  \affundo,  aff'ufum, 
Lat,]    To  pour  one  thing  upon  another. 

I  poured  acid  liquors,  to  try  if  they  cont^iined 
any  volatile  fait  or  fpirit,  which  would  probably 
have  difcovered  itfelf,  by  making  an  ebullition 
with  the  affujcd  liquor.  Boyle. 

Affu'sion.  n.f.  [affiijio,  Lat.]  The  aft 
of  pouring  one  thing  upon  another. 

Upon  the  affujion  of  a  tincture  of  galls,  it  im- 
mediately became  as  black  as  ink,  Grciv^i  Muj'awr,. 
To  AFFY'.  -v.  a.  [nfficr,  Fr,  affidare  mu- 
lierem,  Brafton,]     To  betroth  in  order 
to  marriage, 

Wed-lcd  be  thou  to  the  hags  of  hcli. 
For  daring  toa^  a  mighty  lord 
Unto  the  daughter  of  a  wurthlefs  king. 

Shahefpearc^i  Henry  VI. 

To  AfFy'.  t.  n.  To  put  confidence  in; 
to  put  trull  in  ;  to  confide.  Not  in  ufe. 

Marcus  A«-  Ironicus,  fo  I  do  affy 
In  thy  upri^iUtnefs  and  integrity. 
That  I  will  here  difmifs  my  loving  friends. 

Sbakefp.  Titus  Andr. 

Api'eld.  adnj.  [from  a  T^nii  field.  See 
Field.]     To  the  field. 

We  drove  afield,  and  bith  togi^ther  heard 
What  time  the  grey  fiy  winds  her  fultry  horn, 
Batt'nirg  our  flocks  with  the  frelh  dews  of  night, 

Afield  I  went,  amid  the  morning  dew. 
To  milk  my  kine,  for  fo  fiiould  houfcwives  do. 

Apla't,   ad'v.    [from    a   and  flat.      See 
Flat.]     Level  with  the  ground. 

When  you  would  have  many  nev/  roots  of  fruk- 
trees,  take  a  low  tre-,  and  bow  it,  and  lay  all  W> 
branches  afiat  upon  the  ground,  and  cart  crfrth 
upon  them  ;  and  every  twig  will  take  root. 

Baton'' I  Natural  WJliry. 

Ai'Lo'at.  etdv.  [from   a  and  float.     See 

Float.]     Floating;  born   up   in   the 

water ;    not    finking  :    in   a    rigurauvc 

fenfe,  within  view  ;  in  motion. 

There  h  a  tid"  ir,  the  alTain  of  men, 
Which  taken  at  the  flood,  Inds  on  to  fortune  ; 
Omitted,  all  the  voyage  of  their  life 
is  bound  in  IhatlDwi*  and  in  miferies. 
On  fuch  a  full  fca  are  wc  sow  ajitj: ; 

And  we  muft  take  the  current  when  it  fetvei. 
Or  lofe  our  venturer.     Shakrjfenre's  'Jiditii  C^efjr. 

Take  any  paflion  of  tire  foul  of  man,  while  it  is 
predominant  and  afiiat,  and,  jiift  in  tlie  critical 
height  of  it,  nick  it  <vith  fome  lucky  or  unlucky 
■  word,  and  you  may  as  certai;:!y  over-rule  it  ta 
your  own  purpofe,  as  a  fpark  of  fire,  filling  upon 
gunpowder,  will  infallibly  blow  it  up.  Scmh, 

There  arc  generally  fcvcral  hundred  loads  of  tim- 
ber afloat,  fcr  tiicy  cut  above  f.venty-.nve  leagur>> 
up  the  river  ;  and  other  rivers  bring  in  their  con- 
tributloi  3.  Adi'i/cn'i  July. 

Afo'ot.  adv..  [from  a  and  foot.] 

1.  On  foot  ;  not  on  horfehack.  < 

He  tliought  it  bell  to  rttiun,  tor  that  day,  t>  a 
vilLig':  not  far  off;  and  difpa:ching  his  horfc  (n 
fome  fort,  the  next  day  early,  to  come  afcr.f  thi- 
ther.      _  ShaL:fl>eait. 

2.  Ill  aftion  ;   as,  a  deftgn  is  afoot. 

I  pr'ylhec,  when  thou  fecit  that  aft  a/lot,    . 
Ev'n  with  the  very  comment  of  tiiy  foul 
Ob.erve  mine  uncle.  isbakeffcare. 

3.  In  mction. 

Of  Albany's  and  Cornwall's  pow'rs  you  hearti 
'Tis  faid  tiiey  are  .if>,ct.     Sbaiefpeare'i  King  Lear. 

.^fc'r E. /re/,  [from  a  and/ir^.     See  Bs;- 


1.  Not  bcLind  ;   as,  he   held  the  fiiicli 
efor^ :    not  in  ufe. 

2.  Before  ;   nearer  in  place  to  any  tJiino-; 
as,  he  Hood  nTore  hiin. 

3.  Sooner  in  time. 

If  jour  diligence  be  not  fpeedy,  I  fhall  be  there 
afore  you.  Hhakcjpeare  s  Kit:g  Lear. 

Afo're.  adv. 

1.  In  time  foregone  or  pad. 

Whofoever  fti>ulJ  make  light  of  any  thing  afore 
fpoken  or  written,  out  of  his  own  houfe  a  tree 
ihould  be  taken,  and  he  thereon  be  hanged. 

Efdras,  vi.  22. 

If  he  never  drank  wine  afcre,  it  will  go  near  to 
remove  his  fit.  Hbakcjfearc'i  Taitjc^. 

2.  Firft  in  the  way, 

Emilia,  run  you  to  the  citadel. 
And  tell  my  lord  and  lady  what  hath  hap'd  ; 
Will  you  go  on  afore?  Sbakj'feare'i  OtbelU. 

3.  In  front ;  in  the  fore-part. 

Approaching  nigh,  he  reared  hijh  afore 
His  body  monltrous,  horrible,  and  vaft.     Fairy  9. 

Afo'regoinc,  participial  adj.  [from  afore 
andje/'/f.]     Going  before. 

Apo'reh  AND.oa'f.  [from  afore znd band.'] 

1.  By  a  previous  provifion. 

Many  "f  the  paiticular  fubjcds  of  difcnuife  are 
occafional,  and  fuch  as  cannot  tforeband  be  re- 
duced to  any  certain  account. 

Gcvernment  of  tbe  ToMgm. 

2.  Provided;  prepared;  previoufly  fitted. 

Kor'ic  will  be  faid,  that  in  the  former  times, 
whereof  we  have  Ipiken,  Spain  was  not  lo  raigh.7 
as  now  it  is  ;  and  England,  on  the  other  fide,  was 
tnoie  afrehatid  In  ali  matters  t»f  power. 

Baton'i  Confidnatirni  on  ff,H-  wifi  Sfaiii, 
Afo'rementioned.    adj.     [from   afore 
and  acnticned.]     Mcntio.aed  before. 

Among  the  nine  other  parts,  five  are  n.jt  in  ■ 
condition  to  give  alms  or  lelicf  to  thofe  aforemen- 
tioned i  being  very  near  reduced  thcmfelves  to  the 
fame  mifctable  condiS-jn.  Addill!, 

Ak ©'renamed,    adj.     [from    afore   and 
named.]     Named  before. 

Imitate  fomcihng  of  ciicular  form,  in  which, 
as  in  all  other  aforenamed  proportioos,  jou  fhall 
help  youuclf  by  the  aiaiiwar. 

feaebam  en  Drataittjr. 
Ato'rimaid.  adj.  [from  afore  ^ad faid.] 
bald  before. 

It  need  not  po  for  repetition,  if  we  refume  agnin 
that  which  we  iVld  in  the  aforrjid  cxcerimeiit. 

Ctcaifi  lleiurai  ifiijicrf,  N"  7^  i . 

G  3  Afo're- 


Afo'kbtimi.  adv.  [from  afortiXiA  timi.'\ 
In  time  paiL 

O  thou  that  art  waxen  old  !n  victEcdncfs,  now 
thy  fins  which  thou  had  committed  afom'.vu  itc 
come  to  light. 

.\fv.\'it>.  pkrti.lpial  a/ij.  [from  the  verb 
affray  :  It  fnould  therefore  properly  be 
written  with_^".] 

1.  Struck  with  fear  ;  terrified;  fearful. 

To  perfcrute  fhem  with  thy  trmpcft,  and  make 
them  a/Vfl/V  with  thy  ftorm.       PJ'alm  ixxxWi.  15. 

2.  It  has  the  particle  e/  before  the  objedl 
of  fear. 

There,  loathing  life,  and  yet  cf  death  efraiJ, 
In  anguilh  of  her  fpirit,  thus  Hie  pray'd, 

Drydtn's  FabUu 
If,  while  this  wearied  flelhdraws  fleeting  breath, 
Not  fatisfy'd  with  lite,  afraid  of  death. 
It  haf 'ly  be  thy  will,  that  I  ihould  know 
Glimpfe  of  delight,  or  paufe  from  anxio-js  woe  j 
From  now,  fiom  inftant  now,  great  Sire,  dil'pil 
The  clouds  that  prcl's  my  foul.  t'rior. 

Apre'sh.  adv.  [from  a  AaA  frejh.  See 
Fresh.]  Anew;  again,  after  inter- 

The  Germans  ferving  upon  great  horfes,  and 
charged  wijh  heavy  armour,  received  jrcat  hurt  b) 
light  Ikirmifliesj  the  Turks,  with  their  light 
horfes,  ealiiy  Oiunning  their  charge,  and  again, 
»t  their  p'eafure,  charging  them  afrtjb,  when 
they  faw  the  heavy  horfes  almofl  weary. 

Kmlltl's  Hifiory  cf  the  Turks. 
When  once  we  have  attained  thcfe  ideas,  they 
may  be  excited  afrijhby  the  ufe  of  words. 

tyatts'i  Logkk. 
Afro'nt.  cdv.   [from  a  andyrew?.]     In 
front ;  in  direfl  oppofitlon  to  the  face. 

Thcfe  four  came  all  afront^  and  mainly  thruil  at 
me.  Shakefpeare^s  Henry  IV.  p.  i. 

A'FTER./r(r/.  [xprep.  Sax.] 

1.  Following  in  place,  j^/ur  is  com- 
monly applied  to  words  of  motion  ;  as, 
he  came  a/ter,  and  flood  behind  him. 
It  is  oppofed  to  before. 

What  lays  Lord  Warwick,  (hall  we  after  them  ?— 
^»Afttr  them  !  nay,  hefcre  them,  if  we  can. 

iStaifjxare'i  Henry  VI. 

2.  In  purfuit  of. 

•//;  r  whom  is  the  Icing  of  Ifrael  come  out? 
After  whom  doft  thou  putfue  i  After  a  dead  dog, 
after  aflea.  i  Sam.  xxiv.  14. 

3.  Behind.    This  is  not  a  common  ufe. 

Sometimes  I  placed  a  third  prifm  after  a  fecond, 
and  fomctimes  alfo  a  fourth  after  a  third,  by  al, 
which  the  image  might  be  often  refraflcd  fidc- 
*ays.  Neivtcn'sOjiiicki, 

4.  Poilerior  in  time. 

Good  after  ill,  and  after  pain  delight  ; 
Alternate,  like  the  fccnes  of  day  and  night. 

Dry  Jen' I  Fahlet. 

We  (hall  examine  the  ways  of  conveyance  of  the 
fovereignty  of  Adam  to  princes  that  were  to  rcijn 
after  him.  Locke. 

5.  According  to. 

He  that  thinketh  Spain  our  over-match,  is  no 
good  mint-man,  but  takes  grcatnefs  of  kingdoms 
according  to  bulk  and  currency,  and  not  after  thci; 
intrinfic  value.  Bacon. 

6.  In  imitation  of. 

There  a  c,  among  the  old  Roman  ftatucs,  fevc- 
ral  of  Venus,  in  different  poftures  and  habits;  as 
there  are  many  particular  figures  of  her  made  after 
the  fame  dilign.  Mdijaris  Italy. 

Thiiallufion  is  after  the  oriental  m.i  ;ier  :  thui 
in  the  Pfatms,  how  frequently  are  [).i:uns  com- 
pared to  cedars.  Fofe't  Oayfj'eyy  notei. 

A'fteb.  ad-v. 

I.  In  fjcceeding  time.     It  is  ufed  of  time 

mentioned   as    fucceeding  fome  other. 

Sk>  we  cannot  fay,  I  fliall  be  happy  af-  [ 


tir,  but  htreafter ;  but  we  fay,  I  was 
firft  made  miferablc  by  the  lols,  but 
was  after  happier. 

Far  be  it  from  me,  ti juftify  the  cruelties  which 
were  at  lirft  ufed  towards  tbein,  which  bad  their 
reward  foon  after.  Bacon. 

Thofe  who,  from  the  pit  of  hell 
Roaming  to  feck  tlieir  prey  on  earth,  durft  fix 
Their  feats  long  after  next  the  feat  of  God. 

Faradife  Ufl. 

2.  Following  another. 

Let  go  thy  hold,  when  a  great  wheel  runs  down 
a  hill,  le;l  it  break  thy  neck  with  following  it ;  but 
the  great  one  that  goes  upward,  let  him  draw  thee 
after,  Sbakeffieare't  King  Lear, 

After  is  compounded  with  many  words, 
but  almoft  always  in  its  genuine  and 
primitive  fignification  ;  lome,  which 
occurred,  will  follow,  by  which  others 
may  be  explained. 

A'fter  acceptation.  »./.  [from  a/itr 
and  acceptation.]  A  fenfe  afterwards, 
not  at  lirll  admitted. 

*Tis  true,  fonic  dolors  in  a  fcantier  fpace, 
I  mean,  in  each  apart,  contrail  the  place : 
Some,  who  to  greater  length  extend  the  line. 
The  church's  after  accefiation  ]o\n, 

Vryden'i  Hind  ami  Panther, 
A'fteraces.  »./  [Uom  after  and  ages.] 
Succeffive  times  ;  pofterity.  Of  this 
word  I  have  found  no  lingular  ;  but  fee 
not  why  it  might  not  be  faid.  This  'will 
be  done  in  fome  afterage. 

Noc  the  whole  land,  which  the  ChuGtes  0iould 
or  might,  in  future  time,  conquer  ;  feeing,  in 
afierages,  they  became  lords  of  many  nations. 

Raleigh'!  Hijtory  of  the  IVorld, 
Nor  to  philofophcrs  is  praife  deny'd, 
Whofe  wife  inftruftions  afterages  guide. 

Sir  y.  Denham. 

What  an  opinion  will  afterages  entertain  nf  their 

religion,  who  bid  fair  for  a  gibbet,  to  bring  in  a 

fupcrftition,    which   their  forefathers  perilhcd  in 

flames  to  keep  out.  Addifon, 

A'fter  all.  When  all  has  been  taken 
into  the  view  ;  when  there  remains  no- 
thing more  to  be  added ;  at  laft ;  in 
fine  ;  in  conclufion  ;  upon  the  whole ; 
at  the  mod. 

They  have  given  no  good  proof  in  aflerting  this 
extravagant  principle  ;  for  which,  after  at:,  they 
have  no  ground  or  colour,  but  a  p:*fage  cr  two  of 
fcripture,  mifcrably  perverted,  in  oppofition  to 
many  exprefs  texts.  Alterhury's  Sermom, 

But,  after  all,  if  they  have  any  merit,  it  is  to 
be  attributed  to  fome  good  old  authors,  whofe 
works  I  ftudy.  Fcfe  on  Fafi^val  Fcetry. 

A'fter  BIRTH.  ».  /  [from  afler  and 
birth.]  The  membrane  in  which  the 
birth  was  involved,  which  is  brought 
away  after  ;  the  fecundine. 

The  exorbitances  or  degenerations,  whether  from 
a  hurt  in  labour,  or  from  part  of  the  after-butb 
left  behind,  produce  fuch  vlr- lent  diftempers  of 
the  blood,  as  make  It  call  out  a  t  imour. 

}r:i.mani  Surgery, 

A'fterclap.  v.f.  [from  «//<T  and  <■/<./.] 
Unexpedled  events  happening  after  an 
affair  is  fuppofcd  to  be  at  an  end. 

For  tlie  nex  t  morrow's  mead  they  clofely  went. 
For  fear  of  afterclafs  to  prevent. 

Spinf.  Huh.  rale. 

It  is  commonly  taken  in  an  ill  fcnfc. 
A'ftercost.  ».  f.  [from  after  and  cofi.] 
The   latter  charges  ;  the   expence  in- 
curred after  the  original  plan  is  exe- 

You  mud  take  care  to  carry  off  the  land- floods 
and  ftreams,  Ijcforeyou  attempt  Uiaining ;  left  your 



^ttreojt  and  labour  prove  unfticceftfol. 

Mortimer  i  Hufhandry, 
A'ftercrop.  n.f.  [from  after  and  rr-5/.] 
The  fecond  crop  or  harvell  of  the  fame 

Aftercrops  I  think  neither  good  for  the  land,  nor 
yet  the  hay  good  fur  the  cattle. 

Afortimer'i  Hujbondry, 

A'PTER-DINNER.  n.f.   [from  after  and 

dinner,]     The    hour    paffing  ju.'t   after 

dinner,  which  is  generally  allowed   to 

indulgence  and  amufement. 

Thou  haft  nor  youth  nor  age. 
But,  as  it  were,  an  afier-dimer's  deep, 
Dreaming  on  both.     Shakefp,MeaJureforMeafart, 

A'fter-endeavour.  n.f.  [from  after 
a.nd  endeavour.]  Endeavours  made  after 
the  firft  effort  or  endeavour. 

There  is  no  reafon  why  the  found  of  a  pipe 
Ih^yld  leave  traces  in  their  brains,  which,  not  firft, 
but  by  their  after-endeavours,  ihould  produce  the 
like  founds.  Locke. 

A'fter-enquiry.  n.f,  [from  after  a.nd 
enquiry.]  Enquiry  made  after  the  fati 
committed,  or  after  life. 

You  muft  either  be  directed  by  fome  that  take 
upon  them  to  know,  or  take  upon  yourfelf  that, 
which,  I  am  fure,  you  do  not  know,  or  lump  the 
after-enquiry  on  your  peril.         Shakrfp.  Cymheline. 

Tij  A'p  T  E  R  E  Y  E .  f.  a.  [from  afier  and  eye.^ 
To  keep  one  in  view  ;  to  follow  in  view. 
This  is  not  in  ufe. 

Thou  (houldft  have  made  him 
As  little  as  a  crow,  or  lefs,  ere  left 
To  aftereye  him.  Shakejpeare' s  Cymtelint^ 

A'fte  R  GAME.  n,f.  [from  after  andgame.J 
The  fcheme  which  may  be  laid,  or  the 
expedients  which  are  pradifed  after  the 
original  defign  has  mifcarried  ;  methods 
taken  after  the  firft  turn  of  affairs. 

This  earl,  like  certain  vegetables,  did  bud  and 
open  flowly  ;  nature  fometimes  delighting  tx)  play 
an  aftergame,  as  well  as  fortune,  which  had  both 
their  turns  and  tides  in  courfe.  tVotton. 

The  fables  of  the  axe-handle  and  the  wedge, 
ferve  to  precaution  us  not  to  put  ourfelvcs  need- 
lefsly  upon  an  aftergame,  but  to  weigh  beforehand 
what  we  fay  and  do.  L'EJirange's  Fables, 

Our  firft  defign,  my  friend,  has  prov'd  abortive  ; 
Still  there  remains  an  aftergame  to  play. 

Addifon" s  Cato, 

.Vfterhours.  n,  f,  [from  afier  and" 
hour.'.]     The  hours  that  fucceed. 

So  fmile  the  heav'ns  upon  this  holy  aO, 
Thzt  afterlfours  with  forrow  chide  us  not. 

Siakefpeare's  Romeo  andyuliet, 

A'fter-liver.  n.  f,  [from  after  and 
li-ve.]  He  that  lives  in  fucceeding  times. 

By  thee  my  promife  font 
Unto  myfelf,  let  after-livers  know.     Sidney,  b.  ii. 

A'fterlOve.  n.f.  [from /T/Jtv  and  love.l 
The  fecond  or  later  love. 

Intended,  or  committed,  was  this  fault  i 
If  but  tlie  firft,  how  heinous  e'er  it  be. 
To  win  thy  after-love,  I  pardon  thee. 

Shakrfpeare's  Richard  II; 

A'fter  MATH.  n.f.  [from  after  s.nd  math, 
from  moiu.]  The  latter  math  ;  the  fe- 
cond crop  of  grafs,  mown  in  autumn. 
See  Aftercrop. 

A'fternoon.  n.f.  [from  afier  and  noon.] 
The  time  from  the  meridian  to  the  even- 

A  beauty-waining  and  diftreffed  widow, 
Ev'n  in  the  afternoon  of  her  beft  days, 
Made  prize  and  porchafe  of  his  wanton  eye. 

Sbikefpeare's  Richard  III. 


Howtvtr,  keep  the  Ih-ely  tafte  you  ho'.S 
Oi  God  i  and  lo\s  him  now,  but  fear  him  more  5 

And,  in  your  afttmocm,  tliink  what  you  told 
And  proaiis'd  him  at  morning -prayer  bcfwc. 

S-ach,  all  the  morning,  to  the  pleadings  run  ; 
But,  when  the  bus'nefs  of  tW-  day  is  done. 
On  dice,  and  drink,  and  drabs,  they  fpend  the  af- 
tertt^^n.  Oryden^sP£rJius,Snt,\. 

A'fterpains.  n.f.  [fiom^/^r  and/a/».] 
The  pains  after  birth,  by  which  women 
are  delivered  of  the  iecundine. 

A'fterpart.  »./.  [from  nfter  and  fart."] 
The  latter  part. 

The  flexibletcfs  of  the  former  part  of  a  man's 
age,  not  yet  grown  up  to  be  headftrorg,  makes  it 
more  governable  and  fafc  j  and.  In  the  afterparty 
reafon  and  forefight  begin  a  little  to  take  place, 
and  mind  a  man  of  his  fafety  and  improvement. 


A'fter.proof.  ».  /.  [from  aflcr  and 

1.  Evidence  pofterior  to  the  thing  in 

2.  Qualities  known  by  fubfequent  expe- 

All  know,  that  he  likewlfc  at  firft  was  much 
under  the  expeftation  of  his  ajrcrproof-^  Tuch    a 
folar  infl.cnce  there  is  in  the  folar  afpefl.   Jfo/.cn. 
A'ftertaste.  n.f.  [from  after zad  tajld .] 
A  taile  remaining  upon  the  tongue  after 
the  draught,  which  was  not  perceived 
in  the  aft  of  drinking. 
A'fterthought.  a.f.  [from  after  and 
thought  A    Refledions  after  the  adl ;  ex- 
pedients formed  too  late.    It  is  not  pro- 
perly to  be  ufed  fw  fecondtbcught , 
£xpence,  and  afurtbougbt ^  and  idle  care. 
And  doubts  of  motley  hue,  and  dark  defpair ; 
S-^fpicions,  and  fantaflical  furmifc, 
Aad  jealoufy  fuffusM  with  jaundice  in  her  eyes, 
Difcol luring  all  fhe  view'd,  in  tawny  drcfs'd, 
Downlook'd,  and  with  a  cockow  on  her  fill. 

Vrydini  Fabln. 

A'fter-times.  n.f.  [from  after  and 
ti>ru.'\  Succeeding  times.  See  After- 

you  promis'd  once,  a  progeny  divine 
Of  Romans,  ilfing  from  the  Trojan  line. 
In  uftertimti  Ihould  hold  the  world  in  awe, 
.  And  Co  the  land  and  ocean  give  the  law. 

DryJen'i  Virg'il. 

A'ftertossinc.  ».  f.  [from  after  and 
tofs.'\  The  motion  of  the  fea  after  a 

Confusions  and  tumults  are  only  the  impotent 
remains  of  an  unnatural  icbellion,  and  are  no  more 
than  the  aftirio^iiigt  of  a  tea  when  the  ftorm  is 
.  laid.  AdJijoift  Frtchildu!. 

A'fterward.  adv.  [from  after  aifd 
p<3pb.  Sax.]  In  fucceeding  time  :  fome- 
times  wriiten  eftertuards,  but  lefs  pro- 

Ufcs  not  thought  upon  before,  may  afterivard 
fpring  up,  and  be  leafcnab.'e  caufes  of  retaining 
that,  which  former  confi^ierations  did  formerly 
procure  to  be  inllitutrd.  H'^ohr. 

An  aniious  diftruft  of  the  divine  goodn^fs, 
makes  a  man  more  anti  more  unworthy  of  it  j  and 
miTerable  beforehand,  for  fear  of  being  fo  afur- 
noard.  '         L^EJirange, 

A'fterwit.  n.f.  [from  after  and  tvit.'] 
The  c  iiitrivance  of  expedients  after  the 
occafion  of  ufing  them  is  part.  Sec 

There  i>  r^i  recalling  what's  gone  and  pa!t ;  fo 

that  i-.fttrviit  comes  too  late,  when  the  mifrHcf  is 

done.  L'tjtrMi,!. 

A'K-f er-wrath.    H.f.    [from  after  and 

A  G  A 

.  'vurath.']    Anger  when  the  provocation 
feems  paft. 

I  hear  him  mock 
The  luck  of  Caefar,  which  the  gods  give  men 
T'  excufc  their  after-ivrath. 

Shaktfp.  Anttmj  and  Clecfatra. 

jfGJ.  n.f.   The  title  of  a  Turkilh  mili- 
tary officer. 
Aga'in.  adv.  [agen.  Sax.] 

1.  A  iecond  time  ;  once  more  ;  marking 
the  repetition  of  the  fame  thing. 

Tlii  poor  remnant  of  human  feed,  which  re- 
mained in  their  mountains,  peopled  their  country 
again  ilowly,  by  little  and  little. 

Baccn's  New  yf/nlantis. 

Should  Nature's  felf  invade  the  world  again. 
And  o'er  the  centre  fpread  the  liquid  main, 
Thy  pow'r  were  fafe.  ffalUr. 

Go  now,  deluded  man,  and  feek  again 
New  toils,  new  dangers,  on  the  duffy  plain. 

Dryd.  j^tield. 

Some  are  already  retired  into  foreign  countries  ; 
and  the  reft,,  who  polTefs  lands,  are  determined 
never  to  hazard  them  ag^in,  for  the  fake  o(  eftab- 
liiVmg  their  fuperilition.  Sivift. 

2.  On  the  other  hand  ;  marking  fome  op- 
pofition  or  contrariety. 

il'^  wit  increafed  upon  the  occafion;  and  fo 
much  the  more,  if  the  occafion  were  fharpaned 
with  danger,  jigain.  whether  it  were  the  fhoitnefs 
of  his  forefi^ht,  or  the  ftrength  of  his  will,  certain 
it  is,  thit  the  peipetual  Lruble  of  his  fortunes 
could  not  have  been  without  defeds  in  his  nature. 


Thofe  things  that  we  know  not  what  to  do 
withal,  if  we  had  tliiim,  -nd  thofe  things,  again, 
which  another  cannot  part  with,  but  to  his  own 
lol's  and  (hame.  L'EJirangc's  Fables. 

3.  On  another  part ;  marking  a  tranfition 
to  fome  new  confideration. 

Behold  yon  mountain's  hoarv  height. 
Made  higher  with  new  mounts   'f  fnow ; 

j^gain,  behold  the  winter's  weight 
Opprcfs  the  lab'ring  woods  below.  Dryden. 

4.  In  return,  noting  re-aftion,  or  recipro- 
cal a£Uon  ;  as.  His  fortune  worked  up- 
on his  nature,  and  his  nature  again  upon 
his  fortune. 

5.  Back  ;  in  reditu tion. 

When  your  head  did  but  ake, 
I  knit  my  handkerchief  about  your  bro.vs  ; 
The  belt  1  had,  a  princefs  wrought  it  me. 
And  I  did  never  alk  it  yon  again. 

Sbakfjp.  Kiig  yobn. 

6.  la  return  for  any  thing ;  in  recom- 

That  he  hath  given  will  he  pay  again, 

Prov.  xir.  47. 

7.  In  order  of  rank  or'  fucceJlion  ;  mark- 
ing diftribution. 

Queftion  was  afkeJ  of  Demofthene-,  Whit 
the  ciiief  part  of  an  grator  ?  He  anfwercd,  Adtion. 
What  next?  Aftion.  What  next  a^ain  ?  Aflion. 

Bacmi  Fffiy:. 

The  caufe  of  the  holding  green,  is  the  clofe  .uid 
compaS  fubftance  of  their  leaves,  and  the  pedicles 
of  them  :  and  the  cauie  of  that  again  is  either 
the  cough  and  vifcous  juice  of  the  plant,  '.r  the 
ftrength  and  h«ac  thereof.       Bacon' i  Natural  Hifl. 

8.  Befides  ;  in  any  other  time  or  place. 

Tlicy  have  the  Walloor.s,  who  are  tall  foldicrs , 
yet  tb.Tt  is  but  a,  fpot  of  ground.  But,  on  the 
other  fide,  there  is  not  in  the  world  again  fuch  a 
fpring  and  feminaiy  of  brave  military  peopl,  as 
in  England,  Scotland,  and  Itelajid.  BacoH, 

9.  Twice  as  much  ;  marking  the  fame 
quantity  once  repeated. 

There  are  whom  heav'n  has  bleft  with  ftore  of 
Yet  want  as  much  again  to  manage  it ; 

A  G  A 

For  wit  and  judgment  ever  are  at  rtrife, 
Tho"  meant  each  other's  aid,  like  man  and  wife. 

I  (hould  not  be  forry  to  fee  a  chorus  on  a  theaue, 
more  than  as  large  and  as  deep  again  as  ours,  built 
and  adorned  at  a  king's  charges. 

Dryden' i  Dufrefnoy, 

10.  Again  and  again  ;  with  frequent  repci- 
tition  ;  often. 

This  is  not  to  be  obtained  by  one  or  two  hafty 
readings:  it  mud  be  repeated  again  and  again, 
with  a  dofe  attention  to  the  tenour  of  the  dif- 
courfe.  Locke.. 

11.  Pn  oppofition  j  by  way  of  refiftance. 

Who  art  thou  that  anfwerelt  .^ J'"  ? 

Rom,  ix.  lo. 

\z.  Back;  as,  returning  from  fome  mef- 

Bring  us  word  again  wh'rch  way  we  fiiall  go. 

Deut.  i.  72. 

Aca'iust. prep,  [aenjeon,  onjconb.  Sax.] 

1.  In  oppofition  to  any  perfon. 

And  he  will  be  a  wild  man  ,  his  hand  will  be 
againjl  every  man,  anii.  every  man's  hand  againjl 
him.  Cfa.  xvi.  lit. 

2.  Contrary  ;  oppofite,  in  general. 

That  authority  of  men  fhould  prevail  with  men' 
either  againji  or  above  reafon,  is  no  part  of  our  be- 
lief. Hooker, 

He  is  melancholy  without  caufe,  and  merry 
againji  the  hair.     Sbaieffeare'i  Troilus  and  Crejidi, 

We  might  work  any  effeft  without  and  againji 
matter;  and  this  not  holpen  by  the  co-operation 
of  angels  or  fpirits,  but  only  by  the  unity  and  har ' 
mony  of  nature.  Bacon's  Namral  Hijicry. 

The  preventing  goodnefs  of  God  docs  even  wreft 
him  from  himfelf,  and  fave  him,  as  it  were^ 
againji  his  will.  Soutb, 

The  god,  uneafy  till  he  (Icpt  again, 
Refolv'd,  at  once,  to  rid  himfelf  of  pain;. 
And,  tho'  againji  his  cuftom,  call'd  aloud.  Dryden,. 

Men  often  fay  a  thing  is  againji  their  confcience, 
when  really  it  is  not.  S-wift'i  Mijcellanies. 

3.  In  contradiftion  to  any  opinion. 

After  all  that  can  be  laid  agai:Ji  a  thing,  this. 
v\-ill  ftill  he  true,  that  many  things  polfibly  are,, 
which  we  know  not  of;  and  tliat  many  more  thinge 
may  be  than  are  :  and  if  fo,  after  all  our  argu- 
ments againji  a  thing,  it  will  be  uncertain  whether 
it  be  or  not.  Tillotjvn, 

The  church-clergy  have  written  the  beft  collcc- 
f'on  of  trails  againji  popery  that  ever  appeared  in 
England.  isiuift. 

4.  With   contrary   motion   or  tendency  : 
ufed  of  material  adlion. 

Boils  and  plagues 
Plainer  you  o'er,  that  one  infcft  another 
Agalfj}  the  wind  a  mile.  Sbakcjfeare's  Coriclaiiui, 
The  kite  being  a  bird  of  prey,  and  therefore 
hot,  delighteth  in  th»  frerti  air  ;  and  many  times 
fficth  agaixji  the  wind,  as  trouts  and  f.ilmuns  fwim 
againji  the  itream.  Bacoo.. 

J.  Contrary  to  rule  or  law. 

If  aught  agairji  myli.'i; 
Thy  country  fought  of  titee,  rt  fought  unjuftly, 
jiiiirfi  the  lavr  of  nature,  law  of  nations.    Miltoiu. 

jlgiUnji  the  public  fauftions  of  tlie  peace, 
ylgawji  all  on.tns  of  their  ill  fuccrft  ; 
With  fat».'  .jverfe,  the  rout  in  arms  refort,. 
To  force  t'-  eh  monarch,  and  ial'uh  the  court. 


6.  Oppofitt:  to,  in  place. 

Againjl  the  Tiber's  mouth,  but  faraway. 


7.  To  the  hurt  of  another.     See  fenfe  5. 

And,  wh.-i  thou  think'!!  of  her  eternity. 
Think  not  that  death  againji  her  nature  is  j 

Thisk  it  a  birth :  and  when  thou  go'H  to  diej. 
Sing  like  a  fwan,  as  if  tliou  went'fl'to  blifs. 

.Sir  y.  Daviif 
3.  In  provifiorj  for ;  in  expeftation  o£ 

This  mode  of  fpeaking  probab'y  )ted- 
its  original  from  the  idea   of.  making" 


A  G  A 

•provifion  againft,  or  in  oppofuion  »o,  a 
time  of  misfortune,  but  by  degrees  ac- 
quired a  neutral  fenfe.  ft  fometimes 
hus  the  cife  elliptically  fuppreffed,  as,i 
again/}  he  cpmes,  that  is,  aga'uift  the 
Aimt  when  he  comes. 

Thentc  (he  them  biocght  into  a  ft«t«l)  ball, 
Wheiein  wire  many  tables  fair  d'fprcd. 
And  iraiiy  J'lght  with  drapets  feftival, 
jigaUfi  thcviaiidi  JhouU  be  miniftred. 

Kiiry  S>^ftn. 

Tlie  I'lw  charge  "was  given  them  igaii-jl  the 

time  ili«y  flituid  to  fettle,  tjsemlch is  iYi  the 

■land  proiTiifcd  unto  their  fatliers. 

S  >nic  lay,  t'.fTt  e«r  'gaiiyi  that  fcafon  comci, 
"Wherein  bur  Saviour's  birth  is  cclcbialcJ, 
The  bird  nf  dawning  fingeth  all  night  ieng  :' 
^nd  then  they  fay  no  ffirit  walks  abroad  ; 
The  nights  are  wholcfomc,  then  no.pJanets  ftrifcc, 
.No  fairy  tales,  ni'  witch  hath  power  to  charm  j 
Su  ballow'd  and  fo  gracious  U  the  tirr.e. 

Sh^kifp.  H.-wlet. 

To  that  psrpofe,  he  made  hade  to  B.ilVol,  that 

!all  things  might  be  ready  agah-J!  the  prince  CJnic 

-thither.  ,  X-lamilnn. 

■Agahft  the  promis'd  time  provides  with  care, 
.And  hadcns  in  the  woot'  the  robes  he  waj  to  wean 


AU  which  1   grant  to  be  reafonablj   and  trul> 

./aid,  and    only  dcfire  they    may   be   remcnibe  ert 

agairjl  another  day.  in/.'m^iir. 

A'oALAXY.  »./.  [from  a  and  yu>M,  Gr.] 

Want  of  milk.  Dia. 

'Ach''j.  [from  aand_^<j/Sf.]   Staring 

with  eagernefs  ;    as,    a  bird  gapes  for 


In  himfolf  was  all.hU  ftatc; 
■More  folenin  than  the  tedious  pomp  that  waits 
On  princes,  when  their  rich  retinue  long 
Of  hurfes  led,  and  grooms  befmear'd  with  gold, 
•Uaztlcs  the  crowd,  and  fets  them  iW.agejie. 

Paradife  L'fi. 
Uarfk  the  cron-d,  ani  fet  them  all  aga',t, 

The  whole  crowd  ftood  agafi,  and  ready  to  take 
the  doftor  at  his  word.  S/'taMor,  N"  572. 

A'CARICK.  »./  [agaricum,  Lit.]  A  drug 
of  ufe  in  phyfic,  and  the  dying  trade. 
It  is  divided  into  male  and  female  ; 
the  male  is  ufed  only  in  dying,  the  fe- 
male in  medicine  :  the  male  grows  on 
oaks,  the  female  on  larches. 

'I  here  are  two  excrefccmes  which  grow  upon 
tree.',  both  of  them  in  the  nature  of  mu/hrooms ; 
the  one  the  Romans  call  toiitus,  which  gr  ,weth 
upon  the  rootb  of  oaks,  and  was  one  of  the  daintier 
i»f  their  table  ;  the  other  is  medicinal,  that  is  call- 
ed agarkk,  which  growcth  upon  the  tops  of  oaks; 
though  it  be  affirmed  by  fome,  that  it  groweth 
alfo  at  the  roots.  _      Baan. 

At;  a'st.  adj.  [This  word,  which  is  ufual- 
ly,  by  later  .luthors,  written  aghajl,  is, 
not  improbably,  the  true  word  derived 
from    aga%e,   which    has    been    written 
aghtijl,    from    a    miftaken    etymology. 
See   AfiHAST.]    Struck   with   tcrrour  ; 
amazed  ;  frighted  to  alloniftiment.    . 
Thus  roving  on 
.  Jn  confns'd  march  forli.m,  th"  adiont'rous  bands, 
'  Wth  (hudd'ring  horrour  pale,  and  eyes  egaft, 
View'd  iirft  their  lamentable  lot,  and  found 
No  reft.  MUiOKi  Parod'tfi  h-ifi- 

A'cATE.  n.f.  \agau,  Fr.  «cA«w,  Lat.]  A 
precious  itone  of  the  loweft  clafs,  often 
clouded  with  beautiful  variegations. 

In  (liape  no  bigger  than  an  aiate  Itone, 
On  die  forefinger  of  an  alJemian. 

....  Stakiff.  R'nit'j  and  yuli:t. 

^itlii  ape  only  varieties  of  the  tlint  kind  ;  they 

'   lave  a  :_;reyi <borny   ground,  clouded,  lineated,  o, 


,A.  G  .E 

fpottcJ  w'.tli  different  colours,  chiefly  dalvy.  Mack, 
brown,  red,  and  fometimes  blue.  fVatdmai'd 

A'cATY.  aJJ.  [from  agate.]  Partaking  o) 
tha  nature  of  agate. 

An  a^cfy  flint- was  above  tw3  inches  in  diame- 
ter i  the  whole  coveied  over  with  a  friable  creta- 
ceous cfuft.  H^!xdward- 

To  Aoa'ze.  I'.^a.  [from  «and  gaze,  to  fet 
a  gaxitig  ;  as,  amaze,  amuje,  and  others.] 
To  ftrikc  with  amazerhent ;  to  ftupify 
with  fiidden  terrour.  Tlte  verb  is  now 
out  of  ufe. 

So  as  they  travell'd,  fo  they  'gan  efpy 
An  armed  knight  toward  them  ga'.lop  taft, 
T!\it  fcemcd  from  foinc  feared  foe  to  fly, 
Or.other  grifly  thing  ih-U  him  agaji.    Fairj  ^atn. 
Aa'A'zED.farticifial  adj.     [from  agaze  ; 
which  fee]    Struck  with   amazement ; 
«*terrified  to  ftjpiJity. 

Ilundrtus  he  lent  to  hell,  and  none  durft  ftand 
Here,  there,  and  every  where,  enrag'd  he  flew : 
The  French  exclaim'd,  "  Thcdevi!  was  in  arms!" 
All  the  whole  army  flood  egaxtd  on  him. 


AGE.  »./.  \_age,  Fr.  anciently  cage,  or 
aag.'  ;  it  is  deduced  by  Msnage  from 
txiaiium,  of  'atas  ;  by  ''Junius,  from  aa, 
which,  in  the  Teutonic  dialeils,  figni- 
fied  long  duration.]  '; 

1.  Any  period  of  time  attributed  to  fome- 
thing  as  the  whole,  or  part,  of  its  du- 
ration :  in  this  fenfc,  we  fay,  the  age  of 
man,  the  feveral  ages  of  the  world,  the 
golden  or  iron  age. 

One  man  in  iiis  time  plays  many  parts, 
His  life  being  fcvcn  ag(i.  Shalrjftare. 

And  Jacob  lived  in  the  land  of  Egypt  fcienteen 
years  ;  fo  tlie  whole  age  of  Jacob  was  an  hundred 
forty  and  feven  years.  Cenefis,  xlvii.  28. 

2.  A  fucccffion  or  generation  of  men. 

Hence,  laftiy,  fprings  care  of  poftcrities, 
For  things  their  kind  wnild  eve. lading  make. 

Hence  -sit,  that  old  men  do  plant  young  trees. 
The  fruit  whereof  another  agi  flial!  take. 

Sir  y.  David. 
Nrxt  to  the  Son, 
Diftin'd  Rcftorcr  of  mankind,  by  whom 
New  heav'n,  and  earth,  (hail  to  the  ag'rs  rife. 
Or  down  from  heav'n  deiccnd. 

Mi/titi's  Pnradi/s  Lijl. 
No  declining  ege 
E'er  fe'lt  the  raptures  of  poetic  ra  ,e.       Rcfccmmon. 

3.  The  time  in  which  any  particular  man, 
or  race  of  men,  lived,  or  ihall  live  j  as, 
the  age  of  heroes. 

No  longer  now  the  golden  agf  appears, 
When  patriarch  wits  furtivd  a  thoufan*  years. 

.  .     •    .      Pofe, 

'4.  The  fnace  of  a  hundred  years  ;  a  fecu- 
lar  period  ;  a  century. 

5 .  The  latter  part  of  life ;  old  -age  ;  old- 


You  fee  how  full  of,;e  his  itgr  is!  the  ob- 
fervation  we  have  m.idc  of  it  hath  not  been  little ; 
he  always  loved  our  lillcf  moft,  nnd  with  what  poor 
judgment  he  hath  now  call  her  off! 

Sl\iiefirare's  King  L'ur. 

Boys  muft  nrit  hiive  th'  ambitious  care  of  men, 
Nor  men  the  weak  anx»ftk**s  of  ^^i        BUcommc:, 

And  on  this  forehead,  where  your  vcrfe  has  faid 
The  loves  delighted,  and  the  i,raccs  play'd  j 
Infulting  <!;i;e  will  ttace  his  ciuel  wjy, 
And  lca»c  lad  marks  of  hi»  deilruftive  fwajr. 


6.  Maturity  ;  ripencfs ;  years  of  difcre- 
tion  ;  full  llrength  of  life. 

A  folemn  admilfioii  of  profeiytes,  a'.l  cither, 
being  of  age,  dcfire  that  admiliitfn  for  themfilves. 


or  that,  in  infancy,  are  b;  others  ptefcnted  to  that 
charity  of  the  church.  VamniMj, 

We  thought  our  fires,  not  with  their  own  content. 
Had,  eie  we  Came  to  age,  our  portion  Ijient. 

,  In  law. 

la  a  man,  the  age  of  fourteen  years  is  the  tige 
of  difcrcti.-.n  ;  and  twenty -one  y.ars  is  rhe  full  .in: 
In  a  woman,  at  feven  years  of  agi,  the  lord  her 
father  may  diftr.iin  his  ten  mts  for  aid  to  marry  herj 
at  the  age  of  nine  years,  flic  is  dowabie  ;  at  twelve 
years,  (he  is  able  finally  to  ratify  and  confirm  her 
former  confent  given  to  raaa-imony  ;  at  fourteen, 
(he  is  enabled  to  receive  her  land  into  her  own 
hands,  and  (hall  be  out  of  ward  at  the  death  of  her 
anceftor  :  at  fixteen,  (he  ihall  be  out  of  ward, 
though,  at  the  death  of  her  anceftor,  flie  was  within 
the  age  of  fourteen  years;  a;  twenty-one,  file  is 
able  to  allei-.ate  her  lands  and  tenements.  At  the 
age  oi  fjuneen,  a  enabled  to  choofe  hit 
iwn  guarJian  ;  at  the  age  of  fourteen,  a  man  may 
confent  to  marriage.  Couctl, 

A'cED.  adj.  [from  age.  It  makes  two  fyl-" 
•lablcs  in  poetry.] 

1 .  Old  ;  flricken  in  years  ;  applied  gene- 
rally to  animate  beings. 

if  the  com^iar'fon  do  ftand  be^vccn  man  and 
man,  the  aged,  for  the  moll  part,  are  bcft  experi- 
enced, leaft  fubie£l  to  raJh  and  unadvifed  palTion*. 


Novelty  is  only  in  rcqueft  i  and  it  is  as  danger.'in 
to  be  aged  in  any  kind  of  courfc,  as  it  is  virtuou* 
to  be  conftant  in  any  undertaking.' 

Sbakeff).  Meafurefar  Meajitre. 

Kindnefs  itfclf  too  weak  a  charm  will  prove. 
To  raifc  the  feeble  fires  of  dj^ei  love.  Pn.r, 

2.  Old;  applied  to  inanimate  things.  This 
ufe  is  rare,  and  commonly  with  fome 
tendency  to  the  profcpopceia. 

The  people  did  not  more  worihip  the  Images  of 
gold  and  ivory,  than  they  did  the  groves  j  and  tlio 
lame  Quintilian  faith  of  the  aged  oaks. 

SuUingf.etCi  Defcme  of  D'ifc.  «i  Rem.  IdtU 
A'cEDLY.  adv.    [from,  aged.]    After  the 

manner  of  an  aged  perfon. 
Age'n.    adv.    [ajen,   Sa.ic.]    Again;  in 
return.     See  Again. 

This  word  is  now  only  written  in  this 
manner,  though  it  be  in  reaiity  the  true 
orthography,  for  the  fake  of  rhime. 

Thus  Ve.ius  :  Thus  her  fon  reply'd  agin; 
None  of  your  fifters  have  we  heard  or  Icen. 


A'cENCY.  n.f.   [from  agent.] 

1.  The  quality  of  afting  ;  the  ftate  of  be- 
ing in  adlion  ;  aftion. 

A  few  .advances  there  are  in  the  following  papers, 
tending  to  alTert  the  fuperintendence  and  agency  of 
Providence  in  the  natural  world. 

H-'oc'divaid  s  Pief.  to  Nat.  HiJIoty. 

2.  The  office  of  an  .igent  or  faftor  for  an- 
other; bufinefs  performed  by  an  agent. 

Some  of  the  purchjfers  themfclves  may  bi;  con- 
ten:  to  live  cheap  in  a  worfe  country,  rather  than 
br  at  the  charge  of  exchange  and  agennes.    Sw'ij't, 

A'GENT.  adj.  [agens,]  That  which 
afts  ;  oppoled  to  />a/ient,  or  that  which 
is  afied  upon. 

This  fuccef-,  is  oft  truly  afcribcd  unto  the  f.^rce 
of  imagination  upon  the  body  agent ;  and  ilicn,  by 
a  !ccond.iiy  means,  it  may  upon  a  diierle  body  5 
as,  for  exav.ple,  if  a  man  cany  a  ring,  or  fome_ 
part  of  a  bcaft,  S-i'cvlng  Jliongly  that  it  will  help 
him  to  obtain  his  lo\r,  it  may  make  him  more 
indulWous,  and  a;ain  more  confident  and  p.-rti  >inj 
than  clliciwiCe.hc  would  be.         Baccn!  N.U.  Hiji. 

A'gent.  n.f. 

1 .  An  aftor  ;  he  that  afts ;  he  tiiat  polTcfrcs 
the  ficulty  of  ailion. 



A  G  G 

Where  there  is  no  doubt,  d''*on  is  not  e:c- 
cluded  as  -mpertincrt  unto  the  thing,  but  as  necd- 
fcfs  in  reg  ird  of  the  winch  .iccth  airc?.dy 
what  to  refolve  upon.'  ■      /    '        .    Haofa-. 

To  wliom  nor  a^f»i:,  fi-om  the  inftrumcnt, 
Nor  pow'r  of  working,  from  the  work  is  known. 

Hca%''n  made  us  egenu  fr*l  to  good  or  ill. 
And  forc'd  it  not,  tho'  he  forefaw  the  wiil. 
Freedom  was  firtl  Leftow'd  on  human  race, 
And  prefcicncc  onU  held  the  I'econd  place, 


A  miracle  is  a  work  exceeding  the  power  of  any 
create:!  fftrcrty  confetjccntly  being  an  effect  of  the 
divine  cmni^^-rcnc^,  Scathes  oA-iro.vr. 

2.  A  lubllinite  ;  a  deputy;  a  faftor;  a 
perfon  employed  to  tranfaft  the  bufinefs 
of  another. 

—  Ail  hearts  in  love,  ufe  your  own  tODg'JCS ; 
let  ever)'  CTc  nejotiate  for  itfcif. 
And  cruft  no  agtirt,  Sbakf^art, 

The)  had  n^t  tlic  wit  to  find  to  them,  in  a'ly 
orderly  fauiit^n,  egsnti  or  clicfea  mtji,  to"  tcrnpt 
them,  and  to  treat  with  them,    fiaon'j  //.rry  VII. 

Remember,  Sir,  your  fury  of  a  wife, 
•    Who  nut  content  to  be  reveng'd  on  yoa,     • 
The  agents  of  your  palfion  will  purfne.' 

Vytuti't  Auretig, 

3.  That  which  has  the  power  of  operating, 
or  producing  efteils  upon  another  thin^. 

The)  prcduc.d  wcnderfui  effecis,  by  the  propr 
application  ofagtnls  to  patients.  "tcm/ile. 

AcGEtA-'TioN.  n./.  [Lat.f£/«.]  Concre- 
tion of  ice. 

It  Is  round  in  hail,  and  figured  in  its  guttuious ; 
deicenMroin  the  air,  growing  greater  or  lefler  ac-  ' 
carding  to  the  accretion  or  plu  >  i  jus  aggtUtkt  ab3ut ' 
the  fundamental  atoms  thereof.  ; 

Brtiun  s  yulTor  Erriart. 

AccENER.'i'TiON.  n. /.  [from  «</ and ^*- 
reratio,  Lat.]  The  ftate  of  growing  or 
uniting  to  another  body. 

To  make  a  perfect  nutiition,  there  is. reotiiiifd  a 

tranfmutation  of  nutriment }  now- where  this-con. 

vcTfir'U,ortf|*^ewrtfri£if  is  made,  there  isalfo  requited, 

in  <he  aliment,  a  fimilatil^  of  matter.  | 

^rMcn't  fafgdr  Erriurs 

To  A'ccER.\TE.  t/.  a.  [from  a^gef,  Lat.]^ 
To  heap  up.  Dia. 

Agcero'se.  adj.  [from  agger,  Lat.]  FuUj 
of  heaps,'     '  .'       DUl. 

To  AGGLO'MERATE.'  ^.  «.  [cg^hiairo, 

■    Lat.],  '      ■ 

1.  To  gather  up  in  a  ball,  af  thread. 

2.  To  gather  together. 

To  Ag  G  L o'm  e  r  a t  e .  1-.  n. 

Bcfide$,  the  hard  agglcmeral'mg  fait:, 
The  fpoil  of  ages,  would  impcfvious  choke    ■     ' 
Their  frcret  channels.  7i.?-!''fn'j  Aulumr. 

Acclu'ti  N  ANTS.  71./.  [from a^t;ft'finaU.]' 
Thofe  medicines  or  appIicitici'S  wh'ich 
have  the  power  of  uniting  parts  together. 

To  AGGLUTINATE.  t..».  [from  ad'and 
gli'ien,  glue,  Lat.]  To  unite  one  part  to 
anotrier;  to  join  together,  foas  not  to  fall 
afunder.     Jt  is  a  word  almoll  appropri- 



•t.riomejiough  ' 

A  GG 

Tlie  occafion  of  it^not  healinj  hy  ff,7-|r/r, -.■...;';•.<,, 
as  the  other  did,  was  from  the  alteration  the  ichoi 
had  begun  to  make  in  the  bottom  of  the  wnind. 

Ac  G\.v'ri'K^liy%'.iUiJ.\Jtomag^l:itii7ate.'\ 
That  which  Ips  the  power  of  procuring 

Rowl  up  the  member  with  the  eggluthat'i'j- 
rowler.  JViunan. 

To  AGGRANDI'ZR.  -v.  a.  [aggraniiijer, 
Fr.  ]  To  make  great ;  to  enlarge  ;  to 
exalt ;  to  improve  in  power,  honour,  or 
rank.  It  is  applied  to  perfons  gene- 
rally, fometimes  to  thiiig.s. 

It  the  king  Ihould  ufe  it  no  better  than  the  pope 
did,  only  to  nggrandi-ci:  covetous  churchmen,  it 
cannot  be  called  a  jewel  in  his  crown. 

Ayl.fe's  PartrgDn. 
_  Thefc  fumilh  us  with  glorious  f'prings  and  me- 
diums, to  raife  and  aggrantiixe  our  conceptions,  to 
warm  our  fouls,  to  awaken  the  better  paflions,  and 
to  elevate  thcra  even  to  a  divine  pitch,  and  that  for 
dcvjtional  purpolcs.  fl-'jt.'s^s  Imf-r.  cf:UATlneS. 
A'CGRANDIZEMENT.   n. /.     \aggrandijpi. 

ment,  Yr."]  The  ftate  of  being  aggran- 
dized ;   the  aft  of  aggrandizing. 

A'c  o  R  A  N  D I  z  E  R  .  11.  J.  [from  aggrandize. ] 
The  perfon  that  aggrandii;es  or  makes 
great  another. 

ToAgcra'te.  'V.  a.  \aggYatare,  Ital.] 
To  pleafe ;  to  treat  with  civilities  :  a 
word  not  now  in  ufe.         ^ 

And  in  the  midft  thereof,  upon  the  fldor, 
A  lovely  bvy  of  fair  ladies  fatej 

'■>   ;  Conned'of  many  a  jolly' parampur  ; 
The  which  them  did  in  model!  wife  amate, 
A.^d  cac'h  one  fought  his  lady  to  aggraie. 

Fairy  ^veen. 

TVA'GGRAVATE.  V.  a.laggra'uo,  iTat.] 
r.  To  make  heavy,  flfed  only  in  a  nfieta- 

phorical  feai'e  ;  as,  to  c^^irrtt/^  an  ac- 

cufation,  or  a  puniQiraent. 

A  grove  hard  by,  fprung.ij>  with  this  «heir  change, 
■  .His  wiil  who  reigns  ab^ve!   to  aggritvaie 
Their  penaace,  Udcn  with  fruit,  like  that 
Wli'ich  grew  in  Paradife,  the  b.iit  of  Eve 
UsM  by  the  tempter.         "  muH']  P^radift  Lcjl. 

Ambitious  Turmis  in  the  prtfs  appears, ' 
AaittggrfvifUKg  cjimcs aogmeats  fears.  , . 

Dryd.  j^^ci.l. 
2.    Fo  make  any  thing  worfe,  by  the  ad- 
dition of  forae  particular  ciiCuinHance, 
not  eflential.       ' 

This  offence,  iii  ItfeH"  B>  '•:  ,:. 

him  «^r*waW  by'.thc  rastiv*  thereof,  which  was 
not  malice  or  diftontunt,  but  in  afjiiring  mind  tc- 
the  papacy.  ""       '     "" 

Acf.R  AV/i' 

I.  The'aa  oi 
heavy.,     . 

Z.  Th.  :r;7^' 

A   I 

and  h. 
it  in: 

3.  The 
dents,  which. 

criinc.  r,r  rh#* 

Bjccni  Henry  Vll. 
'"   \Jr()vn  aggrai.ale.'] 
ii^graviating,  ^^" or !  making 

'  ^ '  '•  imity.  ,^ 

..t'J.Uie  f^ce, 

•-'    n   ,..■:  r-.iTures  ch^nge^l 
'",     :      .  It'.  ■■-    Ai^^iiltt. 

...cnmflances  or  afci- 

increafe    tai 

:  guilt  of  a 

■'"mity..-   ■ 
iiatii  the  Vtt. 

t'lnated  to  the  foundatic 


O.v.   n.J. 


he  (Lite  l. 

ftsi  r.' 



4*11.11  cunltficnre,  a^air;:. 

-';■'  -.oif  it'br^ifgh'd  .:  I 

'h  a^rritu/.auj  not  furcharg'd, 
'^  allowance  cnumerpois'd,        •■       ' 

r.'y  I  .ird'>n  fii.d  ' 

.1  ,  111 'If  hi'iij  lef-..    M'lhm.;[  Fra-1' 


A  G  G 

The  foljd  reafon  of  one  man  with  unprejudicate'* 
apprehenlions,  begets  as  firm  a  belief?,  rh^  aulho- 
lity  or  uggrfgute  leltiniuuy  of  many  hundred.!. 

Bnwv's  !':llgtir  Errcu)!, 

They  had,  for  a  long  time  together,  producci 
mahy  other  inept  combirations,  or  ti^rre^.j.'c  forms 
of  particular^,  and  nonftnllcalfyftems  of  fhe 
"■!iole.  ■  Ry  t,n  the  Cnaur.n. 

A'cGREGATE.  n.  f.  [from  the  verb.]  The 
complex,  or  colleftive  rcfult  of  the  con- 
junflion  or  acervation  of  many  parti- 

The  reafon  of  the  far  greateft  part  of  mankind, 
is  but  ^Mi'aggngetc  of  miltalieii  phanrafms,  and, 
in  things  not  feniible,  a  conftant  deiuiion. 

GlanvUlt's  Reef,/:!  Siifnt'ifia,  ■ 

A  great  number  of  living  and  thinking  particles  ^ 
could  not  poiiibly,  by  their  mutual  contact,  and 
pic/hng,  and  Rriking,  compofe  one  greater  indi- 
vidual animal,  with  one  mind  and  uiiJerftnndin?, 
and  a  vital  confenfion  of  the  whole  b  .dy  ;,  aiiy 
more  than  a  fwarm  of  bees,  or  a  crowd  of  men  and 
women,  can  be  conceived  to  make  up  one  paiticular 
livihg  creature,  compoundftd  and  conltituted  of  the 
aggrrgiiic  of  them  all.  B.-ni/rv.  ■ 

To  A'GGREGATE.  nj.  a.  [aggrego,  La*t'] 
To  colleft  together  ;  to  accumulate;  to 
heap  many  particulars  into  one  mafs. 

The  aggregated  foil 
Death,  with  his  mace  petrifick,  cold,  and  dry. 
As  with  a  trident,  fmote.       Miltcns  Parad.  Ltft,. 
Aggrega'tio-n.  n.f.    [from   aggrtgate.^ 

1.  Colleiaion,., or  ftate  of  being  collcfted. 
Their  individual  Imperfeflions  being  great,  th.-y 

ire  moreover  enlarged  by  their  nggregatwn ;  and 
being  erroneous  in  their  tingle  numbers,  once  hud- 
:  died  together,  they  will  be  errour  itfelf. 
.     .  :   '  ■  >  Brt/iuti^i  Vitlgijr  ErrourSt 

2.  The  colleftion,  or  aft  of  collefting  many 
particulars  into  one  whole. 

The  water  refident  ii\^i  abyfs  is»  in  all  parts  ■ 
of  u,  doted  with  .a  coufiderable  quantity  of, 
aad  more  efpei^i.illy  in  thofc  where  thcfe  extrao;di- 
riary  a^gr,giiiicni  of  this  fire  happen. 

IV^odtvard* s  Natural  Hiftorym 

3.  The  whole  compofed  by  the  coacerva- 
tion  of  many  particulars ;  an  aggregate. 

Tt>  A'GGRE'SS.  <v.  n.  [aggredior,  aggref- 
fi.i:,  Lat.]  To  commit  the  firll  ad  of. 
violence  ; .  to  begin  the  quarrel. 

.     Tho  glorious  pair  .ndvance. 
With  mlot^cd  anger,  and  collei51ed  might, 

To  turn  the  w,ir,  and  t^  "g^ejing  franc?, . 
How  Bfitajn's fons  and  Britam's  friends  can  fijfit.. 
,,'-''■  ■         l-'rior. 

Accre  ssion.  n-./.[aggye^o,l.3-i-'\  Thft 
firfl  aft  of  injury  ;  commencement  of 
a  quarrel  by  fome  aftof  i.iiquity. 

Tiicrc  is  nordiliinqof  a  c  'mmo:!  enemy,  *itb3ut 

an    union  for  4  mjutual  dtfiBCc;    and,  th?re  inay 

'  be  iilfo,  01^  tlic6therhanJ,''acy(ifcomi»  n 

:fn!nhy^nii.,iggr(ff;,n.       \  I'S/ln-rgt. 

AcGRE.ssOR.  a./,   [fronj  aggr,/s.]    The 

perfon.  tliat  firlt  commencvjs    hotlility  ; 

the  aflafllter-or  invader,  oppofcd  to  the- 

difcifdanf.     "  '  ' 

-  1  I'^y'ifl. nature's  face.' 

Pit  Iinw,  ..'  n^M.i-.   Hv  It','  ,'-„   (■,.-  .  r,..'i  > 

..T  .okto'f.    ■ 

'"'  .  '    Dryd.n.. 

;  •  ..  JtiJ^  >iC;Jl.uiJu<iiiy  ciiCjjTji/Jai^ei  to  be  oWigcd 

to  retali.ite  the  ir.ji,r.c.i  of  fuch    .lutliois,  v-holi 

works  ,,  :ir;that  we  arc  in  danger 

'  ^'"^y  ■  ',i  i!ggr'cij!,r!. 

Pspe  and  Sio'tft. 

Ao c R  j't  VAN CE.«./ [Sec  Grievance.]' 
Injury;  hardfliip  inflifted ;  wrong  en-- 

Tr,   Ar 


^'■vt,.  ti^a^  [^rom  ^j-fl-wV, Ji»t.- 
I.  To 

A  G  I 

«.  To  give  forrow  ;  to  caufe  grief;  to  rex. 
It  is  not  improbable,  that  to  grie've  was 
originally  neuter,  and  aggrieve  the  ac- 

But  w.hile  therein  I  took  my  chief  delight, 
'   1  (aw,  jIu  \  the  gaping  earth  devour 

The  fprinc,  the  plice,  and  all  clean  out  of  fight : 
■Whitli  }-•!  iggr'uvci  my  heat  even  to  this  ho'ir. 

3.  To  impofe  fomc  hardftiips  upon  ;  to 
harafs  ;  to  htirt  in  one's  right.  This 
is  a  kind  of  juridical  fenfe  ;  and  when- 
ever it  is  ufed  now,  it  feetns  to  bear 
fome  allufion  to  formsof  law. 

Sewall,  archbiibop  ol  York,  much  aggr\r-.rH 
with  foin:  prjfiicei  of  ihc  pope's  collectors,  cock 
ail  patiently.  Camkv. 

The  landed  man  finds  himfelf  ii^jr;?T/««/  by  the 
ifalling  of  ^is  rents,  and  the  {(reightcning  of  his 
ifo/tune;  whilrt  the  m^uied  man  Ictept  up  his  gain, 
»nd  the  meichant  thiivcs  and  grows  rich  by  trade. 

Of  injw'd  fame,  and  mighty  wrongs  teceiv'd, 
Cbloc  complains,  and  wond'rcuAy  'i  a^ricu'd- 

*  ■  GrajwilU* 

fo  Agcrotj'p.  v.  a.  \^aggri)pare,\t3.\.'\  To 
bring  together  into  one  figure ;  to  crowd 
together:  a  teria  of  painting. 

Bodies  of  divers  naluics,  wliivh  are  {jggr:upftl 
(or  combined)  together,  are  agreeable  and  pleaUnt 
to  the  fight.  _    Drydcn. 

Acha'st.  adj.  [cither  the  participle  of 
agaze  (fee  Agaze),  and  then  to  be 
written  agaxed,  or  ago/},  or  from  a  and 
.j^aj-r,  a  ghoft,  which  the  prefent  ortho- 
graphy favours  ;  perhaps  they  were  ori- 
ginally different  words.]  Struck  with 
horrour,  as  at  the  fight  of  a  fpedtre  ; 
ftupified  with  t^rrour.  It  is  generally 
applied  to  the  ^iernal  appearance. 

She  fighing  fore,  as  if  iier  heart  in  twaine 
Had  riven  been,  and  all  her  heart-ftrings  braft. 
With  d  reary  drooping  eyne  l»ok'd  up  like  o«e  agbjjl. 

The  aged  eartTi  a^baft. 
With  terxour  of  that  bla/l. 
Shall  from  thefurface  to  the  centre  (hake.    Mdtun. 

jtgbafi  he  wak'd,  and,  ftirting  from  his  ted, 
•Cold  fweat  in  clammy  drops  his  limbs  o'erfprcad. 
Drydin'i  Mr.cid. 
1  laugh  to  think  how  your  unrtiaken  Caco 
Will  lo<Sk  aghafi,  while  unforefecn  deftruftion 
Pours  in  upon  him  thus  from  every  fide. 

j^difoti^s  Cat^. 
A'GILE.    adj.     [agile,   Fr.    agilis,  Lat.] 
Nimble  ;  ready  ;  having  the  quality  of 
being  fpeedily  put  in  motion  ;  active. 

With  that  he  gave  his  able  horfe  the  head. 
And  bending  forward  ({ruck  his  agili  heels 
Againftthe  panting  fides  of  his  poor  jade, 
Vp  to  the  rowel-head.  Sbakrfp.  }!inry  IV. 

The  immediate  and  agik  fubfervience  of  tlje 
^irits  to  the  empite  of  the  mind  or  foul. 

Hale' I  Origin  of  Matihind. 
To  guide  its  anions  with  in/brming  care. 
In  peace  to  judge,  to  conquer  in  the  war. 
Render  it  ogilt,  witty,  valiant,  fage. 
As  (its  the  various  courfe  of  human  age.       Trhr. 

A'oiLBNEss.  n.J.  [fromoj-/7«.]  The  qua- 
lity of  being  agile  ;  nimblenefs  ;  rea- 
dinefs  for  motion  ;  quicknefs  ;  adivity  ; 

Aci'i-tTY.  »./.  [agilitas,  Lat.  fiomagilis, 
agile.]  Nimblenefs  ;  readinefs  to  move  ; 
quicknefs ;  aftivity. 

A  limb  ovcr-llrained  by  lifting  a  weight  al>ove 
Its  pawer,  may  never  recover  its  former  agility  and 
vigour.  TT'aiti. 

AGl'LLOCHUM.  n.f.  Aloes-wood.  A 
tree  in  tiie  Eaft-Indies,  brought  to  us  in 

A  G  I 

fmall  bits,  of  a  very  fragront  fcent.  It 
is  liot,  drying,  and  accounted -a  llrength- 
enerof  the  nerves  in  general.  The  beft 
is  of  a  blackifh  purple  colour,  and  fo 
light  as  to  fwim  upon  water.  Sluincy. 
jfGJO.  n.f.  [An  Italian  word,  fignifying 
cafe  or  conveniency.]  A  mercantile 
term,  nfcd  chiefly  in  Holland  and  Ve- 
nice, for  the  ditFerence  between  the  value 
of  bank  notes,  and  the  current  money. 

To  AGI'ST,  V.  a.  [from  gijie,  Fr.  a  bed 
or  refting-place,  or  from  gifter,  i.  e. 
ftabulia-i.']  To  take  in  and  feed  the 
cittle  of  Ih-angers  in  the  king's  foreft, 
and  to  gather  the  money.  The  officers 
that  do  this,  are  called  cgiftors,  in  Eng- 
lifli,  gueft  or  gift-takers.  Their  funftion 
is  terflied  agiftment  ;  as,  agiftment  upon 
the  fea-banks.  This  word  agiji  is  alfo 
ufed,  for  the  taking  in  of  other  men's 
cattle  into  any  man's  ground,  at  a  cer- 
tain raxe per  week.]  Blount. 
Aoi'sTMENT.  n.f.  [See  Agist.]  It  is 
taken  by  the  canon  lawyers  in  aiuither 
fenfe  than  is  mentioned  under  agift. 
They  feem  to  intend  by  it,  a  modus  or 
conipofition,  or  mean  rate,  at  which 
fome  right  or  due  may  be  reckoned :  per- 
haps it  is  corrupted  from  addoucijfement , 
or  adjuftment. 
Aci'sToa.  n.f.  [ffom /Jfj/?.]  An  officer  of 

the  king's  forefl.  See  Agist. 
A'g  1 T  A  B  L  E .  adj.  [from  agitate ;  agitahilis, 
Lat.]  That  which  May  be  agitated,  or 
put  in  motion  ;  perhaps  that  which  may 
be  difputed.  See  Agitate,  and  Agi- 
tation. .  .  .  , 
To  A'GITATE.  v.  «.  [agio,  Lat.] 

1 .  To  put  in  motion  ;  to  (hake  ;  to  move 
nimbly ;  as,  the  furface  of  the  waters 
is  agitated  by  the  wind  ;  the  veffel  was 
broken  by  agitating  the  Uquor. 

2.  To  be  the  caufe  of  motipn ;  to  aftuate  ; 
to  move. 

Where  dwells  this  (bv'reljn  arbitrary  foul, 
Which  does  the  human  animal  concroul, 
Inform  each  part,  and  agitata  the  wliole?  Blacknore. 

J.  To  affed  with  perturbation  ;  as,  the 
mind  of  man  is  agitated  by  various 

4.  To  ftir ;  to  bandy  from  one  to  another ; 
to  difcufs ;  to  controvert ;  ^s,  to  agitate 
a  quelHon^ 

Though  this  controverfy  be  revivedi  an4  hotly 

agitated  among  the  moderns ;  yet  I  doubt  whether 

it  be  not,  in  a  great  part,  a  nominal  difpute.  ' 

Boyie  on  Colours.- 

5.  To  contrive;  to  revolve;  to  form  by 
laborious  thought. 

Farmalitics  of  extraordinary  ecal  and  piefy  arc 
never  more  (ludied  and  elaborate,  than  when  poli-{ 
ticians  nioH  agitate  defperate  defjgns.  K'nig  Charles. 

Agita'tion.  »./.  [homagitate;  agitatio, 
Lat.]  ;     ' 

1.  The  aftofmovingor  fhaking  anything. 

Putrefadtion  alkoth  rcll ;  for  the  lubtle  motion 
which  putrefaction  requireth,  is  difturbed  by  any 
agitation.  Boicr,. 

2.  The  ftate  of  being  moved  or  agitated  ; 
as,  the  waters,  after  a  ftorm,  are  fome 
time  in  a  violent  agitation. 

3.  Difcu&on ;  controverfial  examinatisn. 


A  It'md  of  a  fchool  qutllion  is  Sarted  !n  this  fable, 
upon  reafon  and  inliinO  ;  this  deliberative  pro. 
ceeding  of  the  crow,  was  rather  a  logical  agiia:iaii 
of  the  matter.  i: tfiran^e' s  fahUi, 

If.  Violent  motion  of  the  mind  ;  pertur- 
bation ;  difturbance  of  the  thoughts. 

A  great  perturbation  in  nature  '.  to  receive  at 
once  the  bene(it  of  fleep,  and  do  the  eRetts  of 
watching.  In  this  (lumbry  agitation,  belides  her 
walking,  and  other  aflaal  performances,  what 
have  you  heard  her  fay  ?       Shakejftart'i  Macbeth. 

His  mother  could  no  longer  bear  the  agitatioru 
of  (0  many  palTions  as  tlirongcd  u"on  her. 

■  Taller,  N"  55. 

5.  Deliberation;  contrivance;  the  ftate 
of  being  confulted  upon. 

■The  projeil  now  in  agilaian  for  repealing  of 
the  teft  aft,  and  yet  leaving  the  narae'of  an  ellad- 
lifhment  to  the  prefent  national  church,  is  incon- 
fiftcnt.  Sivifi'i  Mi'celhnie!. 

Agita'tor.  n.f.  [from  agitate.]  He  that 
agitates  any  thing  ;  he  who  manages 
affairs  :  in  which  fenfe  feems  to  be  ufed 
the  agitators  of  the  army. 

A'rtLET.  n.f.  [Some  derive  it  from  afyXi!, 
fplendour  ;  but  it  is  apparently  to  be 
deduced  from  aigulette,  Fr.  a  tag  to  a 
point,  and  that  from  aigu,  fharp.] 

1 .  A  tag  of  a  point  curved  into  fome  re- 
prefentation  of  an  animal,  generally  of 
a  man. 

He  thereupon  gave  for  the  garter  a  chain  wortti 
2col.  and  his  gown  addre(red  with  aglets,  efteemed 
worth  15!.  Hayward. 

Why,. give  him  gold  enough,  and  marry  him 
to  a  puppet,  or  an  aglet  baby,  or  an  old  trut,  and 
ne'er  a  tootli  in  her  head. 

Sbakejfeare"  s  T.inir.g  of  the  Sbrrio. 

2.  The  pendants  at  the  ends  of  the  chieves 
of  flowers,  as  in  tulips. 

A'cMiNAL.  adj.  [from  a^/»^«,  Lat.]  Be- 
longing to  a  troop.  D:S. 

A'g  NAIL.  adj.  [from  anje,  grieved,  and 
najle,  a  nail.]  A  difeafe  of  the  nails  ; 
a  whitlow  ;  an  inflammation  round  the 

Agna'tion.  n.f.  [from  agnatus,  Lat.] 
Defcent  from  the  feme  father,  in  a  di- 
reft  male  line,  diftinfl  from  cogaation, 
or  confanguinity,  which  includes  defcea- 
dants  from  females. 

Agni'tion.  n.f.  [from  aguitie,  XaI.^ 

To  Agni'ze.  ■v.  a.  [from  agtofco,  Lat.] 
To  acknowledge ;  to  own  ;  to  avow. 
This  word  is  now  obfolete. 

1  do  agniau 
A  natural  and  prompt  alacrity 
I  find  in  hardnefs.  Shalrffeari's  OiiilU. 

Agnomina'tio.v.  n.f.  [agnominatio,  Lat.] 
Allufion  of  one  word  to  another,  by  rc- 
femblance  of  found. 

The  Bririlh  continueth  yet  in  Wales,  and  fome 
villages  of  Cornwall,  intermingled  with  provincial 
Latin,  being  very  lignificative,  copiois,  and  plea- 
(^ntly  running  upon  agnotr.intnons,  although  hardi 
in  al'pirations.  Catnden. 

AGKVS  CASTUS.  n.f  [Lat.]  The  name 
of  the  tree  commonly  called  the  Chafe 
Tree,  from  an  imaginary  virtue  of  pre- 
ferving  chaftity. 

Of  laurel  fjme,  of  woodbine  many  more. 
And  wreathes  of  agnut  cajius  others  bore.      Dryd, 

Ago',  adv.  [ajan.  Sax.  pall  or  gone  ; 
whence  writers  formerly  ufed,  and  in 
fome  provinces  the  people  ftill  ufe,  agone 
for  ago.]    Pall ;  as,  long  ago ;  that  is, 



Jong  time  has  pad  fince.  Reckoning 
time  towards  the  prefent,  we  \ik  fence  ; 
as,  it  is  a  ye3.x  fence  it  happened  :  reck- 
oning from  the  prefent,  we  ufe  ago  ;  as, 
it  happened  a  year  ago.  I'his  is  not, 
perhaps,  always  obferved. 

The  great  fupp?y 
Are  wreck'd  three  nights  ami  on  Gadwin  finds. 

Stahf^  eare. 
This  both  by  othfn  and  myfelf  I  know. 
For  I  have  fcrv'd  their  rovercign  long  tigo  ; 
Oft  have  been  caught  within  the  winding  train. 
Dryd,rCi  Fabics, 
I  (hill  fct  down  an  account  of  a   difcourfc  I 
chanced  to  have  with  one  of  the.n  fjme  time  c^o. 
j^iUiji^ni  Frtiiotdir. 

Ago'c.  aJv.  [a  word  of  uncertain  ety- 
mology :  the  French  have  the  term  a 
gcgo,  in  low  language  ;  zi.ils  iiivc/it  a 
gcgo,  they  live  to  their  wilTi :  from  this 
phrafe  our  word  may  be,  perhaps,  de- 

I.  In  a  (late  of  defire  ;  in  a  ftate  of  warm 
imagination  ;  heated  with  the  notion 
of  fome  enjoyment ;  longing  ;  llrongly 

As  fjr  the  fcnfe  and  reafon  of  it,  that  has  little 
«r  nothing  to  do  here  ;  only  let  it  found  full  and 
round,  and  chime  right  to  the  humour,  which 
is  at  prefent  agog  (juft  as  a  big,  long,  rattling 
natne  is  faid  to  command  even  adoration  fiom  a 
Spaniard),  and,  no  doubt,  with  this  powerful, 
fenfelefs  engine,  the  rabble  driver  flialj  be  able  t^ 
carry  all  before  h;m.  Scuib'i  S.tkhiii. 

Z.  It  is  ufed  with  the  verbs  to  be,  or  to  fet ; 
as,  he  is  agog,  or   you   may  fet  him 

'i'he  gawdy  gnflip,  whfn  the'sfer  agog. 
In  jewels  dreft,  and  at  each  ear  a  bob. 
Goes  flaunting  out,  and,  in  her  trim  of  pride. 
Thinks  all  flic  fays  or  does  is  juftifj'd. 

Dryd.  Jiiv.  Sat.  vi. 

This  maggot  has  no  {ooner  Jet  him  agc',  bui 
he  gets  him  a  fliip,  f  eights  hor,  builds  caitlcs  in 
the  air,  and  conceits  both  the  ladies  in  his  cof- 
fers. L'E/lr.tnzt. 
3.  It  has  the  particles  on,  or  far,  before 
the  object  of  defire. 

On  which  the  fj'nts  ar«  all  agog, 
Ard  all  this  for  a  bear  and  dog.      Hudihr.  (ant,  ii. 

Gvffios  generally  ft.agi;le  into  thefe  parts,  and 
fet  the  heads  of  our  fervant-maidi  fo  agcg  fir 
hulbands,  that  we  do  not  cxpefl  to  have  any  bufi- 
nefs  done  as  it  fliouij  be,  whil.1  they  are  in  the 
country.  Mdifuit't  SfiBatcr. 

Aco'iNC,  participial  adj.  [from  a  and 
going.^    In  aftion  ;  into  aftion. 

Their  firft  movement,  and  imprejed  motions, 
demanded  the  impuli'e  of  an  almighty  hand  to  fet 
them  firll  agolrtg,  TatUr, 

Aco'ne.  adv.  [ajan.  Sax.]  Ago;  paft. 
See  Ago. 

is  he  fuch  a  princely  one. 
As  you  fpeak  him  long  agent? 

Ben  'Jonffm^s  Fairy  Prhce. 

A'cONiSM.  n.f.  [iyMiiTfio,-,  Gr.]  Conten- 
tion for  a  prize.  Diil. 

A'coNisT.  n.f.  [aytjVijj  Gr.]  A  con- 
tender for  prizes.  Diit. 

AcoNi'sTES.  n.f.  [Uyc^nrrii; ,  Gr.]  A  prize- 
fighter ;  one  that  contends  at  r.»y  pub- 
lic folemnity  for  a  prize.  Milton  has 
fo  ftyled  his  tragedy,  bec.iufe  Samfon 
was  called  cut  to  divert  the  Philiftines 
with  feats  of  llrength. 

AcoNi'sTiCAL.a*^'.  [from<7jo«//?cv.]  Re- 
lating to  prize-fighting.  Did. 

I«  A'coNizE.  V.  n.  [from  agonisx,  low 
Vol.  I. 

A  G  R 

Latin  ;  iyuti^u,  Gr.  rgonifer,  Fr.]    To 
feel  agonies  ;  to  be  in  excefTive  pain. 

Doft  thou  behold  my  poor  diltrafled  heirt, 
Thus-rent  with  agoi:izing  love  and  rage. 
And  afic  me  what  it  means  ?    Art  tliyu  not  falfe  ? 
R'.'tU'-'s  f-int  S/^are. 
Or  touch,  if,  tremblingly  alive  all  o'er, 
To  fmait  and  agonixe  at  evVy  pore  ? 

Fc/re's  Fff-iy  on  Man. 
Acokothe'tick.  adj.  [xyut  z'i^r,fn, 
Gr.]  Propofing  publick  contentions  for 
prizes  ;  giving  prizes;  prefiding  at  pub- 
lick  games.  Ditl. 
A'GONY.  n.f.  [aya*,  Gr.  agon,  low  Lat. 
agonie,  ^r.'\ 

1 .  The  pangs  of  death  ;  properly  the  lall 
contcil  between  life  and  death. 

Never  was  there  more  pity  in  faving  any  than 
in  ending  me,  bccaufj  therein  my  agony  fliali  end. 


Thou  who  for  me  did'feel  fuch  pain, 
Whofe  precious  blood  the  crofs  did  ftain. 
Let  not  thc.fe  agcn'us  be  va.n.  Rofccmmcn. 

2.  Any  violent  or  exceflive  pain  of  body 
or  mind. 

Betwijt  them  both,  they  have  mc  done  to  dy. 
Thro'  wounds  and  lirokes,  and  ftubborn  handeling. 

That  death  were  better  than  fuch  agcny. 
As  grief  and  fury  unto  me  did  bring.  Fairy  Slueen. 

Thee  I  have  mifs'd,  and  thought  it  long,  depriv'd 
Thy  prefence,  ag'nj  of  love !  till  now 
Not  felt,  nor  (hall  be  twice.        Mihon't  Par.  Lofl. 

3.  It  is  particularly  ufed  in  devotions  for 
our  Redeemer's  conflict  in  the  garden. 

To  propofe  our  defires,  which  cannot  take  fuch 
effciS  as  we  fpecify,  fhall,  notwithftaniing,  other- 
wife  procure  ui  his  heavenly  grace,  even  as  this 
very  prayer  of  Chr.ft  obtained  angels  to  be  fent 
him  as  comforters  in  his  t:gony.  Hooker. 

Ago'od.  adv.  [a  ATiA  gcod.'\    In  eameft ; 
•  not  fJAttioudy.     Not  in  ufe. 

At  that  time  1  made  her  weep  agood, 
For  1  did  play  a  hmeitable  pirt. 

Stikeffejr:'!  Ttvn  Gent,  ef  Ver'na- 

Acot;'TY.  n.f.  An  animal  of  the  An- 
tilles, of  the  bignefs  of  a  rabbet,  with 
bright  red  hair,  and  a  little  tail  without 
hair.  He  has  but  two  teeth  in  each  jiw, 
holds  his  meat  in  his  fore -paws  like  a 
fquirrel,  and  has  a  very  remarkable  cry. 
When  he  is  angry,  his  hair  Hands  on 
end,  and  he  ilrikes  the- earth  with  his 
hind-feet,  and,  when  chafed,  he  flies 
to  a  hollow  tree,  whence  he  is  expelled 
by  fmoke.  Tre'voux. 

•ToAcra'ce.  "v.  a,  [from  a  ?mA  grace. "[ 
To  grant  favours  to  ;  to  confer  benefits 
upon  :  a  word  not  now  in  ufe. 

She  granted,  and  that  knight  fo  much  agra<'i. 
That  the  him  taught  celeftial  difcipline. 

Fairy  Sluiin. 
Acra'mmatist.    n.  f.    [a,  fri'u.   and 
yfa.jj.u.!ic,  Gr.]   An  illiterate  man.     Did. 
Agra'rian.  adj.   \_agrarius,   Lat.]    Re- 
lating to  fields  or  grounds  ;  a  word  fel- 
dom  ufed    but    in  the   Roman   hillory, 
where  there  is  mention  of  the  agrarian 
yiAoRE'ASE.  1/.  (T.  [{roai  a  And  greafe.'] 
To  daub  ;  to  greali; ;   to  pollute  with 

The  waves  thereof  fo  (low  and  fluj?gi(h  were, 
Engrofs'd  with  mud,  which  did  them  foul  agreafe. 

Fairy  liluetn. 

To  AGRE'E.  If.  n.  [agreer,  Fr.  fromgre, 
liking  or  good-will;  gratia  smd gratus, 

V      A  G  R 

1.  To  be  in  concord  ;  to  live  without  con- 
tention ;   not  to  differ. 

The  more  you  e:g!ee  together,  the  Icfs  hurt  can 
your  enemies  do  you.  Brccme's  P*iitv  '^f  Epic  Poetf  y. 

2.  To  grant  ;  to  yield  to  ;  to  admit ;  with 
the  particles  to  or  upon. 

And  perfuaded  them  to  agree  to  all  rcafonable 
conditions.  z  RTjccateci,  xi.  14. 

We  do  not  prove  the  origin  of  the  earth  from  a 
chaos ;  fccirg  that  is  agreed  on  by  all  that  give  it 
ary  origin.  Burnet. 

3.  To  fettle  amicably. 

A  form  of  vi  ords  were  quickly  agreed  on  between 
th'-m  for  3  pertVdt  combinat'.on.  C'arendr^n. 

4.  To  fettle  terms  by  fiipulation  ;  to  ac- 
cord :  followed  by  ivit/j. 

Agree  zviib  thine  aJverfary  quickly,  whilft  thcu 
art  in  the  .way  with  him  ;  left  at  any  time  the 
adverfary  deliver  t.hee  to  the  judge,  and  the  judge 
deliver  thee  to  the  officer,  and  thou  be  cart  into 
prifon.  Matt.  v.  15. 

5.  To   fettle  a  price  between  buyer  and 

Friend,  I  do  tlice  no  wrong;  didft  not  thou 
agree  vjilb  me  for  a  penny?  Mal>.  xx.  13, 

6.  To  be  of  the  fame  mind  or  opinion. 

He  exceedingly  provoked  or  unJerwent  the 
envy,  and  reproach,  and  malice  of  men  of  all 
qualities  and  conditions,  who  agreed  in  nothing 
elfe.  Clarendon. 

Milton  is  a  noble  genius,  and  the  world  agree:  to 
confefs  it.  ff^attt^s  Imprtjvcment  of  the  Mind. 

7.  To  concur  ;  to  co-operate. 

Muft  the  whole  man,  amazing  thought!  return 
To  the  cold  ma.ble  and  contra-ted  urn  ? 
And  never  Ihall  thofe  particles  agree, 
That  were  in  life  this  individual  he  ?  Prior. 

8.  To  fettle  fome  point  a;nong  many,  with 
upon  before  a  noun. 

Strifes  and  troubles  would  be  cndlefs,  except 
they  gave  their  common  confent  all  to  be  ordered 
by  fome  whom  they  fiijuld  agree  upon.         Honker. 

If  men,  iktUed  in  chymical  affairs,  {hsW  agree 
to  write  clearly,  and  keep  men  from  being  ftunned 
by  dark  or  en>p;y  words,  they  will  be  reduced 
eitiier  to  write  nothing,  or  books  that  may  teach 
u^  fjniething.  Boyle. 

9.  To  be  confiilent ;   not  to  contradift; 
with  to  ot  luith. 

For  many  bare  falfe  witnefs  againft  him,  but 
their  witnefs  agreed  not  together.    Mark,  xiv.  56. 

They  that  ftood  by  faid  again  to  Peter,  Suely 
thou  art  one  of  them  :  for  thou  art  a  Galilean, 
and  thy  fpeecli  ogreeib  thereto.        Mark,  xiv.  70. 

Which  teftimony  I  the  lefs  fcruple  to  all/ge, 
bec.iufe  it  agrees  very  well  -with  what  has  been  af- 
firmed to  me.  Bayle, 

10.  To  fuit  with;  to  be  accommodated 
to  :  with  to  or  --with. 

Thou  fceJeft  thine  own  people  with  angels  food, 
and  didft  fend  them  from  heaven  bread  agreeing  to 
every  tafte.  _  mjdom. 

His  principles  could  not  be  ma.le  to  agree  with 
that  conftitulion  and  order  which  God  had  fettled 
in  the  world  ;  and,  therefore,  muft  needs  clalh 
with  common  fenfe  and  experience.  Locke, 

1 1.  To  caufe  no  difl:urbance  in  the  body. 

I  have  often  thought,  that  our  prefcribing  affej 
milk  in  fuch  fmall  quantities,  is  injudicious;  for, 
undoubtedly,  with  luch  as  it  agrea  with,  it  would 
perform  much  gieater  and  qnicker  cflefls,  iit 
greater  quantities.  .Orbutbnot. 

To  Ac  re'e.  1;.  a. 

1 .  To  put  an  end  to  a  variance. 

He  faw  from  far,  or  feemed  for  to  fee. 
Some  troublous  uproar,  or  contentious  fray, 
Whereto  he  drew  in  haflc  it  to  agree. 

Fairy  Slueen,  i.  it. 

2.  To  make  friends ;  to  reconcile. 

The  mighty  rivals,  whofe  deftrud^ive  rage 
Did  the  whole  world  io  civil  aims  engage. 
Ate  now  agreed.  Rojcommm. 

H  VLore'eable. 

A  G  R 

^cke'iaBLC.  dJj.   [agreaile,¥t.'] 

1.  Suitable  to  ;  confiftent  with  j  conform- 
able to.     It  has  the  particle  to,  or  ivith. 

This  piucity  of  blood  is  agrciabU  It  many  other 
•nimilt,  at  ft-tgs,  lizardi,  and  other  fidies. 

£rawH*t  Vulgar  Errouri, 

Tha  Hcl'isht  whlc!i  men  have  in  popuhirlty, 
fame,  fubmiffiw,  and  fubjcflion  of  otlier  n)cii'» 
minds,  fecmeth  to  he  a  thing,  in  itlelf,  witliout 
contemplation  c(  confcqiience,  agmAh-  and  grate- 
ful to  the  natuve  ot"  man.  Baan's  Natura/ Ui/lory 

What  you  do,  is  not  at  all  ogneahlt  either 
wkb  fo  good  a  chriftian,  or  fo  rcalbnabic  and  (c 
treat  a  pcifun.  Tewfk. 

That  which  is  agriealk  fj  the  nature  of  one 
thing,  is  many  times  contrary  to  the  narure  of 
another.  VEJlr.wge. 

As  Uic  praflice  of  all  piety  and  viitue  is  agrec- 
ciie  to  our  reafon,  fo  is  it  likcwlfe  the  iniereft 
both  of  private  perl'ons  and  of  public  focieties. 


2.  In  the  following  paflage  the  adjedive 
is  ufed  by  a.  familiar  corruption  for  the 
adverb  agreeably. 

jigreiahlc  tereunto,  perl?sps  it  might  not  beamifs, 
to  make  children,  asibon  as  they  are  capable  of  it, 
«ften  to  tell  a  ftory.  ttcke  on  EJucatim. 

3.  Pleafing  ;  that  is  fuitable  to  the  incli- 
sation,  faculties,  or  temper.  It  is  ufed 
in  this  fenfe  both  of  perfons  and  things. 

And  while  the  face  of  outward  things  we  find 
Pleafant  and  fair,  agricatU  and  fweet, 
Thefc  things  tranfport.  SlrJ.Dav'm. 

1  rtcollefl  in  my  mind  the  difcourfes  which 
feave  palTed  between  us,  and  call  to  mind  a  thou- 
fand  agretahli  remarks,  which  he  has  made  on 
thefe  occafions.  Addijr.n,  SfeSatcr,  N^  541. 

Agre'eableness.  n.f.  \^(rom  agreeabU.'\ 
».  Confiftency  with;  fuitablenefs  to:  with 
the  particle  to. 

Plealant  tafles  depend  not  on  the  things  them- 
felves,  but  their  agrtiablnefi  to  this  or  that  parti- 
cular palate,  wherein  there  is  great  variety.    Locke. 

3.  The  quality  of  pleafmg.  It  is  ufed  in 
an  infericur  fenfe,  to  mark  the  pro- 
duftion  of  fatisfadlion,  calm  and  laft- 
i.Tg,  but  below  rapture  or  admiration. 

There  will  be  occafion  for  largenefs  of  mind 
Uki  agremk/entfi  of  temper.       Co/tier  of  Frieniljhip. 

It  is  very  much  an  image  of  that  author's  writ- 
ing, who  has  an  agrieahhmfi  that  charms  us, 
without  corrcflncfs  J  like  a  miftrefs,  whofe  faults 
We  fee,  but  love  her  with  them  all.  Pope. 

3.  Refemblance;  likenefs;  fometimes with 
the  particle  betiveen. 

This  re'.a'ion  is  likewife  fecn  in  the  agrteahlt- 
tuft  icnireta  m^n  and  the  other  parts  of  the  uni- 
verfe.  dviu'j  Cofmchgia  Sacra. 

Agre'eably.  a^'v.  [from  agreeable.] 
1.  Confiftently  with ;  in  a  manner  fuitable 

They  may  look  into  the  affairs  of  Judea  and 
JcrufaletD,  agreeai/y  to  that  which  is  in  the  law  of 
tlic  Loirf.  I  EJJ,  xviii.  II. 

i.  Pleafingly. 

1  did  never  imagine,  that  fo  many  excellent 
rules  could  be  produced  fo  advanugeoufly  and 
•igrtcatlj.  iivift. 

Agrb'ed.  participial  adj.  \Jtoxa  agree.] 
Settled  by  confent. 

When  they  had  got  known  and  agreid  names, 
to  fignify  thofe  internal  operations  of  their  own 
minds,  they  were  fuificiently  furnifhed  to  make 
known  by  words  all  their  ideas.  I.ccke. 

Aore'eingness.  n./.  [from  agru.]  Con- 
fidence ;  fuitablencft. 

Ar;RE'EMENT.  tt.  J.  [agremea/,  Fr.  in 
law  Latiri  agreemeattus,  which  Coke 
would  willingly  derive  from  aggrtgatio 

'A  G  U 

1.  Concord. 

What  agreamtt  is  there  between  the  hyeni  and 
the  dog  ^  and  what  peace  between  the  rich  and 
the  poor  ?  Ecctuy.  xiii.  18. 

1,  Refemblance  of  one  thing  to  another. 

The  djviliiin  and  quavering  which  pleafc  fo 
much  in  mufick,  have  ah  agravmii  with  the  glit- 
tering of  light,  as  the  moon-beams  playing  upon  a 
wave.  *  Bacon. 

Expanfion  and  duration  have  this  farther  agrit- 
mti.i,  that  though  they  are  both  confidered  by 
us  as  having  parts,  jet  their  parts  are  not  feparahi. 
ore  from  another.  Locke. 

3.  Compafk ;  bargain;  condufionof  con- 
troverfy ;  llipulation. 

And  your  covenant  with  death  (hall  be  difan- 
nulled,  and  your  agreement  with  hell  (hall  not 
(land  J  when  the  overflowing  fcourge  (hall  pafs 
through,  then  ye  (hall  be  trodden  down  by  it. 

Jfaiab,  xxviii.  iS. 
Make  an  agreerrent  with  me  by  a  prefcnt,   and 
come  out  to  me,  and  then  eat  ye  every  man  of 
his  own  vine,  and  every  one  of  his  fig-tree. 

2  K'mgs,  xviii.  31. 
Frog  had  given  his  word,  that  he  would  meet 
the  company,  to  talk  of  this  agreement. 

I  jirbuthnot's  Hiftory  af  John  Bull. 

Agre'stick,  or  Acre'stical.  adj. 
[from  agrejlis,  Lat.]  Having  relation 
to  the  country  ;  rude  ;  ruftick.  Di£i. 
Agricola'tjon.  n.  f.  [from  agricola, 
Lat.]  Culture  of  the  ground.  DiB. 
A'griculture.  n.f.  [agricultiira,  Lat.] 
The  art  of  cultivating  the  ground;  til- 
lage ;  hufbandry,  as  dillinft  from  paf- 

He  ftrictly  advifeth  not  to  begin  to  fow  before 
the  fftting  of  the  (lars;  which,  notwithftanding, 
without  injury  to  agriculturey  cannot  be  obferved 
in  England.  Brotvn^s  Vulgar  Errours. 

That  there  was  tillage  bellowed  upon  the  ante- 
diluvian ground,  Mofes  does  indeed  intimate  in 
general ;  what  fort  of  tillage  that  was,  is  not 
expreffed  :  I  hope  to  (hew  that  tlieir  agriculture 
was  nothing  near  fo  laborious  and  trcublefome, 
nor  did  it  take  up  fo  much  time  as  ours  doth. 

H^ooiiivartts  Natural  Hi^ory, 
The  difpcfition  of  UlyiTes  inclined  him  to  war, 
rather  than  the  more  lucrative,  but  more  fecure, 
method  of  life,  by  agriculture  and  hulbandry. 

Broome's  Notes  c/t  tbe  Odyff^y. 

A'grimon'y.  n.f.  [a^rimoiiia,  Lat.]  The 
name  of  a  plant.  The  leaves  are  rough, 
hairy,  pennated,  and  grow  alternately 
on  the  branches ;  the  flower-cup  con- 
fifts  of  one  \ezf,  which  is  divided  into 
five  fegments  :  the  flowers  have  five  or 
fix  leaves,  and  are  formed  into  a  long 
fpike,  which  expand  in  form  of  a  rofe  ; 
the  fruit  is  oblong,  dry,  and  prickly, 
like  the  burdock  ;  in  each  of  which  are 
contained  two  kernels.  Miller. 

To  AoRi'sE.  f.  rt.  [ajpipan.  Sax.]  To 
look  terrible.     Out  of  ufe.  Spenfer. 

Te  .A.ORi'sE.  -v.' a.    To  terrify.     Spenfer. 

Acro'und.  ad<v.   [from  a  and^ro»»</.] 

1.  Stranded ;  hindered  by  the  ground  from 
pafling  farther. 

With  our  great  (hips,  we  durft  not  approach  the 
eoail,  we  having  been  all  of  us  aground. 

Sir  W.  RaUlgb's  EJJays. 
Say  what  you  fecic,  and  whither  were  you  bound  ? 
Were  you,  by  ftrefs  of  weather,  cad  aground  f 


2.  It  is  likewife  figaratirely  ufcd,  for 
being  hindered  in  the  progrefs  of  af- 
fairs ;  a'^,  the  negotiators  were  aground 
at  that  objeftion. 

.'\'GUE,  n.f.  [aigu,Ft,  acute.]    An  in- 


termitting  fever,  with  cold  fits  fuceeed- 

ed  by  hot.     The  cold  fit  is,  in  popular 
language,  more  particularly  called  the 
/   ague,  and  the  hot  the  fever. 

Our  caftle's  ftrength 
Will  laugh  a  fiege  to  fcom.     Hctp  let  them  lie. 
Till  famine  and  tbe  ague  eat  them  up.       Shakefif 

'I  hough 
He  feels  the  heats  of  youth,  and  colds  of  aget- 
Vet  neither  tempers  nor  correfls  -he  others 
As  if  there  were  an  ague  in  his  nature. 
That  (lill  inclines  to  one  extreme.  Dtnbam'tSofiby. 
A'cviu.  adj.    [from  ague.]    Struck  with 
an  ague  ;    (hivering  ;    cJiill ;    cold  :    a 
word  in  little  ufe. 

All  hurt  behind,  backs  red,  and  facei  pale. 
With  flight  and  agued  tear !       Sbaktfp.  CtrioLnm. 

A'gi/e  fit.  ti.  f.  [from  agiu  and  yS/.] 
Tlie  paroxyfm  of  the  ague. 

This  ague  Jit  of  fear  is  overblown. 

Sbakeff.  Rich.  ir. 

A'gue  PROOF. <j<^'.  [from  ague  and  proof. 1 
Proof  againft  agues  ;  able  to  refift  the 
caufes  which  produce  agues,  without 
being  afl^efted. 

when  the  rain  came  to  wet  me  once,  and  the 
wi«J  to  make  me  chatter;  when  the  thunder  would 
not  peace  at  my  bidding ;  tliere  I  found  'em, 
there  1  fmclt  'em  out.  They  told  me  1  was  every 
thing  :  'tis  a  lie  ;  I  am  not  ague  proof  . 

Shakffearci  King  l^ar. 
A'cuE-TREE.  n.f.  [from  ague  and  trie.] 
A  name  fometimes  given  to  faffafras. 

ToAovi'sE.  "v.  a.  [from  a  znd guife.  See 
Guise.]   Todrefs;  to  adorn;  to  deck  : 
a  word  now  not  in  ufe. 

As  her  fantaftic  wit  did  moft  delight. 
Sometimes  her  head  (he  fondly  would  aguift 
With  gaudy  garlands,  or  frelh  flowers  dighc 
About  her  neck,  or  rings  of  rulhes  plight. 

f-iiVy  Slueen. 

A'guish.  adj.  [flora  ague.]  Having  the 
qualities  of  an  ague. 

So  calm,  and  io  lerenc,  but  now. 
What  means  this  change  on  Myra's  brow  ? 
Her  aguijh  love  now  glows  and  bums. 
Then  chills  and  (hakes,  and  the  cold  fit  returns. 


A'guishness.  ».  f.  [from  aguijh.]  The 
quality  of  refembling  an  ague. 

-Ah.   Inter jcQicn. 

I.  A  word  noting  fometimes  diflike  and 

ylhl  fmful  nation,  a  people  laden  with  ini- 
quity, a  feed  of  evil-doers,  children  that  are  cor- 
rupters, they  have  forfaken  the  Lord.    Ijaiah,  i.  4. 

z.  Sometimes  contempt  and  exultation. 
Let  them  not  fay  in  their  heart*.  Ah  I  fo  we 
would  have  it :  let  them  not  fay,  we  have  fwal- 
lowed  him  up.  P/olmxxxy.  2^. 

3.  Sometimes,  and  moft  frequently,  com- 
panion and  complaint. 

In  youth  alone,  unhappy  mortals  live; 
But,  ab  .'  the  mighty  blifs  is  fugitive  : 
Difcqiour'd  (ickncfs,  anxious  labour  come, 
And  age  and  death's  inexorable  doom. 

Dryd.Vlrg.  Geerg. iii,. 

^^met  the  blooming  pride  of  May, 
And  tl'^t  oi'  beauty  are  but  one  : 

At  morn  botlvflouriih  bright  and  gay. 
Both  t\dc  at  evening,  pale,  and  gone.  Prion 

4.  When  it  is  followed  by  tiat,  it  ex- 
prcflTes  vehement  dcfire. 

In  gooJncfs,  as  in  greatnefs,  they  excel  ; 
Ab  I  that  we  lov'd  ourfelvcs  but  half  fo  well. 

Drydcn's  JuvtruL 

Aha'!  Aha'!  intcrjeilion.  A  word  inti- 
mating triumph  and  comenipt. 



They  opened   their  mouth  wide   aga!nflf  mty 

>nd  faid,  aba  I  aha  !  our  eye  hath  fcen  it. 

Pfalm  XXXV.  II. 

Ahs'ad.  aJv.  [from  a  and  i6fW.] 
1,  Farther  onward  than  another  :  a  fea 

And  now  the  mighty  Centaur  fe«ms  to  lead. 
And  now  the  fpeedy  Doiphin  gets  akiad. 

DrydiTs't  j^nehl. 

t.  Headlong  ;  precipitanlly  :^  ufed  of  ani- 
mals, and  figuratively  of  men. 

It  is  mightily  the  fault  of  parents,  guardians, 
tutors,  and  governours,  tiut  lb  many  men  mif- 
carry.  They  fuffer  them  at  firil  to  run  ahead, 
and,  when  perverfe  inclinations  arc  advanced  into 
habits,  there  is  no  dealing  with  them. 

VEfirargfi  Tahiti. 

'.Ahe'icht.  adv.    [from  a  and  hcigbt.'\ 
Aloft ;  on  high. 

But  have  I  falPn  or  no  ?— 
—From  the  dread  I'ummit  of  this  chalky  bourne  ! 
■   Look  up  aheigbf,  the  ftir!ll-gorg'd  iafk  {o  far 
Cannot  be  fecn  or  hlard.  HhahJ^,  Khr  Lfar, 

jiHOUjfl.  n.f.   The  name  of  a  poifonous 

7»  AID.   T/.  a.   \aider,  Fr.  from  adjutare, 
Lat.]     To  help  ;  to  fupport  ;  to  fuc- 

Into  the  lake  he  leapt,  hh  lord  to  a'u!. 
And  of  him  catching  hold,  him  Itrongly  Ifaid 
From  drowning.  Fairy  ^uetr, 

Ncnhfr  fliail  they  give  any  thing  unto  them 
that  make  war  upon  them,  or  aid  them  with 
rituals,  weapons,  ir.oney,  or  fiiips. 

Mauabet!,  viii.  26. 
By  the  loud  trumpet,  which  our  courage  aidiy 
We  learn  that  found  as  well  as  fenfe  perfuadcs. 

Aid.  n.f.  [from  To  aid.] 

1 .  Help  ;  fupport. 

The  memory  of  ufeful  thiiigs  may  receive  con- 
£derable  aid,  if  they  are  thrown  into  verfc. 

fVatti^t  Improvtment  cf  tbt  Mind. 

Your  patrimonial  ftorcs  in  peace  poifefs  j 
Undoubted  all  your  filial  claim  confefs  : 
Your  private  right  HiouU  impious  power  invade, 
The  peers  of  Ithaca  woutd  arm  in  aid.    Pift's  Od. 

2.  The  perfon  that  gives  help  or  fupport ; 
a  helper ;  auxiliary. 

Thou  haft  fajd,  it  is  not  good  that  man  fhould 
be  alone  ;  let  us  make  unto  Elm  an  aid,  like  unto 
himfelf.  Tidiit,  viii.  6. 

Great  aidi  came  in  tq  him,  partly  upon  mi/fives, 
and  partly  voluacaries  from  many  parts. 

Bui.n't  Henry  Vn. 

3.  In  law. 

A  fubfidy.  jlid  !•  alfo  particularly  ufed,  in 
matter  of  pleading,  for  a  petition  made  in  cuurt, 
for  the  calling  in  of  help  frcm  another,  that  hath 
an  interrft  in  the  caufe  in  ijueflion  ;  and  is  I.kc- 
wife  both  to  give  (trength  to  tne  party  that  pray, 
in  aid  of  hiiti,  an<i'  alio  to  avoid  a  prejudice  ai.- 
cruing  towards  his  own  right,  except  it  be  pre- 
vented :  as,  when  a  ter.ant  for  term  of  lite,  c.iur- 
tefy,  £*?.  being  impleaded  touchinf;  his  cftate,  lit 
may  pray  in  aid  of  him  in  the  reverlion  ;  that  is, 
entreat  the  court,  that  he  may  be  called  in  bv 
writ,  to  all-ge  what  he  thinks  good  for  the  main- 
tenance both  of  his  right  and  his  own.        O/ivrll. 

Ai'dance.  n.f.  [from  aid.]   Help;  fup- 
port :  a  word  liiile  ufed. 

Oft  have  I  Icca  a  timely  parted  ghoft, 
Of  aOy  femblancc,  meagre,  pale,  and  b|.)»d!tf3, 
R  ■-        ;  defcendcd  to  the  lab'ring  heart, 

the  wnflift  that  it  holds  with  death, 
^.t  rrtUs  the  fame  foraidance  'gainft  the  cnemv. 

Sbattlfrert's  Hrrtry  VI. 

Ai'dant.  adj.  [aidant,   Fr.]     Helping; 
helpful :  no!  in  ufe. 

,.,.  "^n  ibliOi'd  virtues  of  r'-,'    ~  ■' 
S  ■  tent  ;  \>t  aidai:' 

ii.        .      •  :.-.  ;n'5  diftrcfi.       Si.  Liar. 

A  I  M 

Ai'der.  h./.  [from  aid.]  He  that  brings 
aid  or  help  ;   a  h-lper  ;  an  ally